Timeline for Laws of , , , and Newton's Parliamentary Procedure. Principia Watt's 1687 Steam Engine Lunar Earliest Archedemes 1778 Copernicus Babylonian Pythagorus -249 Landing 1543 1969 catalogues -530 -87 -1200 Enuma Columbus Great Anu -155 1492 -300 of Enlil Thales 129 Giza -650 -575 Gutenberg -2559 1903 1450 Wright Flyer

-3000 -2500 -2000 -1500 -1000 -500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

Dark Age Industrial Golden Age Roman Rennaisance Revolution of Republic

Magna Fulk's Hammurabi Carta -1772 -462 1215 Written Montfort's Motions Parliament Robert's 2013 1265 Rules Rules written into rules of the British House of Commons 1876 -One subject should be discussed at a (1581) U.S. -Personal attacks are to be avoided in debate (1604) Constitution -Debate must be limited to the merits of the question (1610) 1787 -Division of a question when some seem to be for one part but not the other (1640)

We begin with the Great Pyramid of Giza to establish that the set (41 BC). Also, Cleopatra was closer to our time, today, than ancient Egyptians had some knowledge of . It is worth Cleopatra was to the time when the Great Pyramid of Giza was built. noting that today is closer to Shakespeare’s time (1600), than In many respects, we is still part of the European . […must Shakespeare’s time was to when his play Anthony and Cleopatra was insert footnote or paragraph on Arab contributions to all this.] The Saros cycle was apparently discovered by ancient Babylonians, calculations. Gutenberg’s was significant because it helped and can be used to predict lunar . The oldest known change the world, not because it solved challenging Babylonian known star catalogues date back to 1200 BC. The Greek problems. Those who made the could easily Thales probably used Babylonian Enuma Anu Enlil tablets have invented Gutenberg’s press, had they considered the in to predict a solar . production of books to be important.

Pythagoras, Euclid, , Hipparchus, and Ptolemy were Copernicus proposal that the was the center of the Solar famous thinkers. While did not invent the System was published after his death in 1543. Soon afterwards, Pythagorean (a2+b2=c2), he or one of his colleagues Tycho and Kepler constructed mathematical formulas that tracked apparently discovered a proof of it. Euclid’s textbook on geometry the motion of the with greater precision than was achieved by serves as the for we learn today, although Ptolemy. Meanwhile Galileo and Newton invented a successful effort Euclid’s emphasis was as much on construction using straight edge to find a simple for the motion of all objects and as on rigorous “proof”. It has been speculated that under the of . Soon afterwards, Watt improved the Euclid postponed introduction his “5th Postulate” because he steam engine, as one of a countless of small steps towards suspected that it could be proven, thus foreshadowing the industrialization. Then the Wright brothers constructed the first abandonment by that postulate in the 19th century non-Euclidean engine powered airplane, and two astronauts walked on the . geometry that eventually evolved into Einstein’s Theory of in 1916. Recent manuscripts suggest that Archimedes Had this pause in scientific progress not occurred, someone like developed mathematical methods often credited to Newton and Newton might have invented and physics circa 400 AD. And Leibniz in order to solve problems typically associated with calculus. the engineering and scientific skills available to the ancient Hipparchus has been credited with discovering of the and Romans could easily have led to a person walking on the Moon , and he probably relied heavily on prior efforts by the well before Columbus was born Babylonians. Hipparchus also developed what we now know as Virtually none of the Greco-Roman accomplishments occurred in a . The Antikythera Mechanism was an intricate assembly political environment that resembles what we would call of 30 or more was used to predict the motion and eclipses of “democracy”. Nevertheless, it is clear that scientific and technical the Moon. Ptolemy used available on planetary motion to make progress requires a nourishing environment. The Dark Ages and precise predictions of the motion of the planets. recent history both show how political disruption can stop progress. Then a European Dark Age interrupted progress. The scientific For this , progress in government and parliamentary procedure accomplishments are placed on an exponential , with a “pause” are also charted on the same timeline. It must be kept in mind that of zero growth between the years 400-1000 AD. We offer no for much of history, there has been little or no causal correlation by which scientific growth would follow such an exponential curve, or between advances in technology and progress towards pluralistic that the growth in was at or near zero during the Dark Age. democracy. But it might be worth noting that there is something mundane about the two events marking the beginning and end of the Dark Age. The Antikythera Mechanism ‘s use of gears to describe the motion of the Moon seems more impressive than Ptolemy’s heroic but tedious