27 Season 2014-2015

Friday, March 20, at 8:00 Saturday, March 21, at 8:00 The Philadelphia Sunday, March 22, at 2:00 Conductor Nadja Salerno-Sonnenberg Women of the Philadelphia Singers Chorale David Hayes Music Director

Respighi for the , Suite No. 2 I. Laura soave II. Danza rustica III. Campanae parisienses IV. Bergamasca

Mendelssohn Violin Concerto in E minor, Op. 64 I. Allegro molto appassionato—Presto— II. Andante— III. Allegretto non troppo—Allegro molto vivace


Holst I. Mars, the Bringer of War II. Venus, the Bringer of Peace III. Mercury, the Winged Messenger IV. Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity V. Saturn, the Bringer of Old Age VI. , the Magician VII. , the Mystic

This program runs approximately 2 hours, 5 minutes.

designates a work that is part of the 40/40 Project, which features pieces not performed on subscription concerts in at least 40 years.

Philadelphia Orchestra concerts are broadcast on WRTI 90.1 FM on Sunday afternoons at 1 PM. Visit www.wrti.org to listen live or for more details. 228 Story Title The Philadelphia Orchestra Jessica Griffin The Philadelphia Orchestra is one of the preeminent in the world, renowned for its distinctive sound, desired for its keen ability to capture the hearts and imaginations of audiences, and admired for a legacy of imagination and innovation on and off the concert stage. The Orchestra is transforming its rich tradition of achievement, sustaining the highest level of artistic quality, but also challenging—and exceeding—that level by creating powerful musical experiences for audiences at home and around the world. Music Director Yannick Nézet-Séguin’s highly collaborative style, deeply-rooted musical curiosity, and boundless enthusiasm, paired with a fresh approach to orchestral programming, have been heralded by critics and audiences alike since his inaugural season in 2012. Under his leadership the Orchestra returned to recording with a celebrated CD of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring and transcriptions on the Deutsche Grammophon label, continuing its history of recording success. The Orchestra also reaches thousands of listeners on the radio with weekly Sunday afternoon broadcasts on WRTI-FM. Philadelphia is home, and the Orchestra nurtures an important relationship with patrons who support the main season at the Kimmel Center, and also with those who enjoy the Orchestra’s other area performances at the Mann Center, Penn’s Landing, and other cultural, civic, and learning venues. The Orchestra maintains a strong commitment to collaborations with cultural and community organizations on a regional and national level. Through concerts, tours, residencies, presentations, and recordings, the Orchestra is a global ambassador for Philadelphia and for the United States. Having been the first American orchestra to perform in China, in 1973 at the request of President Nixon, today The Philadelphia Orchestra boasts a new partnership with the National Centre for the Performing Arts in Beijing. The ensemble annually performs at and the Kennedy Center while also enjoying summer residencies in Saratoga Springs, New York, and Vail, Colorado. The Philadelphia Orchestra has a decades-long tradition of presenting learning and community engagement opportunities for listeners of all ages. The Orchestra’s recent initiative, the Fabulous Philadelphians Offstage, Philly Style!, has taken musicians off the traditional concert stage and into the community, including highly-successful Pop- Up concerts, PlayINs, SingINs, and ConductINs. The Orchestra’s musicians, in their own dedicated roles as teachers, coaches, and mentors, serve a key role in growing young musician talent and a love of , nurturing and celebrating the wealth of musicianship in the Philadelphia region. For more information on The Philadelphia Orchestra, please visit www.philorch.org. 6 Music Director

Chris Lee Music Director Yannick Nézet-Séguin continues his inspired leadership of The Philadelphia Orchestra, which began in the fall of 2012. His highly collaborative style, deeply rooted musical curiosity, and boundless enthusiasm, paired with a fresh approach to orchestral programming, have been heralded by critics and audiences alike. has called Nézet-Séguin “phenomenal,” adding that under his baton, “the ensemble, famous for its glowing strings and homogenous richness, has never sounded better.” He has taken the Orchestra to new musical heights. Highlights of his third season as music director include an Art of the festival; the 40/40 Project, in which 40 great compositions that haven’t been heard on subscription concerts in at least 40 years will be performed; and Bernstein’s MASS, the pinnacle of the Orchestra’s five- season requiem cycle.

Yannick has established himself as a musical leader of the highest caliber and one of the most exciting talents of his generation. He has been music director of the Rotterdam Philharmonic since 2008 and artistic director and principal conductor of Montreal’s Orchestre Métropolitain since 2000. He also continues to enjoy a close relationship with the London Philharmonic, of which he was principal guest conductor. He has made wildly successful appearances with the world’s most revered ensembles, and he has conducted critically acclaimed performances at many of the leading houses.

Yannick Nézet-Séguin and Deutsche Grammophon (DG) enjoy a long-term collaboration. Under his leadership The Philadelphia Orchestra returned to recording with a CD on that label of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring and Leopold Stokowski transcriptions. He continues a fruitful recording relationship with the Rotterdam Philharmonic on DG, EMI Classics, and BIS Records; the London Philharmonic and Choir for the LPO label; and the Orchestre Métropolitain for ATMA Classique.

A native of Montreal, Yannick Nézet-Séguin studied at that city’s Conservatory of Music and continued lessons with renowned conductor Carlo Maria Giulini and with Joseph Flummerfelt at Westminster Choir College. Among Yannick’s honors are an appointment as Companion of the Order of Canada, one of the country’s highest civilian honors; a Royal Philharmonic Society Award; Canada’s National Arts Centre Award; the Prix Denise-Pelletier, the highest distinction for the arts in Quebec; and honorary doctorates from the University of Quebec in Montreal and the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia.

To read Yannick’s full bio, please visit www.philorch.org/conductor. 29 Conductor

Sussie Ahlburg Musical America’s 2015 Conductor of the Year, Gianandrea Noseda has propelled the Teatro Regio Torino into the ranks of the leading opera houses of the world since becoming its music director in 2007. A regular guest conductor at many of the most renowned international orchestras, he is also principal guest conductor of the Israel Philharmonic, the De Sabata Guest Conductor of the Pittsburgh , principal conductor of the Orquestra de Cadaqués, and artistic director of the Stresa Festival in Italy. He was at the helm of the BBC Philharmonic from 2002 to 2011. In 1997 he was appointed the first foreign principal guest conductor of the , a position he held for a decade. He has appeared with The Philadelphia Orchestra every season since his debut in December 2010. Under Mr. Noseda’s leadership, the Teatro Regio has launched its first tours outside of Torino with performances in Austria, China, France, Germany, Japan, Russia, and at the Edinburgh Festival for its debut. In December Mr. Noseda led the Teatro Regio in a historic first tour of North America, with concert performances of Rossini’s William Tell in Chicago, Ann Arbor, Toronto, and at Carnegie Hall. Other highlights of the season include his and Salzburg Festival debuts. Mr. Noseda’s relationship with the Metropolitan Opera dates back to 2002. He has conducted many new productions at the Met, including, in 2014, Borodin’s Prince Igor staged by Dmitri Tcherniakov and now available on DVD from Deutsche Grammophon. His commitment to young musicians continues this summer with the European Union Youth Orchestra’s European Tour with soprano Diana Damrau. An exclusive Chandos artist, Mr. Noseda has a discography that includes nearly 40 recordings. His critically acclaimed Musica Italiana recording project, which he initiated 10 years ago, has chronicled underappreciated Italian repertoire of the 20th century and brought to light many masterpieces, including works by , Luigi Dallapiccola, Alfredo Petrassi, and Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari. Born in Milan, Mr. Noseda is a leading cultural ambassador for Italy and holds the honor of “Cavaliere Ufficiale al Merito della Repubblica Italiana.” 30 Soloist

Kristin Hoebermann Violinist Nadja Salerno-Sonnenberg is renowned for her work on the concert stage, in the recording studio, and as music director of the San Francisco-based New Century Chamber Orchestra, which she joined in January 2008. Her Philadelphia Orchestra history dates to the 1970s, when she won three separate student competitions. She made her Orchestra debut in 1971 at the Mann and her subscription debut in 1990. In addition to these current performances, highlights of the 2014-15 season include concerts with the Oregon, Milwaukee, and Colorado ; the Louisiana Philharmonic; and a U.S. tour with the Moscow State Symphony. A powerful and creative presence on the recording scene, Ms. Salerno-Sonnenberg continues to add to the offerings of her own record label, NSS Music (www.nssmusic.com), which she started in 2005. The label’s roster of artists includes pianist Anne-Marie McDermott, horn player John Cerminaro, pianist/composer Clarice Assad, conductor Marin Alsop, the American String Quartet, the Colorado and São Paulo symphonies, and the New Century Chamber Orchestra. In addition to nearly two dozen releases on the EMI and Nonesuch labels, Ms. Salerno- Sonnenberg has made several recordings for NSS Music featuring both concerto and chamber pieces. The latest release, From A to Z (May 2014), features violin concertos by Ms. Assad, William Bolcom, Michael Daugherty, and Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, all commissioned by New Century since Ms. Salerno-Sonnenberg joined the ensemble. Ms. Salerno-Sonnenberg has hosted the Backstage/ Live from Lincoln Center program for PBS and appeared with Big Bird on Sesame Street. She was the subject of the 2000 Academy Award-nominated film Speaking in Strings, an intensely personal documentary on her life, which premiered at the Sundance Film Festival. Her autobiography, Nadja: On My Way, written for children and discussing her experiences as a young musician building a career, was published by Crown Books in 1989. An American citizen, Ms. Salerno-Sonnenberg was born in and emigrated to the United States at the age of eight to study at the Curtis Institute of Music. She later studied with Dorothy DeLay at the Juilliard School. 31 Chorus

Described by Wolfgang Sawallisch as “one of the musical treasures of Philadelphia,” the Philadelphia Singers has won acclaim for artistic excellence for more than 40 years. Founded in 1972 by Curtis Institute of Music graduate Michael Korn, the professional chorus began as a 32-voice chamber ensemble, performing repertoire that ranged from Renaissance to contemporary works in an annual concert series. During the 1980s the group rose to prominence, presenting the Philadelphia premieres of works by Poulenc and Gershwin and world premieres of Romeo Cascarino’s William Penn and Vincent Persichetti’s Flower Songs. The chorus performs regularly with leading national and local performing arts organizations, including The Philadelphia Orchestra, the , the Curtis Institute of Music, and Pennsylvania . In 1991 the Philadelphia Singers founded the Philadelphia Singers Chorale, a symphonic chorus composed of professional singers and talented volunteers, and the ensemble made its Philadelphia Orchestra debut in 1992. The Chorale was resident chorus of the Orchestra from 2000 to 2011. Past performances with the Orchestra include Orff’s Carmina burana; Mahler’s Symphony No. 8 and Das klagende ; Berlioz’s Romeo and Juliet, The Damnation of Faust, and Requiem; Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9; the world premiere of Jennifer Higdon’s The Singing Rooms; Ravel’s complete Daphnis and Chloe; Fauré’s Requiem; and Handel’s Messiah. The Chorale returns to Verizon Hall again next month for Magnus Lindberg’s Graffiti. David Hayes was appointed music director of the Philadelphia Singers in 1992. Music director of the New York Choral Society and the Mannes Orchestra of the Mannes College of Music in New York, he is also staff conductor of the Curtis Symphony and from 2000 to 2010 served as a cover conductor for The Philadelphia Orchestra. He has also served as a cover conductor for the New York Philharmonic as well as for André Previn on the Curtis Symphony’s 1999 European Tour with Anne- Sophie Mutter. Mr. Hayes studied conducting with Charles Bruck at the School and with Otto-Werner Mueller at the Curtis Institute of Music. 32 Framing the Program

From ancient times to outer space, the concert today Parallel Events moves from the delicate sounds of dance to grand 1844 Music imaginings of the cosmos. Mendelssohn Verdi Violin Concerto Ernani For centuries Italian music was primarily associated Literature with , opera above all, which made Ottorino Thackeray Respighi an unusual figure in the early 20th century. His Barry Lyndon greatest successes came from orchestral music, most Art of it inspired by Rome, the city he loved, and by the art Turner and music of past centuries. For his Second Suite of Rain, Steam, and Ancient Airs and Dances for the Lute, Respighi drew Speed upon Italian and French music of the Renaissance and History Baroque periods, which he reimagined for a 20th-century YMCA founded orchestra.

1916 Music Already as a teenager produced Holst Prokofiev orchestral masterpieces that seemed fully mature. At the The Planets Symphony other end of his relatively short life (he died at age 38) No. 1 he composed works that remained fresh and youthful. Literature His beloved Violin Concerto turned out to be his final Joyce orchestral work. Portrait of the Artist as a The prominent English composer is Young Man remembered today primarily for his grand orchestral Art suite The Planets. Cast in seven movements (Earth is Matisse not included and Pluto was not yet discovered), the The Three composer’s stated goal was to represent “the character” Sisters and “the astrological significance of the planets.” Each History movement names the god and an associated quality, Easter mood, or activity, starting with “Mars, the Bringer of War” Rebellion in and ending with “Neptune, the Mystic.” Dublin

1923 Music Respighi Gershwin Ancient Airs Rhapsody in and Dances for Blue the Lute, Literature Suite No. 2 Wodehouse The Inimitable Jeeves Art Beckmann The Trapeze History Earthquake in Tokyo 33 The Music Ancient Airs and Dances for the Lute, Suite No. 2

There has to be music, it seems clear, before there can be musicology. In the late 19th century and early 20th, however, musicology sometimes came first. Scholars were unearthing music that, long forgotten, appeared as fresh as ever to composers of the time. And it did so partly because those composers were seeking alternatives to the great major-minor system that had ruled western harmony for a quarter of a millennium. , for one, studied the English polyphonists, notably Thomas Tallis. turned his gaze to lute Ottorino Respighi pieces from the 16th and 17th centuries, and in 1917 Born in , July 9, 1879 produced the first of what were to be three collections of Died in Rome, April 18, 1936 Antiche arie e danze: Ancient Airs and Dances. The appeal of that work, and of the previous year’s Fountains of Rome, brought Respighi a worldwide audience and prompted more orchestral scores from him, including , based on old French keyboard pieces, as well as the two further suites of Ancient Airs and Dances. He wrote this Second Suite in 1923, and it was introduced on November 7, 1924, by the Cincinnati Symphony, conducted by Fritz Reiner—the first of severable notable premieres the composer was to enjoy in the U.S. The Third Suite was for strings only, and he conducted that premiere himself, at the Milan Conservatory, in 1932. Renaissance and Baroque Inspiration Each suite has four movements, for which Respighi found material in editions prepared in the late 19th century by Oscar Chilesotti, himself a lute player, who did pioneering work in transcribing lute music from Renaissance tablature into modern notation. Chilesotti’s publications, several of which remain in print, derived from anthologies of the period, including Fabritio Caroso’s dance manual Nobiltà di dame (Nobility of Ladies, 1600), the ultimate source of the opening movement of this Respighi suite. Caroso was a dancing master with important connections in Rome. He is not known to have been a composer and probably was responsible only for choosing the pieces he published as examples of dance styles, among which “Laura soave” he dedicated to Christina of Lorraine, wife 34

of Ferdinando, the ruling Medici grand duke of Tuscany. Presumably it was Chilesotti who added the subtitle Respighi includes: Balletto con gagliarda, saltarello e canario. A Closer Look The first movement (Laura soave) is, in other words, a suite in itself, having an introduction followed by three variations in different dance forms. Respighi gives the introduction to woodwinds accompanied by pizzicato strings, then brings in his full orchestra, including two musicians at a harpsichord, for the vigorous and vivid galliard. The saltarello features strings supported by horns, with a wind-instrument link to the canary, which is hardly more than a coda, after which the introductory music returns, but with harp replacing strings. All three dances were at the time somewhat athletic: “I have seen a medicine | That’s able to breathe life into a stone, | Quicken a rock, and make you dance canary” (All’s Well that Ends Well). The second movement (Danza rustica) also has its origins in a compendious collection of lute music from the time of the author of the aforementioned play. Respighi’s score gives the compiler’s name as “Giovanni Battista Besardo,” but this gentleman, born in Besançon, probably thought of himself as Jean-Baptiste Besard—a man of parts, who practiced both medicine and law, largely in Germany, while also putting out collections of lute music, the Danza rustica that appealed to Respighi coming from his Novus partus of 1617. Respighi starts this piece going with bright, full orchestration, the first section as if about to break into a round. Subsequent sections show the same motifs in different lights, sometimes bringing forward the , to reinforce the “rustica” element. It would be easy to imagine the villagers in a Bruegel painting dancing to music such as this, which Respighi repeats and then brings to a gentle close. Next comes the Suite’s slow movement, drawn from an anonymous piece, Campanae parisienses (The Bells of Paris), to which Respighi adds an aria attributed to as a still slower middle section. The serene chimes of the former music are enjoyably rendered by an orchestra with and harp prominent, while the aria belongs above all to the strings. Mersenne, a contemporary of Descartes, was a thinker with many interests, including the science of sound, but there is no firm record of him as a composer. 35

The Second Suite of the Finally comes what will probably be the most familiar Ancient Airs and Dances for movement (Bergamasca), based on the robust harmonic the Lute was composed in progression and stamping rhythm of the bergomask— 1923. again a dance with rustic origins. Respighi appropriately Respighi himself led the chose an example from late in the lute’s active career, first Philadelphia Orchestra one by Bernardo Gianoncelli, from a volume of pieces by performances of the work, in him that his widow published in 1650. Blazing orchestral January 1926. The Second colors and syncopation easily elide the time between Suite has only been heard then and the 1920s, and there is humor in the movement, one other time since then, too, not least when, as the key changes, some smaller on subscription concerts in groupings start to come forward: and , February/March 1932, with followed by flutes and piccolo with harp in the high treble, Bernadino Molinari conducting. and then harpsichord and pizzicato strings. From here the The score calls for three full resources gradually reassemble, towards the brilliant flutes (III doubling piccolo), conclusion. One might again think of that playwright, two oboes, English horn, this time of the last scene of A Midsummer Night’s two , two bassoons, Dream, where Theseus has no problem deciding how three horns, two , the evening’s entertainment should end: “But come, your three , , Bergomask: let your epilogue alone.” harp, harpsichord (two people playing four-hands), celesta, —Paul Griffiths and strings. Performance time is approximately 20 minutes. 36 The Music Violin Concerto

As early as 1838 Felix Mendelssohn envisioned a violin concerto for his friend Ferdinand David, Leipzig’s leading violinist, whom the composer had named concertmaster upon being appointed music director of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. “I have a concerto in E minor in my head,” he wrote to David that July. “The opening gives me no rest.” Alas, Mendelssohn’s furiously paced activities as conductor, pianist, and educator prevented him from finding the time to sketch out the Concerto until six years later, in September 1844. He completed most of the piece in a Felix Mendelssohn few weeks that year while on a tranquil holiday with his Born in Hamburg, family in Bad Soden, near Frankfurt. “Thus I am once more February 3, 1809 on German soil,” he wrote to his brother, Paul, on July 19. Died in Leipzig, November 4, (Mendelssohn had recently returned from an English tour.) 1847 “Having returned home happy and healthy and merry, I found all my family in good health as wished! … We are enjoying cheerful, pleasant days in this exquisite spot.” Mendelssohn completed the Concerto that fall, and David performed it in Leipzig in March 1845, with Niels Gade conducting the Gewandhaus Orchestra in place of the ailing composer. It was an instant success. The 36-year- old Mendelssohn, at the peak of his creative powers, could never have suspected that the work would be his last orchestral piece; two years after its first performance he suffered a series of debilitating strokes that would claim his life. A Mature Concerto The E-minor Concerto serves as a confident summation of Mendelssohn’s musical achievement. It infuses the Classical style in which his music was rooted with the full-blooded of the of Weber and the lyrical charm of the of Schubert. Its moods span a wide range, from the passionate dramatics of the opening movement, through the unadorned lyricism of the slow movement, to the dashing sparkle of the finale. Mendelssohn’s autograph manuscript for the Concerto was among the cache of musical treasures that had vanished from the Berlin Royal Library during World War II, and were “rediscovered” in the Jagiellonian Library in Krakow during the late 1970s. Earlier, during the early 37

Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto 1950s, another violin concerto was discovered as well, a was composed in 1844. work in D minor that Mendelssohn composed at the age The first Philadelphia Orchestra of 14; the early piece has now come to be called No. 1, performances of the E-minor and thus the E-minor work is sometimes referred to as Concerto were given in the Second Concerto. November 1901 by Charles A Closer Look The Concerto begins with the perennial Gregorowitsch, with Fritz theme (Allegro molto appassionato) that was doubtless Scheel on the podium. Many great violinists have performed the melody that gave Mendelssohn no rest; it is at the the work here, including Fritz same time mournful and defiant, plaintive and aggressive. Kreisler, Efram Zimbalist, Zino There is no “orchestral exposition” here, as in the Classical Francescatti, Isaac Stern, concerto. Instead the solo violin begins with the orchestra, Yehudi Menuhin, Pinchas and its continued presence throughout the movement looks Zukerman, Itzhak Perlman, back to the Baroque concerto grosso, and at the same time Gil Shaham, and Leonidas forward to the 20th-century violin concerto. Kavakos. The last subscription performances of the Concerto As in several of Mendelssohn’s concertos, the movements were in February 2012, with in the E-minor Concerto are linked into a single flow, violinist and with no pauses between. The second section is ushered Charles Dutoit. in by a wayward , which holds its pitch from the first movement’s final chord by way of transition into the The Orchestra has recorded key of C major for the Andante (reminiscent, perhaps, the work three times, all with of a similar situation in Beethoven’s “Emperor” Concerto for CBS: in 1950 with Stern; in 1955 with for piano, where the bassoon effects the transition from Oistrakh; and in 1958 again slow movement to rondo). Again the soloist leads the with Stern. proceedings through this tuneful interlude, and the finale (Allegro molto vivace), full of wit and irresistible charm, The Concerto is scored for an follows without pause. orchestra of solo violin, two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, —Paul J. Horsley two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani, and strings. Performance time is approximately 27 minutes. 38 The Music The Planets

During the first half of the 20th century, Great Britain was blessed with at least five marvelous composers, of whom and Ralph Vaughan Williams have become a regular part of our concert life—albeit through a mere handful of works—and and are perhaps not far behind in making inroads here. But no British master is known through fewer works than Gustav Holst, who despite a large and excellent output remains for most listeners the composer of a single composition: the popular and influential Planets, which continues to Gustav Holst make its mark today in everything from television to Star Born in , Wars. , September 21, 1874 Born in Cheltenham, England, of Swedish, German, and Died in London, May 25, English parentage, Gustavus “von Holst” received his 1934 schooling at the , where he studied harmony and with Charles Villiers Stanford. A severe case of neuritis forced him to give up his ambition of becoming a pianist, and he subsequently took an interest in composition. Later he studied and played in the , which proved to be extremely valuable experience for his experiments in orchestral composition. Some have cited his travels in the Far East as being partly responsible for Holst’s streak of mysticism, which colors a number of his works. He was an impressive scholar of languages, and learned enough to set parts of the Rig Veda to music. In any case it appears that it was partly the astrological significance of heavenly bodies that first sparked the composer’s idea to forge a set of orchestral tone poems to reflect the character of each planet. He began the cycle that became The Planets in 1914, just moments before the first shots of were sounding in Sarajevo. A Non-programmatic Work The hardships of the war years slowed the work on this unprecedented composition—which took two years to complete—and appear to have influenced the outcome as well. The Planets was completed in 1916, and was first presented in a private performance in London in September 29, 1918, under ’s baton. The public premiere 39 was not until after the war—on November 15, 1920, with conducting. There are seven movements, each with a distinctive musical character that seems to relate both to the god for which the planet is named—and to the quality, mood, or activity that this god has come to represent. (Earth is not represented in The Planets, and although Pluto’s existence had been “theorized” as early as 1919, it wasn’t actually discovered until 1930.) To the very end Holst insisted that his goal in this concert favorite was to represent “the character, … the astrological significance of the planets,” and that the pieces had no further extramusical meaning. “There is no in them,” he said, “neither have they any connection with the deities of classical mythology bearing the same names. If any guide to the music is required, the subtitle to each piece will be found sufficient, especially if it be used in a broad sense.” Partly, Holst’s insistence that these works were only “suggested” by astrological concepts was the composer’s way of keeping The Planets from becoming ludicrously sentimental or programmatic. Indeed, one can easily listen to this work as a marvelous symphony, without giving a thought to gods or heavenly bodies, and still derive meaning and pleasure from the music’s sheer sonic vitality. A Closer Look But it’s more fun, perhaps, to listen for programmatic ties. “Mars, the Bringer of War,” for example, might well be about the god Mars—but since this god represents war anyway, there is really no way to separate the war-god Mars from the overtly “martial” character that the planet has come to embody. In fact Holst himself said, on another occasion, that he was seeking here to express “the stupidity of war.” The piece is not a “march” per se, but it does contain something of the relentless gunfire and violence of the battlefield. Its resemblance to ’s music is hardly coincidental, for music such as this plainly formed one of that composer’s most potent influences. Holst’s daughter, Imogen, would later greet speculation about the work’s programmatic nature—especially the notion that it was some sort of statement on World War I—with a caveat, pointing out that “Mars” was completed in 1914, before the war had begun. “It would be easy to take it for granted that ‘Mars’ had been commissioned as background music for a documentary film of a tank battle. 40

The Planets was composed But Holst had never heard a machine gun when he wrote from 1914 to 1916. it, and the tank had not yet been invented.” Leopold Stokowski In grave contrast, “Venus, the Bringer of Peace” is a presented the first lyric love song, not unlike the goddess for whom this most Philadelphia Orchestra tranquil of planets was named. “Mercury, the Winged performances of The Planets Messenger” is a fleet scherzo that conveys the volatile in November 1934, just nature of both god and planet. six months after Holst’s passing. The Women’s Glee “Jupiter, the Bringer of Jollity” is less about the Club of the University of imposing nature of this god—and this most mysterious of Pennsylvania collaborated planets—than about what Holst called the spirit of “one of in the “Neptune” movement. those jolly fat people who enjoy life.” Clearly this Jupiter The Planets was most is more Falstaff than Zeus. A contrasting middle section recently heard on employs a broad-limbed and rather innocently constructed subscription in May 2011, tune that was later adapted to a sentimental patriotic with Charles Dutoit leading women from the Philadelphia hymn, “I Vow to Thee, My Country.” Singers Chorale. “Saturn, the Bringer of Old Age” is a ghostly funeral- The Orchestra recorded march that reminds us of the forceful vision of old age the work with Eugene and destiny. “Uranus, the Magician,” forceful but Ormandy and women of the mystical (and more than a bit like ’s Sorcerer’s Mendelssohn Club in 1975 Apprentice), stands as one of the most skillful uses of the for RCA. modern orchestra of the era. The Planets is scored “Neptune, the Mystic” brings the work to a puzzling for an orchestra of four yet deliciously lyrical close; again the textures of more flutes (III doubling piccolo recent film scores seem to have been derived from this I, IV doubling piccolo piece. Some have claimed also to hear the influence of II and ), three Debussian evocations of “Neptune’s realm”—such as the oboes (III doubling bass “Sirens” movement from (which also features oboe), English horn, three clarinets, bass , three a wordless women’s choir), and of course , a work bassoons, , whose influence could hardly be avoided in the first half six horns, four trumpets, of this century. two trombones, bass —Paul J. Horsley trombone, tenor and bass , timpani, percussion (, chimes, , , , tam-tam, , triangle, ), two harps, celesta, organ, strings, and women’s chorus. The work runs approximately 50 minutes in performance.

Program notes © 2015. All rights reserved. Program notes may not be reprinted without written permission from The Philadelphia Orchestra Association and/or Paul Griffiths. 41 Musical Terms

GENERAL TERMS term that describes A-C-A etc.). Bergomask: A the combination of Saltarello: An Italian tune widely used for simultaneously sounding 16th-century dance in instrumental variations and musical lines quick triple meter contrapuntal fantasias in Dissonance: A Scherzo: Literally “a the late 16th and the 17th combination of two or more joke.” Usually the third centuries, probably based tones requiring resolution movement of symphonies on a folksong or folkdance Fantasia: A composition and quartets that was : The conclusion free in form and more or introduced by Beethoven to a phrase, movement, less fantastic in character to replace the minuet. The or piece based on a Galliard: A lively, triple- scherzo is followed by a recognizable melodic meter court dance of gentler section called a trio, formula, harmonic the 16th and early 17th after which the scherzo is progression, or dissonance centuries repeated. Its characteristics resolution Harmonic: Pertaining to are a rapid in triple Canary: A form of dance chords and to the theory time, vigorous rhythm, and and music popular in and practice of harmony humorous contrasts. Also Europe from the mid-16th Meter: The symmetrical an instrumental piece of century to the mid-18th, grouping of musical a light, piquant, humorous the earlier version often rhythms character. employing a short, two- Op.: Abbreviation for opus, Syncopation: A shift of phrase scheme that is a term used to indicate rhythmic emphasis off the relatively fixed melodically the chronological position beat and harmonically of a composition within a Treble: A high vocal or Chord: The simultaneous composer’s output. Opus instrumental part sounding of three or more numbers are not always tones reliable because they are THE SPEED OF MUSIC Coda: A concluding often applied in the order (Tempo) section or passage added of publication rather than Allegretto: A tempo in order to confirm the composition. between walking speed impression of finality Pizzicato: Plucked and fast Concerto grosso: A Polyphony: A term used Allegro: Bright, fast type of concerto in which to designate music in more Andante: Walking speed a large group (known as than one part and the style Appassionato: the ripieno or the concerto in which all or several of Passionate grosso) alternates with the musical parts move to Presto: Very fast a smaller group (the some extent independently Vivace: Lively concertino). The term is Rondo: A form frequently often loosely applied to any used in symphonies and TEMPO MODIFIERS concertos of the Baroque concertos for the final Molto: Very period except solo ones. movement. It consists Non troppo: Not too Contrapuntal: See of a main section that much counterpoint alternates with a variety of Counterpoint: A contrasting sections (A-B- 42 March The Philadelphia Orchestra

Jessica Griffin Enjoy the ultimate in flexibility with a Create-Your-Own 3-Concert Series today! Choose 3 or more concerts that fit your schedule and your tastes. Hurry, before tickets disappear for this exciting season.

There’s still time to subscribe and receive exclusive subscriber benefits! Choose from over 20 performances including:

Mahler 5 Thursday, March 26 8 PM Friday, March 27 2 PM Saturday, March 28 8 PM Gianandrea Noseda Conductor Carol Jantsch Tuba Daugherty Reflections on the Mississippi, for tuba and orchestra Mahler Symphony No. 5 St. Matthew Passion Wednesday, April 1 8 PM Saturday, April 4 8 PM Yannick Nézet-Séguin Conductor Carolyn Sampson Soprano Karen Cargill Mezzo-soprano Andrew Staples Tenor (Evangelist) Andrew Foster-Williams Bass-baritone (Jesus) Philippe Sly Bass-baritone The American Boychoir James Alexander Stage Director Jon H. Weir Lighting Designer Bach The Passion According to St. Matthew

TICKETS Call 215.893.1999 or log on to www.philorch.org PreConcert Conversations are held prior to every Philadelphia Orchestra subscription concert, beginning 1 hour before curtain. All artists, dates, programs, and prices subject to change. All tickets subject to availability.