and History 100, February 22, 2006

Philoctetes on , Attic red figure vase, c. 430 BC History and identity

: who were the Persians? Where did the conflict start? • : what caused the war and what were its effects on the Greeks? Rembrandt van Rijn, Contemplating the Bust of Homer and Homer

• Familiar story: audience knows outcome • New values and morals: old characters placed in situation of 5th-century • Classicism: poet draws on acknowledged standard but employs it in a new way. • Philoctetes is a model for appropriation and transformation of culture—as is, in a different way, The Cure at . The religious context of : the Athenian Great

The festival in the city:

1. “Leading in from the sacred hearth”

2. “Pompe”: procession to sacrifice

3. “Komos”: celebratory revel

Basic elements of public worship: procession, sacrifice, celebration Preparation for the dramatic contests

4. Proagon: poets describe their works

Theater of , Athens Theater at (best preserved) Theater at Epidaurus Preliminaries in the theater

5. by the strategoi (ten generals)

6. Tribute from subject cities

7. Proclamation and coronation of state benefactors

8. Presentation of war orphans

Association with religion sanctified the state. Apoo pouring a libation. Vase painting, c. 475-450 BC The poetic competitions

1st day: contest of ten boys’ and ten mens’ dithyrambs

2nd day: contest of five comedies

3rd day: first set of (with -play)

4th day: second set of tragedies (with satyr-play)

5th day: third set of tragedies (with satyr-play)

Judgment and award of prizes followed at the end Dramatic conventions

: at first two (), then three (Sophocles, ) • Masks for actors: represent characters and project voices • Chorus: 12 or 15 young men, representing society Chorus dressing as women: Vase around the actors painting, c. 430 BC, MFA, Boston (note the mask, bottom center) The themes of Philoctetes/The Cure at Troy

• Suffering and punishment: Philoctetes’s wound • The state and the individual: torn between and Philoctetes • Fate and free —can Philoctetes not go to Troy? • Resolution: ? (the god from the machine)