VOLume 14 NO.5 May 2014 journal The Association of Jewish Refugees

Jewish refugees from Hitler outside London

esearch on the Jewish refugees from for the paperback version. Its 420 pages are, Representative Council, Laski was instrumental Hitler in Britain has, it is often argued, however, devoted to a mere seven years in the in imposing what Williams considers an unduly focused almost exclusively on London, history of its subject. cautious and restrictive approach to the rescue Rand in particular on the well-known areas of The book is distinguished by the exemplary of the endangered Jews of the Reich. The fear settlement in the north-west of the city, like thoroughness of its research. Williams displays of appearing ‘disloyal to Britain’ was, Williams Hampstead, Belsize Park and Swiss Cottage a remarkable knowledge of Manchester Jewry, argues, the Achilles’ heel of men like Laski, who (NW3), West Hampstead (NW6), and its communal institutions and organisations, its were concerned that a more radical strategy Golders Green (NW11). While it is true that personalities, places of worship and, not least, would fan the flames of native anti-Semitism. refugees settled in these areas in numbers internal divisions. Already in the chapter that Such men, ‘who had already passed through the unequalled elsewhere in the country, the wealth follows the Introduction, Williams presents to anglicising and embourgeoising processes of of information about the communities that us the first of a series of largely forgotten and communal life into the Jewish middle classes’, grew up along ‘Finchleystraße’ has allowed unsung individuals who, in the face of general placed their faith in the essential benevolence them to overshadow the groups of refugees indifference or hostility, stepped forward to of British society, which might not tolerate a living outside the capital. Regional studies assist the new arrivals from Hitler’s Germany. more militant response by Jews to the plight like Zoe Joseph’s Survivors: Jewish Refugees One such was Isidore Apfelbaum, ‘a relatively of their German co-religionists. in Birmingham 1933-1945 (1988), based on obscure local jeweller and communal worker’, Though the Jewish community of oral-history interviews with refugees in that who as early as 1933 created an improvised Manchester, then numbering about 40,000, city, are few indeed, or, as is the case with the agency that rescued some hundreds of German came to play host to some 7-8,000 refugees two short pages that Judith Samuel devotes to Jews, operating ‘from Apfelbaum’s house at 17 from Hitler – a substantial number – Williams the refugees from Hitler in her book Jews in Wellington Road East, Higher Broughton, and argues that Laski’s strategy of loyally following Bristol (1997), sadly inadequate. from the offices of his firm at 42 Bull’s Head the British government’s policies on refugees The appearance of a major scholarly study Yard, a dreary alleyway off Market Place, in from the Reich, and of avoiding any criticism of the Jewish refugees from Nazism who central Manchester’. of the appeasement-tinged failings of those came to Manchester is therefore greatly to This extract demonstrates Williams’s policies, meant that the operation to aid the be welcomed, the more so as its author, Bill sovereign mastery of his material. Yet he refugees was not conducted with full vigour and Williams, is an acknowledged and much is also capable of setting his rich range of single-mindedness. In Williams’s view, Laski’s admired expert on Manchester Jewry. His material in the wider context of the issues unwillingness to adopt a high-profile strategy book, ‘Jews and Other Foreigners’: Manchester and controversies surrounding the reception of rescue independent of the government and the Rescue of the Victims of European of the Jewish refugees in Manchester in the caused him to shy away from ‘giving too open Fascism, 1933-1940, published by Manchester first years after 1933. Williams is at pains to a welcome to those seeking to flee Germany in University Press in 2011 and supported by the contrast Apfelbaum’s activist willingness to help 1933, who, in large numbers, might have been AJR, is in many respects a model for studies of with the more circumspect policy adopted by seen as a threat to the British workforce, and the refugees from Nazism in cities and regions Nathan Laski, the leading figure in Manchester who, in whatever numbers, could be construed outside London – though at the price of £95 Jewry and the target of considerable criticism … as a threat to a supposed “British identity”’. hardback, readers may be forgiven for waiting from Williams. Through Manchester’s Jewish This, Williams continues, was ‘part of a tradition of communal leadership deferential to the British state and culturally subservient to what it saw as the British identity’. Williams works within a broadly chronological frame- work, beginning with those relatively few organisations that provided assistance to the refugees in the first years after 1933 and moving on to the greater number of agencies of support that came into exist- The Morris Feinmann Home, Manchester continued overleaf  journal may 2014 Jewish refugees from Hitler SPECIAL EVENT Kindertransport outside London continued Reunion DVD ence in the critical years 1938-39. Within that Judith Kerr e are delighted to announce framework, he provides a detailed and expert Sunday 29 June 2014, 3 pm that a special commemorative account of the main organisations concerned. at the London Jewish Cultural Centre (LJCC) WDVD with footage of the At first, organised efforts to help the refugees We are delighted that the celebrated author Kindertransport Reunion at JFS and the were few in Manchester. Williams notes the Judith Kerr will be our guest of honour at a reception with His Royal Highness The initiatives of the Manchester Women’s Lodge special event we are organising with the London Prince of Wales at St James’s Palace is of the Order B’nai B’rith, from whose ranks Jewish Cultural Centre. came Rae Barash, subsequently one of the now available for purchase. Judith has become part of the fabric of British leading activists in the Manchester Jewish Filmed and produced by Alan Reich, the life and her books have enthralled and inspired Refugees Committee (MJRC), the important DVD will serve as a poignant memorial children for many decades. agency set up in November 1938 to take to the two historic gatherings of Kinder forward the work of supporting the rapidly We especially encourage the families of our and their families that took place in increasing number of Jews fleeing the Reich. members – Second and Third (and possibly even June 2013 as part of the events the AJR Otherwise, the responses of institutions like Fourth) generations – to come along. We are organised to commemorate the 75th thrilled that Judith has agreed to read from her the University of Manchester, which gave anniversary of the Kindertransport. positions to some refugee scholars, or the books When Hitler Stole Pink Rabbit and When Lancashire Industrial Development Coun- the Tiger Came to Tea to younger members of To receive your copy, please send a cil, which supported refugee industrialists the audience. She will also reflect on her own cheque for £5 made payable to the and entrepreneurs, earn scant praise from experiences and take questions from guests. AJR to: AJR, Jubilee House, Merrion Williams. Even the Manchester Quakers were, Please book early to avoid disappointment Avenue, Stanmore, Middx HA7 4RL in Williams’s words, ‘slow off the mark’, their and join us for what we are sure will be a objective of bringing about international memorable gathering by purchasing your harmony between Britain and Germany being tickets through the LJCC website hard to reconcile with their desire to assist the www.ljcc.org.uk or by calling victims of Nazism. AJR Head Office on 020 8385 3070. Only after the intensification of Nazi persecution of the Jews in 1938 did men and Eastbourne women like Norman Jacobs, Morris Feinmann Lansdowne Hotel and Margaret Langdon, all members of the those of Bachad, which established a settlement MJRC alongside Rae Barash, become fully for Zionist agricultural trainees at Thornham Sunday 20 July active, setting up Kershaw House in Alexandra Fold Farm in Castleton, outside Manchester. A to Sunday 27 July Road South, Whalley Range, the first hostel hostel for refugee boys was set up in Stockport, Come and join us for a week for refugees to be established by Anglo-Jewry and one for girls, Harris House, in Southport; Make new friends and meet up with old friends outside London. It was named after Arthur as a collective diary of the girls at Harris House has survived, the history of that hostel is better £400pp for twin/double Kershaw, who offered the spacious mansion £450 for single room as a residence for refugees. Its Orthodox known than most. The Manchester Jewish Sea View rooms an additional £15pp per night counterpart, Cassell-Fox House in Upper Home for the Aged provided accommodation Price includes transport to and from Park Road, Higher Broughton, was likewise for elderly refugees, probably at the instigation Eastbourne from Jubilee House, Stanmore named after its creators, Eli Fox and Adolf of Morris Feinmann, who died on a rescue and Finchley Road (behind Waitrose); mission in North Africa in 1944. In his Sandwich Lunch on journey to Eastbourne; Cassell. The pogrom of 9-10 November Dinner, Bed and Breakfast; Outings, Cards 1938 also galvanised the Quakers into setting memory, the present home, whose construction and Entertainment up hostels for the refugees. Through the was largely funded by former refugees, was Space is limited so book early Refugee Committee of the Society of Friends named Morris Feinmann Home, a symbolic For further details, please telephone in Manchester and District, the Quakers act of gratitude to Manchester Jewry. Carol Rossen or Lorna Moss excelled in the support and assistance that they The book’s underlying argument is that, for on 020 8385 3070 extended to the refugees. all their good will and intentions, the efforts of Williams details the efforts by various those in Manchester involved in the attempts Jewish organisations to assist the refugees, to rescue the Jews of Germany and Austria ranging from those of the Manchester Yeshiva, remained seriously inadequate. By referring which concerned itself with the Orthodox, to to Manchester as ‘the liberal city’, Williams underestimate the part played by the German strongly implies that things were considerably government in preventing the emigration of worse in the rest of the country, and for that he Jewish refugees to Britain. In a chapter entitled AJR Chief Executive holds the British government and its desire to ‘The Saved and the Trapped’, echoing Primo Michael Newman restrict immigration from the Reich primarily Levi’s study of Auschwitz, The Drowned and Directors responsible. He is critical of those scholars the Saved, he makes eloquent use of the story Carol Rossen (including myself) who, in his view, seek to of Ruth Edwards, née Schneier, who reached David Kaye obscure the shortcomings of government Manchester on a Kindertransport while her Head of Department policies and thereby fall back onto a traditional parents, unable to gain entry to Britain, Sue Kurlander Social Services narrative of British generosity and hospitality perished in the Holocaust. But the story of AJR Journal towards the refugees from Hitler. Such studies, another child refugee, Gina Bauer of Harris Dr Anthony Grenville Consultant Editor Dr Howard Spier Executive Editor he claims, concentrate on those refugees who House, would, had Williams chosen to use it, Andrea Goodmaker Secretarial/Advertisements were broadly successful in building new lives in have led to a different conclusion, since her Britain, thereby excluding those condemned by parents had been granted admission to Britain Views expressed in the AJR Journal are not emigration to loneliness, poverty, poor-quality and were prevented from leaving Germany necessarily those of the Association of Jewish jobs, mental illness and even suicide. solely by Hitler’s invasion of Poland. Refugees and should not be regarded as such. His criticism of Britain leads Williams to Anthony Grenville

2 may 2014 journal

lease can you spare had a sleeping stranger in it. something for the Red During part of the latter war ’PArmy?’ I asked, holding out my in spotless white tunic, appeared, years, our house also became a second tin. smiling at and being embraced by home for those of our far-flung second It was summer 1944. Too young to be former peasants, now all Comrades. My and third cousins who were in the Forces, an official collector, I had been entrusted, cousin Hugo took me for long walks on whenever they were on leave in London. by my 20-year-old brother Harry, with Hampstead Heath and explained the Thus we got to know sunburned and the task of collecting money for Russian corruptness of the capitalist system. I was uniformed young men from America soldiers. Not quite 12 but rather grown- a ready convert. Nineteen-year-old Hugo and Canada who bore our surname. up looking, I had been taken for 16 at the was tall with curly fair hair and blue eyes Unlike us, though, they had never been Austrian Centre, on the occasion Harry and I saw older girls looking at him. I felt immigrants but were actually born in and my sister Ruth had allowed me to go enormously flattered to be given so much the New World. They too brought their there with them. At this left-wing club, friends to the house and sometimes frequented by many of the day’s leading supplemented our rations by bringing Continental intellectuals and musicians, It was hard, though, to wonderful supplies from their PX stores. girls in their twenties could be found describe the atmosphere of the Although meals often presented a with faces entirely devoid of make-up, problem during those years of rationing wearing white ankle socks like me. To my smoke-filled room at Young and shortages, Mama didn’t like great delight I had been asked for a date, Austria – the shabbiness but accepting food. On one occasion, a shy by the earnest young man who came to sophistication of its members. To young sergeant, a friend of one of our chat to me after a music recital. me these spelled sheer glamour. cousins, left a giant tin of corned beef in ’I’m sorry, I’m afraid I can’t,’ I answered our airing cupboard so that he wouldn’t primly and was much gratified to see Erudite young men and women, have the embarrassment of being his astonishment when I told him my in serious discussion, used their thanked for it. This was discovered after age. This incident went down rather hands expressively as they chain- his departure and my inventive mother well when told in school to my friends produced nourishing and unusual meals and embellished a bit. It was hard, smoked, waving cigarettes about out of it for several days. The kosher though, to describe the atmosphere of and scattering ash. home she had kept in Vienna had been the smoke-filled room at Young Austria abandoned by then: we no longer had – the shabbiness but sophistication separate dishes for milk and meat. Once of its members. To me these spelled of his time and treated like a grown-up. alien and taboo foods were now bought sheer glamour. Erudite young men and Hugo and Harry, together with other and consumed in our house in Kingsley women, in serious discussion, used their young members of the Austrian Centre, Way but no one ever went away hungry. hands expressively as they chain-smoked, were preparing to go back to Vienna when Some went away lovesick instead, after waving cigarettes about and scattering the war was well and truly over to rebuild they had met and gone out with my two ash. their homeland. Both boys had worked in older sisters – and been informed by our I fantasised about being 16 and the fur trade in between studying, in my father that one was already engaged and allowed to smoke and go out with boys father’s despised but lucrative business. the other too young …. while I went from house to house with This much-criticised capitalist parent was I cried buckets after Harry and Hugo my collection box. I hoped to collect more to provide the funds for the venture, left for Vienna. Neither of the boys than my fellow Red Army sympathisers, which, if successful, would contribute joined the Communist Party and their who were to stand at designated spots to the eventual downfall of all capitalist enthusiasm for it soon began to wane. with their boxes the following morning. businesses like his. In the meantime, Mine lingered for a few months after Knocking on the doors of Hampstead however, it was tolerated and paid for their departure then I, too, became Garden Suburb residents on the eve of their studies and lifestyles – which were disenchanted and stopped buying the Red Army Day had been an inspiration. It not always as modest as they might Daily Worker. was yielding larger sums of money than have been. Our house, often already But sometimes I look back on my Red were likely to be given on street corners: bursting at the seams, became, when schooldays with great nostalgia. my tin was heavy with half-crowns convenient to my brother and cousin, Mary Brainin Huttrer instead of pennies and sixpences. a meeting, eating and often sleeping Mama had raised no objections place for other revolutionaries. Mama, provided I only went to houses in who was sometimes worried about the neighbouring streets and came home overcrowding and lack of sufficient beds, VISIT TO FROGMORE before dusk. Several people invited me to was reassured by the boys: ’Don’t worry, PAPER MILL come in for refreshment but I was careful Carl can sleep on the floor, he doesn’t HEMEL HEMPSTEAD to stay outside on the step unless I knew need a mattress. There’s plenty of space the family. One kindly gentleman gave in my room.’ Thursday 10 July 2014 me a lecture on the flaws in Marxism, We girls, already doubled or tripled Although we tend not to give much thought to before producing a ten-shilling note and up in our bedrooms, never knew who the paper we use every day, there is a wealth of pushing it into the slit of my box. ’Now was going to emerge from our brother’s fascination behind its history, science, industry don’t you forget what I said, young room in the morning. Unshaven young and usage. At Frogmore Mill their aim is to tell this men, nicotine-stained fingers holding up story in an entertaining way so visitors can see lady,’ he told me sternly and I promised for themselves the contribution paper has made I wouldn’t, before escaping jubilantly borrowed pyjama bottoms, wandered to the world as we know it today. down his garden path. sleepily into the hall in search of Our visit will begin with refreshments, a tour of the I was a schoolroom Red. I enjoyed bathroom and breakfast. Harry, a keen mill, and the opportunity to make your own paper. being different from those of my friends chess player, occasionally spent the night This will be followed by a fish and chip lunch in wanted to go to Hollywood. at the chess club and had been known café by the side of the River Gade and a boat trip. ’What are you going to do when you to give his front-door key to friends, Coach picks up with an arrival time grow up?’ people coming to our house together with directions on how to find of 10.30 am and a finish time of would ask. our house and his room. As we had strict approximately 3 pm. ’Go to Russia,’ I replied simply. Harry instructions never to wake our brother, £25.00 pp had taken me to the West End to see we must sometimes have tiptoed about For further details, please contact Russian propaganda films at the Tatler outside what might well have been an Susan Harrod on 020 8385 3070 or at cinema. In these, Comrade Stalin, dressed empty room – but might equally have [email protected]

3 journal may 2014 AJR Annual Report 2013

Highlights integrated the AJR Charitable Trust and year cycle, the sterling value of grants It is difficult to look beyond the reception The Association of Jewish Refugees awarded to the group was, at £2.1m, hosted last June by HRH The Prince of Wales Friendly Society at the end of 2012. similar to that of 2012. Additionally, we at St James’s Palace as the outstanding In December, we said goodbye to administered almost £150,000 from Six highlight of 2013. That occasion, part of Epi Byrne, Shareefah Nunkoo, Lawrence Point Foundation, again on behalf of the the commemorations and celebrations we Zahra and Cassie Parris, who had worked Umbrella Group. Through these funds, organised for the 75th anniversary of the to ensure the smooth running of the AJR the AJR and its members received in Kindertransport, followed a Reunion of Centre. excess of £600,000 to provide for care some 600 Kinder and their families the day In October, Myrna Glass retired after and emergency needs. Across the entire before at the JFS. At the Reunion, Kinder 15 years’ dedicated service. Myrna will Umbrella Group, the funding was used from around the world heard from, among be greatly missed by the many members to deliver £148,000 of care and provide others, former Foreign Secretary David with whom she came into contact over some 1,500 grants to individual members Miliband, the comedienne Maureen Lipman, the years. As well as a farewell tea at Head of all the charities. and UK Envoy for Post-Holocaust Issues Office in her honour, I made a presentation We paid £530,000 through the AJR’s Sir Andrew Burns. JFS pupils performed to her at the annual concert. Self-Aid to members with the greatest a re-enactment of the historic debate in Mira Shah joined the permanent staff need, including a special additional Parliament in November 1938 which led to in April as Accounts Assistant, while Jim payment to commemorate the birth of the creation of the Kindertransport. Sutherland, our Social Worker for the Prince George. Currently, around 150 of Last year also marked the 75th anniversary North-East, and Sandie Myers, a Social our members receive this assistance and of Kristallnacht and we welcomed to Belsize Worker based at Head Office, were given we were able to increase regular payments Square Synagogue the world-renowned permanent contracts in August. for 2014 to a level above inflation. composer and conductor Carl Davis, who, The Volunteers’ Department was with pupils from Akiva School Choir, boosted by the addition of three staff Social and welfare services performed a song from his new composition members. Jonathan Rose joined us as As previously, part of the work of the The Last Train to Tomorrow, which is Computer Help Programme Co-ordinator Social Services Department was to identify dedicated to the Kindertransport. Also AJR and Lesley Woolfe, who initially joined us members who needed assistance from member Ernst Fraenkel reflected on his on a one-year contract, was retained for programmes supported by the Claims experiences on Kristallnacht before fleeing a further three years following the initial Conference, principally the Emergency Germany. In Manchester, AJR member success of the Dementia Project. We also and Austrian Funds and Homecare but Ernest Hirsch provided his testimony of welcomed Fran Horwich as Volunteers’ also through the AJR’s Self-Aid. Kristallnacht and guests also heard from Co-ordinator for the North in October. As well as assisting those with the historian Professor David Cesarani. Henry Wendy Bott joined us in January as York- greatest need, we received many requests Wuga gave an eyewitness account of shire Groups’ Co-ordinator and Rebecca from members who had not previously Kristallnacht at the commemoration at Webb joined us as Administrator to the sought our help. Garnethill Synagogue, Glasgow. Social Work Team in August. Having worked Although assessments and applications As part of last year’s three-day visit alongside Myrna Glass over the summer, now require a much greater level of detail, to London by members in the provinces, Kathryn Prevezer took over as London as well as the involvement of medical and we organised a reception at the Austrian South and Midlands Groups Co-ordinator care professionals and local authorities, we Embassy, with His Excellency Dr Emil Brix, to on a permanent basis in November. continued to make life-changing interven- commemorate the 75th anniversary of the tions and to improve members’ welfare. Anschluss. The London visit also featured Membership As well as with colleagues within the AJR, outings to Kensington Palace and a tour At the end of 2013, total membership the Department worked with community of Parliament arranged by Luciana Berger was 2,615, down from 2,709 at the organisations to meet members’ needs MP. At an outing to the theatre to see The beginning of the year. During 2013, we and we welcomed on board new members Audience, guests had the opportunity to enrolled 94 new members and received of staff who will assist us in delivering meet privately the star of the show, Dame notice that 117 had passed away and these services. Helen Mirren. The London visit concluded that 63 had moved away or not paid Despite busy work schedules, the with a lunch addressed by guest speaker their subscriptions. A further 52 members Department organised an annual holiday Eve Pollard. cancelled their subscriptions. for members in the Lake District, enabling It was with great sadness that we closed Total Second Generation membership those in more remote parts of the country the AJR Paul Balint Centre at the end of 2012. for 2013 was 471 (453 the previous year), to meet other members from around the It had been for over a quarter of a century including 37 who joined during the year, UK. a unique meeting place accommodating one more than last year. At the start of In July, we arranged for a group of 32 our members with great warmth. Despite 2014, our database showed 42 members members to enjoy a week in Eastbourne, our efforts to keep the Centre going, it aged 100 or over and a further 619 aged including entertainment, trips to the became difficult and expensive to maintain 90 or over. theatre, and outings to local places of the service in this way. On a bitter-sweet interest. occasion last December, we organised Annual Lunch and Concert an ’end-of-an-era’ luncheon, which was As in recent years, we spent a wonderful attended by 100 people, including current Volunteers afternoon at the Watford Hilton, with 200 The past year saw new appointments, and former participants with staff past and members enjoying a delicious salmon lunch present. enabling the Department to support more followed by tea and pastries. Entertainment members in various ways. The Computer Although nothing can replace the AJR was provided by Glenys Groves, Mark Centre, we are delighted to be working Help Project trains volunteers to assist Luther and Jonathan Fisher accompanied our members in using, or becoming more with Jewish Care and to be able to offer by Diana Franklin on the piano. our members the opportunity to attend proficient in, the use of computers. the Sobell Centre in Golders Green, an The Memory Loss Befriender arrangement that has initially been very Financial assistance Programme works with clients suffering successful. We maintained our role as lead agency dementia, enabling volunteers to pay visits for the administration of grants and to members with this ailment. assistance deriving from Claims Conference We also added a co-ordinator who will Personnel and administration programmes, which are made to an support volunteers to befriend members We completed our first year as an in- Umbrella Group of five charities in the in the North of England. corporated charitable company, having UK, including the AJR. Part of a two- Besides these new projects, the

4 may 2014 journal Volunteers’ Department continued to to The Producers, Fiddler on the Roof, to the lives of members), Gloria Tessler recruit and support volunteers who The Sound of Music and a taste of the (reviews of art exhibitions), and Dorothea befriend members, help with the groups, Edinburgh Festival at the Edinburgh Shefer-Vanson (’Letter from Israel’) at Head Office and with recording the AJR Hebrew Congregation Open Day. There continued to be regular contributors. Journal on a CD. was also a behind-the-scenes visit to The correspondence columns re- As in previous years, the administration BBC Scotland HQ. In addition, members mained, as ever, lively and informative, of the Department was greatly assisted by enjoyed a lunch and concert at the Royal containing discussions on, among many an intern from the German organisation Overseas League Hotel in Edinburgh. other issues, Anglo-Jewry’s historical re- Action Reconciliation Service for Peace, a A visit to the migration and wedding ception of the refugees, peace-making in role fulfilled very ably by Dora Köhler. We customs exhibitions at Destination Tyneside the Middle East, and the political bias of are also very grateful to Six Point Founda- enthralled Newcastle members, while sections of the British media. tion for their continued support for our the Regional Get-together in Edinburgh Reviews of books, theatre and various Volunteer projects. attracted a large turnout to hear Wiener exhibitions, as well as search notices, Library speaker Howard Falksohn as well as featured as before, while reports on AJR Community relations Gica Loening performing Klezmer music. group events, including outings, reflected The AJR is part of the Executive of the Culinary events included a ’Yom the increased popularity of these activities. Forum of Yom HaShoah UK, whose aim is Tov nosh’ in Glasgow, a sumptuous to raise the profile of Yom HaShoah within meal which ensured members turned Kindertransport the Jewish community and to organise out in force. Newcastle members were Aside from the Reunion, we organised a the annual national service at The Dell in entertained by Soprano Victoria Atkinson special Tea in the Houses of Parliament London (this year on 27 April). at the Newcastle Chanukah Lunch, while to commemorate the 75th anniversary The AJR is an active participant in the the newly formed Dundee group began of the historic debate, initiated by Philip Holocaust Memorial Day (HMD) Trust’s to discover their shared roots. Noel-Baker, which paved the way for the collaborative group. Kindertransport. In addition to enjoying a We are also planning an inter- Southern groups traditional English Tea, the group of about generational event to capitalise on the Despite the sad loss of some prominent 60 Kinder heard from Lord Dubs, a Kind growing number of AJR Second and Third members, it was another active year, rescued by Sir Nicholas Winton, Baroness Generation members. with many groups continuing to flourish. Boothroyd, and Speaker of the House of We also saw an influx of the Second Commons John Bercow. Prior to the Tea Northern groups Generation. Many groups now provide there was a rededication of the plaque The Manchester and Liverpool groups lunch, which has increased numbers erected in gratitude to Parliament for met approximately every two months to considerably, particularly in the smaller rescuing the Kinder. discuss subjects of mutual interest and to Continental Friends groups. The Book Club We also helped World Jewish Relief hear informative speakers, among others continued to grow in popularity and now arrange a memorial service at Liverpool Ros and Jane Merkin on their innovative meets every six weeks, while Café Imperial Street Station at the beginning of Kindertransport project Suitcase 1938. continues unaffected by age. December to mark the 75th anniversary We also organised a number of outings, Highlights include a trip to a private of the arrival of the first Kindertransport, including a day in Llandudno and a visit screening of Philomena, a very well a group of children from an orphanage to the theatre to see Fiddler on the Roof. attended Chanukah Party at Alyth in Berlin. Manchester and Liverpool members Gardens, and film, opera and lunch We are delighted to be presenting the attended the Northern Annual Get- outings, including to London’s West London premiere of Carl Davies’s The Last together in Leeds. There, 60 members met End theatres and Regent’s Park Open Train to Tomorrow at the Roundhouse in for a stimulating day of discussion and Air Theatre, Sissinghurst Castle, the November 2014, when we will also mark David Lawson gave a presentation on the Institute of Physicians, and The Temple in the anniversary of Kristallnacht. Jews of Ostrava. Hertfordshire. Liverpool AJR members held an HMD We also arranged three trips to see Child Survivors Association (CSA) event jointly with the Museum of Liverpool. the latest interpretation of the play In addition to regular social meetings A tablecloth containing the embroidered Kindertransport as well as organising, in each other’s homes, the CSA sent names of Liverpool members who had at the London Jewish Cultural Centre, a out the bimonthly newsletter, which attended meetings over the last ten years talk by Anthony Penrose on his mother, kept members abreast of events and was presented to the Museum, which the American photographer Lee Miller. publications of interest. also holds the AJR Liverpool Holocaust Members were treated to two West End A large number of members contin- Memorial Book in its archives. shows, Chorus Line and From Here to ued to be actively involved in Holocaust In the Yorkshire area, meetings varied Eternity, as well as a visit to Sandy’s Row education, with many speaking in schools from discussions on such themes as ’a Synagogue. throughout the UK, at universities and person who made a difference to your The merging of the Hendon and Temple at civic events. During 2013, individual life’ to film screenings and musical Fortune groups proved highly popular. CSA members also took part in events in appreciation. Members enjoyed guest Ireland, France, Germany, Poland, Ukraine, speakers on subjects such as calligraphy, AJR Journal and website Hong Kong and China. Five members local Jewish history and the Jewish A theme which continued to attract attended the World Federation Annual involvement in freemasonry. Musical substantial coverage in the Journal was the Conference in Henderson, Nevada, and entertainment featured, among others, return of members to the places of their the Association retained representatives the Barbershop Quartet and the 60-strong birth in Germany, Austria and elsewhere, on the board and executive of this or- Jewish Primary School Choir at Chanukah. in many instances following official ganisation as well as on the European Members were also treated to The Glenn invitations from the local authorities in Association of Survivors. Miller Orchestra at Leeds Grand Theatre question. The CSA’s book We Remember, an and saw a live screening of The Nutcracker Annual events of considerable anthology of the experiences of 30 of its at the cinema. Visits included trips to significance to the lives of AJR members members, has now sold over 2,000 copies Beth Shalom Holocaust Centre and the which continued to be covered were and is used as a textbook in many schools Manchester Jewish Museum. Holocaust Memorial Day, Yom HaShoah and throughout the country. Kristallnacht. Special events featured were Scotland and Newcastle those celebrating the 75th anniversary of Grants and Holocaust Highlights of the year for members in the Kindertransport, seminars on historical commemoration Scotland included an outing of First, and cultural issues held jointly with the We continued the work of the AJR Second, Third and Fourth Generations to London Jewish Cultural Centre, and the Charitable Trust in supporting the Localities Glasgow’s Kibble Palace, visits to a whisky closure of the AJR’s Day Centre and the Project developed by the Beth Shalom distillery and a glass-making factory, and move to Amélie House. Holocaust Centre and in contributing to lunch at the Winter Garden in Crieff. Consultant Editor Anthony Grenville the cost of various local HMD events as Cultural highlights featured outings (key articles on historical themes relevant continued overleaf 

5 journal may 2014  AJR ANNUAL REPORT 2013 continued from previous Finance Report 2013 well as the national Yom HaShoah Thanks Association of Jewish Refugees (AJR) commemoration. At this critical point in our members’ Summary Income and Expenditure Accounts We also supported the Holocaust lives, my fellow Trustees and I take great Year ended 31st December 2013 Education Project being developed pride in the thoughtful and thorough Notional Comparative by the Holocaust Survivor Friendship with AJR Charitable Trust manner in which our colleagues deliver and AJR Association in Leeds and a project run AJR services. My sincere thanks go to Income: 2013 2012 by the Council of Christians and Jews to our wonderful staff, capably led by £ £ £ £ sponsor two Fellows for a study course Chief Executive Michael Newman and Claims Conference, at Yad Vashem. In addition, we enabled Directors Carol Rossen and David Kaye, Six Point & Other Grants 970,740 1,125,588 young air cadets from Barry in Wales and for their tremendous efforts this past Subscriptions/Donations 109,867 110,991 West Mercia to visit the sites of former year and for continuing to bring great Investment income 458,353 472,331 Nazi concentration camps in Poland. comfort to our members. In a new venture, we launched Many thanks also to all of you, Other Income 28,552 9,676 a scheme to establish permanent who have sent in letters and cards of 1,567,512 1,718,586 memorials to some of the most gratitude throughout the year – we prominent Jewish émigrés who fled greatly appreciate knowing that our Legacies 6,287,410 1,117,711 Nazi oppression as well as to places and efforts are recognised. Total Income 7,854,922 2,836,297 buildings with a strong connection to As the saying goes, charity begins the Jewish refugees. The first plaque, in at home, so please do tell us if you Less outgoings: honour of Sir Hans Krebs, was unveiled know of anyone who might benefit Day Centre 167,109 190,671 at the Department of Biochemistry in from our services. We look forward Self Aid, Homecare and Oxford in May; the second, unveiled to welcoming you at our events this Emergency Grants 1,155,099 1,237,055 in October, commemorates the life of year. Other organisations 155,347 206,116 Sir Ludwig Guttmann; in November, Andrew Kaufman Administration/Depreciation 1,676,430 1,459,492 we erected a plaque in memory of the Chairman, 3,153,985 3,093,334 well-known Cosmo restaurant. The Association of Jewish Refugees Donated by AJR Charitable Trust 4,138,089

Net incoming/outgoing resources Treasurer’s Report 2013 for the year 8,839,026 -257,037 Surplus/-Deficiency on realised his was one of the most significant ever, remain volatile, cash returns are and unrealised investments 1,112,149 1,264,922 years for the administrative and minimal, and a balanced prudent Net movement in funds 9,951,175 1,007,885 Tfinancial development of our approach to the management of organisation. The charity completed resources will continue. Association of Jewish Refugees (AJR) its first year of operating as a company While the closure of the AJR Centre Summary Balance Sheet limited by guarantee, merging was inevitable given the declining Year ended 31st December 2013 the activities of the Association of number of those who regularly Notional Comparative with AJR Charitable Trust Jewish Refugees in Great Britain attended it was also becoming and AJR and the AJR Charitable Trust. This difficult to justify continuing the 2013 2012 has enabled us to streamline our service in that format. All our £ £ £ £ operations. The account summaries members continue, however, to Fixed Asset and Investments 13,019,213 11,974,728 which accompany this report are benefit from a day centre facility presented on that basis; the figures as we have made arrangements for Current assets 11,574,457 3,332,209 for 2012 have been re-presented them to attend an alternative venue Current liabilities 469,416 515,335 in an equivalent format so the at Jewish Care’s Sobell Centre, with comparative is meaningful. appropriate transport and financial Net Current Assets 11,105,041 2,816,874 We are very fortunate that our help being given for attendance financial position was significantly where needed. Net Assets 24,124,254 14,791,602 improved by the sale of the former Our Self-Aid programme continues premises of the AJR Centre at Cleve to assist members with the greatest Reserves brought forward from Road – for which our Chairman, need and in 2013 we were delighted AJR Charitable Trust and Association of Jewish Refugees Andrew Kaufman, deserves great to be able once again to make an in Great Britain 14,791,602 13,783,717 credit and thanks – and also by additional special commemorative Less Freehold property the vesting of legacies. In addition, gift, this time to mark the birth retained by Charitable trust we have benefited from the very of Prince George. We also felt at 31 December 2012 618,523 significant estate of a donor who able to make significant inflation- died many years ago, following the beating increases to regular monthly Net movement in funds for year 9,951,175 1,007,885 death of his widow. payments and seasonal gifts. While these events are highly We were again generously funded Reserves Carried Forward 24,124,254 14,791,602 significant they were mainly foreseen by the Claims Conference and further and considered part of our existing supported by Six Point Foundation, longer-term plans. These plans will who together provided over £1m of continue to be reviewed and refined grant income, £635k of which was Holocaust Centre for their pioneering work on by my fellow Trustee Directors and directly distributed to our members Holocaust education. myself with a view to ensuring we mainly for homecare. The balance Once again I extend my thanks to the finance remain able to meet the needs of was used to support the welfare and team, who have to deal with the complex and our core membership as they become outreach work we undertake. We extensive administration of our operations, older and for as long as they are extend our heartfelt gratitude for which ensures all the requirements of the Claims needed in the years ahead. their support. Conference and other funders are met. This work In 2013 financial markets contin- Our social and commemorative includes serving not only the AJR but also the ued to improve and we benefited activities continue to be funded as Umbrella Group of agencies, assisting survivors from investment gains of over £1m to before, with the 75th Kindertransport and refugees, which we lead. This is essential to further help us offset the consump- commemoration being a particular ensure that these grants continue to be available. tion of resources as part of normal highlight, and we maintain our David Rothenberg charitable operations. Markets, how- financial support for the National Treasurer, The Association of Jewish Refugees

6 may 2014 journal to deteriorate. I am surprised that you published Eric Sanders’s invective against him. Gerda Mayer, Chingford, London

Sir – I thank Eric Sanders for his sane comment on controversy. Perhaps I can finally settle this tiresome debate with the following information. The Guardian has just – and not for the The Editor reserves the right first time – been named ’newspaper of to shorten correspondence the year’ in the Press Awards, one of a submitted for publication host of prizes given to individual Guardian writers and its digital service. No doubt to the horror of Peter Phillips, the award was given principally for the paper’s reporting DO NOT FORGET US on government surveillance! According to Sir – The review of the online book It’s 1914-18 have their names recorded in the judges, the Guardian ’broke a story of global significance that went to the heart Not the Fatherland’s Fault in your April war memorials and that the ceremonies of the debate on press freedom .... The job issue omits the most important statistic: that take place in August will especially of a newspaper is to speak truth to power 12,000 German-Jewish soldiers were commemorate their sacrifice – for their and the past year has seen the Guardian killed – as the Germans put it, ’on the ultimate reward was not the medals they do this with will and verve.’ field of honour’. were awarded but the deportation of I rest my case. If only German Some years ago, I saw in a booklet their nearest and dearest to extermination newspapers had shown the same courage about the Jews of Wesel (North Rhine- and concentration camps. and independence during the Nazi era! Westphalia) a photograph of a memorial The Jewish veterans organised Leslie Baruch Brent, London N19 to six Jewish soldiers of that city that had themselves into the RJF (Reichsbund been affixed to the local synagogue. The jüdischer Frontsoldaten – Association of Sir – Michael Gove is ’destructive, ignorant memorial had been destroyed together Jewish Frontline Soldiers) in 1923 in order and reactionary’, says leftist Eric Sanders. with the synagogue on Kristallnacht and to combat the rampant anti-Semitism. Obviously Mr Sanders does not believe never replaced. All in vain. that children should have the same It occurred to me that the memory If we forget them, so will everyone opportunities of education that he and of these soldiers’ sacrifice ’for Kaiser, else. And that would be injustice I enjoyed. Pity. He should write to the Vaterland und Heimat’ would forever compounded. Guardian with his views. I am sure they be forgotten unless a new and suitable Ernest G. Kolman, Greenford, Middx would gladly print them. plaque were to be created and Pity, too, that Anthony Grenville hardly appropriately displayed and I made it mentions the suffering of Austrian Jews in my business to do whatever I could A MATTER OF BIAS his otherwise excellent front-page article. They suffered as much as the German about this. Sir – I take exception to the opinions Jews and were constantly reminded that After some years and considerable expressed by your correspondent Eric Hitler was an Austrian. What’s more, they trouble and aggravation, a large block Sanders in your April issue. He is sharply received their so-called compensation of black granite containing the names critical of the Daily Telegraph, which, of the fallen incised in gold lettering was about 50 years after the Germans because although not as pro-Israeli as in the days Austria claimed for years that it had been placed in the city cemetery. In actual fact, of Conrad Black and Max Hastings, is there were seven names. My research ’invaded’ – as opposed to the reality of its incomparably more on our side than the having been a partner. Perhaps Dr Grenville discovered one soldier who, for some anti-Israeli and anti-American Guardian. should now write an article about the fate reason, had been left out. The dedication As for Education Secretary Michael Gove, of the Austrian-Jewish refugees in the UK? was by a rabbi from, I think, Düsseldorf. he is the most pro-Israeli member of the Interesting how Marc Schatzberger At a subsequent ceremony, I requested government and a real friend of ours. Mr (March) ignores my question about how a guard of honour with a trumpeter Sanders should not support our enemies. he would feel if someone like Edward playing ’Ich hatt’ einen Kameraden’ He should keep his biased opinions to Snowden had given information about (something like the ’Last Post’). Both guard himself. Bletchley Park to the Guardian during the of honour and trumpeter were furnished At the same time, looking at the large Second World War and the Guardian had by soldiers of the new Bundeswehr. I adverts placed in the papers by Marks printed it! invited the chairman and members of the and Spencer, it occurs to me that both Mr Snowden is a traitor and the Guardian Royal British Legion District of Germany Marks and Mr Spencer must be turning in is complicit in his treachery. I think Marc to attend the ceremony and I myself laid their graves. Emma Thompson and Annie would agree that had a spy exposed a wreath obtained from the British Legion Lennox are both prominent anti-Israeli Bletchley Park, that spy could have been with a large ribbon and the message campaigners. As for Baroness Lawrence, executed for treason. Or does Marc think ’Vergiss uns nicht’ (Do not forget us). with respect, what is she doing in a fashion it is permissible to whistle-blow the I also gave an address concerning the advert? Are these ’models’ anything to do Americans and British of today simply treatment of Jews in the Kaiser’s armed with the lousy figures that are now the because their politics are not left-wing services which came as a considerable norm for M&S? enough for him? shock to those present. Janos Fisher, Bushey Heath, Herts Marc defends the Guardian and The main purpose of this letter is to Snowden, saying they have ’moral scruples’. encourage all Jewish refugees to write Sir – Michael Gove is quite the most Would a whistle-blower on Bletchley Park to the Bürgermeisters, ministers or other respectable politician we have. He is have had the same ’moral scruples’? people of influence and standing to attempting to restore some rigour in an I have just come out of hospital and see that the German-Jewish heroes of educational system that has been allowed continued overleaf 

7 journal may 2014

letters to the editor Think You Are? and ITV’s Long Lost Family were a great bunch of guys – but if they continued from page 7 are working on a new series for BBC1 had known his origins he would have been provisionally called The Gift. left hanging from the nearest tree. His feel a little weak – but not weak enough Exploring the themes of forgiveness testimony left me pretty disturbed! Peter Roland, Bognor Regis to ignore Victor Ross’s article ’The Right and gratitude, the programme will help those looking for someone important to Climate’ in your February issue! express how they feel. Has someone ever POLITICAL WARFARE EXECUTIVE Let me quote him: In New York, he helped you or your family? Have you been Sir – I am currently researching any German writes, ’I felt twice the man I was in touched by the kindness of a stranger? Did or Austrian Jewish émigrés who were England’; ’English colleagues … I would they ever know the impact they had? If recruited into the British Political Warfare call acquaintances rather than friends’; you would like to be able to find someone Executive (PWE) in the Second World War. Victor lives in ’an almost exclusively who has had a lasting effect on you, please The PWE was concerned with German-Jewish milieu’; at a milestone contact [email protected] or call propaganda to Germany and the occupied birthday the guest list consisted of ’not one 020 3301 8486. countries. This included the production of bona-fide Englishman’. He continues ’I do Sonia Sohal, London WC1 clandestine radio stations from a secret not feel truly at home among the English’, recording studio near the village of Milton although he admits he was ’lucky to be let ’THE ENGLISH WAY’ Bryant in Bedfordshire. in, lucky to be alive, thankful and anxious Sir – I was amused to read Lady Milena’s I am keen to contact anyone, or their to show my gratitude’. He concludes by article about knitting ’the English way’ in relatives, who may have been employed saying that ’he never felt he belonged here your last issue. I too caused considerable by the PWE and particularly those who and never felt anything other than a guest’. interest and amusement with my ’funny’ worked at Milton Bryant. Little is known This is so sad. I feel sorry for myself for method of knitting. And how much quicker about those who actually worked there feeling low following my operation but, the Continental method is too! and the staff lists that survive in archives believe me, I feel far more sorry for Victor We were knitting socks for the troops mostly just mention the senior British staff. for having lived such a miserable life in at our school. I got on swimmingly while I have previously published several the country that rescued him from the my friend Beate Frankfurther was at school books on the subject, but more based on Nazis! I was born in Austria but my home is with me because she used to turn the heel the results of their labour than about the England and all my best friends are English, for me. To my shame, I never did learn people involved. whether Jewish or gentile. how to do it and, after she left school, I Readers’ help would be most Peter Phillips, Loudwater, Herts had to give up knitting socks. I didn’t take appreciated. up knitting again until my grandchildren Lee Richards, Peacehaven, East Sussex RETRIEVING ASPECTS OF CHILDHOOD came along. NEED FOR A CIVIL LEGAL SYSTEM Sir – Having spent several years of my life Bronia Snow, Esher Sir – Good to read in the last ’Letter from (1939-47) as a German refugee child in Israel’ that there are people there with a Great Britain, I am now trying to retrieve JEWISH AGENTS IN THE ABWEHR vision of creating a modern democracy by aspects of my childhood. Sir – The last two issues of the Journal have separating the laws of the state and those I wonder whether readers can help me referred to the strange story of Jewish of religion. trace copies of The Migrant: Children’s agents in Admiral Canaris’s Abwehr. I have no special knowledge of this but Having a civil court for marriage, Paper, later renamed Children Calling: there is material on the internet and in a women’s and human rights does not stop Children’s Paper, a newsletter issued by television programme I have seen about religious people practising what they the Refugee Children’s Evacuation Fund Canaris – one of the many on aspects of the believe to be right as long as they give in London from 1942 onwards. Second World War constantly being shown the same right to others. In the early days, I also wonder whether readers can and repeated on daytime television – that some kibbutzniks did not get married as help me get in touch with any so-called suggest what happened. they disagreed with some rabbis – over, First or Second Generation persons who A group of agents selected by the Nazi for instance, not permitting a widower to at one time or another stayed in one or Party were sent to the USA but most were attend his wife’s funeral if his name was more of the refugee children’s homes run executed as spies. Hitler was furious. When Cohn. Not being married eventually meant by the Czech Refugee Trust Fund during Canaris pointed out that it wasn’t he who there would be no pension if a partner the War in Broadstairs, Kent; Lancing, East had chosen them, Hitler told him to send was killed, so they gave in and had the Sussex; Hayton, Cumberland; Denbigh, Jews and criminals instead of Nazis on such religious ceremonies. Some orthodox Jews Denbighshire; or Theydon Bois, Essex. missions. This gave Canaris the excuse to did not believe in having a state, so some I would also like to get in touch with send the Jews to Switzerland. But there early Zionists had already broken with their First or Second Generation persons who had apparently been previous occasions traditions by coming to Israel. But now during the War lived in Scotland – Glasgow, when the Abwehr had also sent Jews there are many more sects as, of course, Edinburgh and Aberdeen in particular – abroad, for instance to Latin America. there are in most religions. Even more need and were in one way or another affected Another programme I saw some time for a civil legal system! by the Free German Youth in Great Britain, ago told the extraordinary tale of the Bettina Cohn, Bristol the Free German League of Culture in Great German Jew who had fought in Russia with POOR OLD SCHOTTENGYMNASIUM Britain, or the Free German Movement in the Waffen SS. He had fled the Nazis and Sir – I find myself in the unusual position Great Britain. settled in Paris, only to be overtaken there of replying to two separate letters in your Perhaps readers even know of someone by the occupation. With great boldness columns, viz those by George Vulkan who, like me, benefited from the Foster he had gone to a Wehrmacht office and (March) and Hans Eirew (April). Both Parents’ Scheme initiated by the Refugee volunteered his services. They told him they seem to have it in for the poor old Children’s Evacuation Committee (later could not recruit people abroad but that he Schottengymnasium – without telling us renamed Refugee Children’s Evacuation should try the Waffen SS, which did accept precisely what it is meant to have done Fund) from 1940 onwards. suitable volunteers. He was accepted by wrong, either since the War or in 1938, Dr Arno Graef, Berlin them after explaining that he had been before the Nazis closed it down. circumcised for medical reasons. The man As described in earlier correspondence, THE GIFT spoke anonymously on the programme Sir – The makers of BBC’s Who Do You and said that, in effect, his fellow soldiers continued on page 16 

8 may 2014 journal

Renaissance Impressions: Chiaroscuro Woodcuts from the Collections of Georg Baselitz and the Albertina, Vienna, at the Royal Academy until 8 June this year, REVIEWS features over 150 rare prints of famous From Second World War to ART paintings, supplementing the black-line Cold War block with one or several tone blocks to NOTES produce varying grades of colour to generate HITLER’S GENERALS IN AMERICA: light and depth. The revolutionary technique NAZI POWS AND ALLIED MILITARY GLORIA TESSLER was a two-way collaboration between INTELLIGENCE the artist, who drew the design, and the by Derek R. Mallett craftsman, who carved it in relief on the University Press of Kentucky, 2013, elebrity photographer David woodblock, using soft woods like cherry wood. hardback 264 pp., £29.00, obtainable Bailey is famed for the 1960s The technique was pioneered in Germany, from www.eurospanbookstore.com personalities he immortalised where the artist Lucas Cranach went so far as his book is of considerable interest, Cin black-and-white. The faces of stars particularly to anybody who wants to backdate two of his works to prove he had to know more about military like Mick Jagger, Bob Dylan, Catherine invented it. Several printmakers competed T intelligence obtained by the Western Deneuve, and – my own in their claims of authorship. Other German youthful idol! – the waif-like Jean Allies from senior German POWs. It artists, like Hans Baldung Grien and Hans complements the picture supplied by Shrimpton with her huge, porous eyes, Wechtlin from Albrecht Dürer’s circle, books such as Helen Fry’s The M Room flow from his white backgrounds as developed the woodcut soon taken up by the and Sönke Neitzel’s Tapping Hitler’s though his lens can’t contain them. Italians and the Dutch. Generals as it examines the subject from In its new exhibition, Bailey’s Stardust, Within a few years of its invention, Ugo the American point of view. the National Portrait Gallery brings over da Carpi made his own claim to the medium, The author stresses throughout the 300 portraits, from the 1960s-70s, right portraying works after Raphael. But the Italian difference between the British and up to the 21st century and, while his differed by cutting his own woodblocks and American approaches. As the USA entered the war only in December 1941 favoured black-and-white images are still avoiding the black-key block, to produce a the most effective, Bailey literally flowers – over two years later than Britain – the more painterly effect. The expressive quality of Americans had no experience of dealing into colour with his portraits of Zandra the wood enhanced the texture of the woodcut, Rhodes in red glitter with a pink pageboy with captured German senior officers. while the chiaroscuro effect suggested light The British had by then perfected their hairdo or a bejewelled Molly Parkin, age- and shade. method of making the generals feel defying and yet vulnerable in style and Antonio da Trento and Niccolo Vicentino, comfortable and secure at Trent Park, make-up. Domenico Beccafumi and Andrea Andreani and therefore relatively careless in their Bold or subtle, Bailey pares down experimented further. Typically of their conversations (which were overheard his subjects to their very essence. One times, the more violent themes prove the by the ‘secret listeners’) and general room is devoted to striking fashion icons most expressive. Andreani’s Rape of a Sabine behaviour. Throughout the war the Americans were happy for the British and another to his 1974 trip to Papua Woman, after Giambologna, is among the New Guinea, featuring huge portraits of to lead the intelligence-gathering from most beautiful in composition. The leading German senior officer POWs: there was tribesmen in feathers of the Kukukuku Dutch exponent Hendrick Goltzius’s woodcut bird. Bailey is immersed in all human no need for them to get more seriously Hercules Killing Cacus is another example of the involved as all valuable intelligence was life. The show continues until 1 June and colour and depth the medium can produce. passed on to them by the British. is worth a visit. When the war in Europe ended in May The 16th-century development of 1945 British Intelligence immediately chiaroscuro woodcut techniques brought stopped all interrogations of, and secret Renaissance masters like Parmigianino, KINDERTRANSPORT listening to, German POWs, while the Raphael and Titian to wider audiences, LUNCH Americans now took the lead and started much as photography has done in our comprehensive questioning. time. The revolutionary principles used 14 May 2014 Following D-Day the number of by artists to produce well-known captured German generals greatly Please join us for our next lunch at increased and the British found it biblical scenes essentially North West Reform Synagogue, brought colour printing necessary to make room for them at Alyth Gardens, Finchley Road, Trent Park. The transfer of German senior to clients using light London NW11 7EN officer POWs from Britain to America and shadow, or therefore started shortly afterwards, and chiaroscuro, to Samantha Lishak the first to be shipped to the USA were accentuate from WJR will be talking to us about their work known ‘trouble-makers’ like Generals linear Crüwell and von Arnim. Eventually there movement, To book your place were about 60 senior officer POWs in the volume, please phone Andrea Goodmaker USA, all listed in Appendix A of the book. colour and on 020 8385 3070 When, late in 1944, eventual victory depth. seemed certain, and some thought had to be given to how to manage the post- war occupation of Germany, the US Annely Juda Fine Art authorities were anxious to determine 23 Dering Street which officers held anti-Nazi views and (off New Bond Street) which were ‘Nazi die-hards’. Washington Tel: 020 7629 7578 decided to send a special officer to the Fax: 020 7491 2139 camp where the German generals were ‘Elvis’ (Groundhog Dolly) by David Bailey, CONTEMPORARY held with the ‘mission’ to find out which 19xx © David Bailey PAINTING AND SCULPTURE continued on page 10 

9 journal may 2014

reviews continued from page 9 of them might be used for ‘psychological fear he might be prosecuted for having Holocaust and how than to accept that warfare’. Strangely, it was never spelt committed atrocities. It is probably not the Holocaust occurred simply because out what exactly this term meant but a generally known that the Americans there are survivors left to tell the tale. certain Captain Rapp, a fluent German enlisted not only former Nazi scientists In a powerful denouement, Annie speaker, was entrusted with this task. and engineers to help them (like Wernher knows she must pull out all the stops He was not given very much time to von Braun), but also former German to help the desperate Saltzman, who do this and, although he was unable to generals. is like a bubbling cauldron waiting interrogate all the generals, he selected As it was one of the Allies’ declared to be released from the misery of five of them to be sent to another camp aims to rid post-war Germany of the his isolation and what appears to be for ‘re-education’. all-pervading nationalism and militarism his sole ownership of the Holocaust. The author criticises the American which the Nazis had propagated, it Milton’s description of his experience authorities for sending lower-ranking is difficult to understand that the in the camp showers is excruciating. known Nazi-POWs to the same camp Americans were contemplating using But the metaphor is the soap itself – an (albeit accommodating them in a former generals for that purpose. anguished leitmotif to the action. separate section) and holding the non- Just one criticism of this book: several Following the screening of the play, commissioned POWs acting as batmen times the German word for Frenchmen Arnold Mittelman, Producing Artistic and cooks for the selected generals is given as ‘die Französen’ instead of ‘die Director of the National Jewish Theater there as well. The former therefore had Franzosen’. Surely such an error could Foundation, presented the Foundation’s to go daily to the generals’ section of have been avoided in a book whose awards to Henry Goodman, Sir Ronald the camp and back again at the end of author obviously had several German Harwood, Sir Antony Sher, who was the day, which enabled them to relate to collaborators and which is published by not present, Martin Sherman, author of their comrades what they had heard the a university press! Holocaust plays, and Duncan C. Weldon, generals discuss. This arrangement did Fritz Lustig the West End producer. He also chaired not contribute to ‘security’. a discussion panel. In May 1945 the so-called Hill Gloria Tessler Project was started, with three objects: to research ‘subjects which will aid Survivor’s tale military security in Europe’; ‘research THE SOAP MYTH in prosecuting the war against Japan’; and research ‘in improving intelligence written by Jeff Cohen, directed by organisation and techniques … on Arnold Mittelman which important lessons can be gained London premiere screening by Digital from studying German methods in Theatre at the Jewish Museum, London detail’. POWs were selected for doing merican playwright Jeff Cohen’s Viennese Tea this research in German sources, which critically acclaimed piece about at The Delaunay was to be carried out at Camp Ritchie in Asurvivor memory, historical Maryland. The second of these objects memory and Holocaust denial had an Tuesday 22 July 2014 proved redundant as the camp was ready Off-Broadway run in the spring of 2012. for transferring the selected POWs only That production was filmed digitally and Be sure to book to join us for this very after the Japanese had surrendered. A a London premiere screening of it took special afternoon tea with a Viennese twist: total of 55 German officer POWs were place at the Jewish Museum at the end Sachertorte, Coffee Stroh Rum Slice, Linzer transferred to Camp Ritchie (seven of March. Torte, Poppy Seed Gugelhupf, a selection of generals among them) and the entire One of the ugliest, and most emotive, savouries, scones, cream and tea project finished in April 1946. It was aspects of the concentration camps is The Delaunay is a grand European Café known only to British and American the Nazis’ supposed use of fat from Restaurant located on the Aldwych, Covent Intelligence – the French and Soviets were the victims’ bodies to make soap. Garden, capturing a nostalgia and etiquette not told about it. Here, ageing survivor Milton Saltzman from a previous era The author expresses surprise (played by Greg Mullavey) describes a Coach travel will be provided that the US authorities left a totally photograph of a coffin which contained £25.00 pp unsuitable officer in charge of the camp soap – the sole remains of a Holocaust where the generals were held - he victim. Young Jewish investigative Places are limited. For further details, considered them just ordinary POWs journalist Annie Blumberg (Andi please contact Susan Harrod on and totally ignored their rank. Their Potamkin), keen to get to grips with 020 8385 3070 or at [email protected] accommodation and general treatment the facts and figures of the Holocaust, barely reached the standard required by is determined in a series of interviews the Geneva Convention. Most of them with historians and a Holocaust denier had previously been held at Trent Park (portrayed by Dee Pelletier) to remain LEO BAECK HOUSING ASSOCIATION and were extremely dissatisfied and neutral, thus distressing the passionate unco-operative. Even inspectors of the Saltzman, who is driven to despair since CLARA NEHAB HOUSE International Red Cross agreed with no one will take his story seriously. RESIDENTIAL CARE HOME them. Milton doesn’t want sympathy or Small caring residential home In my view, the most interesting part understanding: he wants endorsement, with large attractive gardens of the book deals with the early attempts pure and simple. And he expects more close to local shops and public transport to learn as much as possible about the from this young woman, who has surely 25 single rooms with full en suite facilities. Red Army and Soviet methods and amassed sufficient data to corroborate 24 hour Permanent and Respite Care organisational details from the senior his story! Entertainment & Activities provided. German POWs who had served at the In this play, which appears at first Ground Floor Lounge and Dining Room Russian front. Obviously, the Western to be more talking heads than drama, • Lift access to all floors. Allies’ intelligence authorities were Jeff Cohen builds a case from the many For further information please contact: getting ready for the ‘Cold War’ and questions which perhaps cannot be The Manager, Clara Nehab House, its potential deterioration into a ‘Hot answered but point to a deeper truth: 13-19 Leeside Crescent, London NW11 0DA War’. No German officer viewed as able that it is less important to collate the Telephone: 020 8455 2286 to assist the Americans had reason to precise details of how many died in the

10 may 2014 journal

ARTS AND EVENTS e approached the entrance hugely indicative of the lives lost, the despair MAY DIARY to Auschwitz, pausing briefly and the tragedy. before the gates. Yes, now They say a visit to Auschwitz changes Thur 1 Faces in the Void: Czech Survivors W of the Holocaust Poetry reading and I can see how people were tricked you. I wondered how. I believe it has into thinking this would be a ‘better changed me. Every day I used to appreciate photographic presentation. Inspired by a Czech scroll used by a synagogue in place’. The brick buildings still stand my life – but more so now. I used to stop Cambridge, photographer Marion Davies smartly, ‘welcoming’ the new arrivals. and smell the roses and listen to the birds and poet Jane Liddell-King travelled to its These were built for the army so their sing, but now I appreciate the freedom original home, the city of Pardubice, in search exteriors don’t reveal the horrors which I have in being able to choose all these of Jewish survivors of the Holocaust and the were hidden inside. We learnt of how things. I find it frustrating to hear people subsequent Communist regime. A video the victims of the Nazis were packed making life difficult for each other when a will also be shown of Alice Herz-Sommer in – many, many more people than change of tone or attitude could make it so commenting on a poem Jane wrote and these buildings were ever designed for. much more congenial. If you haven’t been dedicated to her. At Czech Memorial Scrolls I couldn’t previously understand to Auschwitz, do go. Those who lost their Trust, Westminster Synagogue, Kent House, Rutland Gardens, London SW7 1BX, 7.30 pm. how so many people could be bullied, lives would want us all to realise what a See www.memorialscrollstrust.org/events/ controlled and destroyed in this precious and wonderful gift we have in our a-face-in-the-void/ manner. I learned of the long journeys lives, our freedom. 9-23 May Exhibition: Children’s Story: people were forced to make before My thanks go to the AJR for giving me Children’s Drawings from the Terezin they arrived at Auschwitz and began the opportunity to go on this trip and to the Ghetto, 1943-1944 (from Jewish to comprehend how weak with hunger, Holocaust Education Trust, which organised Museum in Prague) Includes 40 copies dehydrated and demoralised they the trip and extended invitations to the AJR. of children’s drawings as well as related would be. Their main motivation – the Bernadette Cleal text. At Bootham School, York. See promise of a better life, a new home. Accounts and Services Administrator, AJR www.childrens-war-museum.co.uk They marched on, unable to believe that what lay ahead could be worse. Part of their vulnerability was that they didn’t After last year’s believe that other humans would treat EVENTS AT JW3 them so badly in order to further their success … it’s back! own comforts, beliefs and lifestyles. Continental Britons What choice was there? To die a Film and Discussion Are you thinking about buying futile death now, at the end of a long a computer or interested in arduous journey, by refusing to co- Thursday 19 June 2014 computer lessons? operate, or to hope things would get 4-5.30 pm better? Dr Bea Lewkowicz This might be the event for you! We moved through the buildings, Director of Sephardi Voices and each telling of the terrible life for those This June JFS are once again inviting members for Co-Director of AJR Refugee Voices Archive ‘living’ at Auschwitz. There are rooms an exciting afternoon at the school. Find out all you full of shoes, suitcases, hair, pots and Entry: £8 wanted to know about the internet and computers. pans – all just a tiny fraction of what Based on her film Continental Britons, Dr Lewkowicz Discover with JFS students how to email, play actually passed through the camp, but presents some of the journeys of the German and Austrian computer bridge, view pictures, listen to classical refugees who arrived in the UK in the late 1930s. music and much much more … Among those included in her film are Andrew Sachs, Judith Date: 30 June Kerr, Wolfgang Suschitzky and Norbert Brainin. Two sessions available: Monument to bear 9.30 to 12.30 or 1.30 to 3.30 names of all Dutch Music as Memory No previous computer experience required. Holocaust victims Thursday 26 June Limited spaces. monument is to be erected 4.30-5.30 pm Free event – includes refreshments, in the Dutch capital next year Dr Malcolm Miller transportation available A naming all Dutch victims of the Research Associate at the Institute of To sign up or find out more, contact Nazi occupation. Musical Research and Associate Lecturer Jonathan on 020 8385 3070 The ‘Holocaust Names Monument’, at the Open University, Goldsmiths College the first of its kind in the Netherlands, or at [email protected] will be designed by American-Jewish and City Lit architect Daniel Libeskind. Entry: £8 The memorial will list the names of Dr Miller traces the careers of notable émigré composers all 102,000 Jews, Roma and Sinti who such as Hans Gal, Egon Wellesz, Vilem Tausky, Berthold were deported from the Netherlands to Goldschmidt and Joseph Horovitz. PillarCare Nazi death and concentration camps. Quality support and care at home Please book tickets through JW3 on 020 7433 8988 or at www.jw3.org.uk  Hourly Care from 4 hours – 24 hours www.fishburnbooks.com  Live-In/Night Duty/Sleepover Care Jonathan Fishburn  Convalescent and Personal Health Care buys and sells  Compassionate and Affordable Service Jewish and Hebrew books, ephemera Books Bought  Professional, Qualified, Kind Care Staff and items of Jewish interest. Modern and Old  Registered with the CQC and UKHCA He is a member of the Antiquarian Eric Levene Booksellers Association. 020 8364 3554 / 07855387574 Call us on Freephone 0800 028 4645 Contact Jonathan on [email protected] PILLARCARE THE BUSINESS CENTRE · 36 GLOUCESTER AVENUE · LONDON NW1 7BB 020 8455 9139 or 07813 803 889 I also purchase ephemera PHONE: 020 7482 2188 · FAX: 020 7900 2308 for more information www.pillarcare.co.uk

11 journal may 2014 new Social Worker – we wish her well in her St John’s Wood The Psychology of new job. Bob Norton Family Relationships Prof Tanya Byron led an illuminating Harrogate and York Sharing Music discussion on the psychology of family and Experiences of Life relationships and especially on the effects of Meeting at the home of Inge Little in new technology on young people and their Harrogate, we first shared favourite or worried parents and grandparents. INSIDE meaningful pieces of music then old and Michael Spiro recent experiences in our own lives. It was the a lovely spring-like day and we revelled in the sunshine and warmth of friendship Essex (Westcliff) Action Reconciliation Service for Peace AJR among us. Edith Jayne The AJR’s Action Reconciliation Service for Pinner The Palace of Knightsbridge Peace (ARSP) intern Dora Köhler gave a Book Club An Unusual Aspect of Richard Furnival Jones, Manager of the Wine most interesting talk on her organisation, Apartheid and Spirits Department at Harrods, traced from the Second World War to the Barbara Mutch’s The Housemaid’s Daughter the history of this prestigious establishment present day. The ARSP places hundreds tells the tale of a child growing up in a since 1849. With his 40 years’ experience, he of young people in charitable institutions small town in South Africa who becomes a gave us a most enjoyable insight into the around the world. gifted pianist. The story, running from the operation of the store. Walter Weg Esther Rinkoff 1920s to the present day, shows an aspect of apartheid that is not normally shown in Bristol Making Our Own Brighton-Sarid (Sussex) Cigarette literature today. Irene Goodman Entertainment Philanthropist With Kathryn as co-ordinator, we made our ’The Life and Achievement of the Cardiff Members Made Aware of own entertainment, hearing the unique Philanthropist Bernard Baron’ was AJR Services stories of our members. We greeted our researched and told to us by Godfrey Gould. A decision was made to run the group twice highest number of Second-Generation Born in Russia, Bernard Baron emigrated at yearly, in May and September/October, with attendees – and a new mother-and-daughter the age of 17 to the USA, where he invented a speaker where possible. AJR Social Services couple to boot! Hazel Rank Broadley the cigarette machine. In 1895 he came to Head Sue Kurlander made members aware HGS Life of Soane the UK and took over the Carreras Factory of services provided by the organisation Co. Baron supported many Jewish and non- Kenn Taylor from the Sir John Soane which they could make use of should they Jewish charities. Ceska Abrahams wish to do so. Kathryn Prevezer Museum told us about the life of Soane, the son of a bricklayer who in 1788 was Glasgow Book Club An Excellent commissioned as an architect for the Bank Lady with the Lamp Read of England and Palace of Westminster. An There was no shortage of input from 1833 Act of Parliament established his house hat a wonderful treat to hear members at our meeting in the home of as a museum. Carmen Stevens such a fascinating talk about Marion Camrass. The Marrying of Chani Wthe Lady with the Lamp at the Kaufman by Eve Harris proved an excellent Florence Nightingale Museum in south- read. We were delighted to welcome Rita Kindertransport east London. Museum Director Natasha McNeil to the Book Club. Agnes Isaacs at Manchester Opera House McEnroe really got under the skin of this very clever and formidable woman. Then Ealing Story of the Mona Lisa Manchester we explored the exhibition and learned a Myra and Peter Sampson gave a fascinating group including survivors and little about the nursing profession now presentation on the story of the Mona Lisa, members of the Second and Third and then. Janet Weston telling us, among many other things, that AGenerations saw the wonderful hoards of visitors to the Louvre today spend production of Kindertransport at an average of 15 seconds looking at the Manchester Opera House directed Marlow An Air of Sadness painting. Leslie Sommer by Andrew Hall. While the play Meeting at the home of Alan Kaye, we itself was moving, the audience was discussed many topics of current interest. Café Imperial Football Tickets – Then most impressed with the after-show There was an air of sadness as one of the and Now discussion, when three Kinder – Gerda stalwarts of the group, Alex Lawrence, had Conversation on the Ukrainian situation Rothberg, Rebecka Scherer and Margot recently passed away. Arthur Mayer eventually led – believe it or not! – to Showman – answered questions from football. Bill, a Spurs supporter since 1956, both cast and audience about their own paid £12 for his original season ticket. The Kindertransport experiences. An Emotional and late Billy Field paid seven shillings and six Hannah Goldstone Memorable Evening pence for his Arsenal ticket after being (Third Generation) – Glasgow Holocaust demobbed. Esther Rinkoff Memorial Day event Didsbury and Cheshire CF e had a delightful outing to Ilford A Great Raconteur e had the pleasure to meet Chris Moncrieff, formerly from the Press the Oakgrove Primary School, Emma Degan, in Manchester where some 30 boys and girls Association, told us numerous anecdotes to play the role of Helga in W from his time with Margaret Thatcher that W greeted us singing the song Shalom Kindertransport at the Opera House. It Chaverim in lovely harmony. They were kept us chuckling. A great raconteur with was most interesting to talk to her and she amazing recall of the many situations he was keen to hear stories from members accompanied by a young man with a found himself in. Meta Roseneil of our group. Janina Hochland cello and a young woman with a clarinet, both from the Royal Conservatoire of East Midlands (Nottingham) Scotland. Individual children read out A Description of the Museum at Hull CF A Lovely Mix of Music Beth Shalom Sunday lunch at Olive Rosner’s was passages, singing and playing improvised Aneesa Riffat, Museum Curator at the followed by a discussion about the instruments matching the texts. An Beth Shalom Holocaust Centre, explained forthcoming AJR London trip plus a lively emotional and memorable morning. to us what her work entailed. Also, Esther mix of klezmer music and music from the Thanks to Angela and Claire. introduced us to Kathryn Williams, the AJR’s musicals. Wendy Bott Halina Moss

12 may 2014 journal AJR OUTINGS MAY GROUP eventS Cambridge 1 May Sheila Stuart, Former Mayor of Cambridge: ‘Life in PLANNED FOR 2014 the Council’ Full Pinner 1 May Marilyn Greene: ‘The V&A’ details will appear in the Journal 2 Ealing 6 May Raymond Sturgess: ‘Life at the English Criminal Bar’ calendar months Ilford 7 May Elaine Wein, City & Westminster Guide: ‘Let’s All Go before each Down The Strand’ outing Leeds HSFA 11 May Jerry Pearlman: ‘Some Environmental Legal Zealots’ HGS 12 May Dr Susan Cohen: ‘Eleanor Rathbone’ Prestwich/ Whitefield 12 May Meeting at home of Louise Elliott Tuesday 6 May to Thursday 8 May Annual London Trip – 3 days Essex (Westcliff) 13 May Otto Deutsch, Chairman of Essex Group of events open to all Marlow 13 May Social Get-together Thursday 15 May Glasgow 14 May Afternoon Tea at Pollok Park Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Temple St John’s Wood 14 May Vivian Weinman, Board of Deputies in Neasden – morning visit followed by lunch York, Harrogate and Hull 14 May Day Trip to Burnby Hall and Gardens Sunday 15 June Edinburgh CF 15 May Social Gilbert & Sullivan Opera and cream tea Manchester 18 May tbc Meeting at Maccabi at Grim’s Dyke Hotel, Harrow Brighton-Sarid (Sussex) 19 May Peter Sampson: ‘Jewish Songwriters and Our 15th Sunday 29 June Anniversary’ Judith Kerr OBE, a German-born British Edgware 20 May Camilla Goddard: ‘Bee-keeping and Helping Bees’ writer and illustrator, will be speaking exclusively to AJR at LJCC. Families Broughton/ Crumpsall 21 May Meeting at Beenstock welcome: children, grandchildren, Radlett 21 May Tim Pike: ‘Economy Update from Bank of England’ great-grandchildren Welwyn GC 22 May Social at home of Monica Thursday 10 July North West London 27 May (at Alyth Gardens) Film: ‘Alice Herz-Sommer’ Frogmore Paper Mill – lunch, (please book in advance) guided tour and making your own paper Book Club 28 May Social and Discussion Café Imperial 28 May Social Get-together Thursday 17 July Montefiore Synagogue in Ramsgate – Didsbury 28 May Meeting at Bridge Club with lunch beforehand by the seaside Wembley 28 May Raymond Sturgess: ‘Life at the English Criminal Bar’ Tuesday 22 July Glasgow Book Club 29 May Social Viennese tea at The Delaunay Liverpool 29 May tbc Day Trip to St Anne’s-on-Sea in Central London North London 29 May Lucy Daniels, Former Chair, British Dietetic Make a note in your diary not to Association: ‘Nutrition, Health and Enjoyment – miss these exciting events! Trying to Get It Right’

North West London Winning the Edinburgh ’Are We Too Materialistic?’ Lottery – If Only! We spent considerable time deciding what CONTACTS With our speaker indisposed, we discussed ’materialistic’ actually meant before coming Hazel Beiny various topics including the announcement to the conclusion that we, as individuals, Southern Groups Co-ordinator in the recent Budget of major developments weren’t. Our meeting, at the Royal Overseas 07966 887 434 [email protected] at Brent Cross and what we would do if we League Hotel, was enjoyed by all and we Wendy Bott won £2 million on the Lottery – if only! welcomed Karl Stern, who joined us for the Yorkshire Groups Co-ordinator David Lang first time. Agnes Isaacs 07908 156 365 [email protected]

Glasgow A Convivial Get-together Susanne Green Colin Grant described his life in journalism, Wessex Inside the World of Politics North West Groups Co-ordinator most of it spent at the Sunday Post, a Chris Moncrieff, former Political Editor of the 0151 291 5734 [email protected] popular weekly covering all Scotland, and Press Association, regaled us with amusing Susan Harrod his progress through the editorship of sports stories and provided some inside knowledge Groups’ Administrator then news sections, with many anecdotes of the world of politics. 020 8385 3070 [email protected] on press life. Altogether a convivial get- Kathryn Prevezer Agnes Isaacs together. Halina Moss Scotland and Newcastle Co-ordinator 07908 156 361 [email protected] West Midlands (Birmingham) Pure Welwyn Garden City A Jolly Time Plus Delight a Wide-ranging Discussion Kathryn Prevezer We were enchanted yet again by the We had a jolly time at Monica’s, with a London South and Midlands wide-ranging discussion. As ever, Hazel Groups Co-ordinator Orchestra of the Swan performing Mozart’s 07966 969 951 [email protected] Turkish Concerto with solo violinist Tamsin provided the delicious cakes and biscuits and Waley-Cohen. An afternoon of pure informed us of the many interesting outings Esther Rinkoff delight. Esther Rinkoff arranged for us over the next few months. Southern Region Co-ordinator Lee Beckett 07966 631 778 [email protected] Radlett Life at the Home Office KT-AJR (Kindertransport) Our speaker, Leslie Sommer, who had spent Wembley Diet and Nutrition Andrea Goodmaker over 40 years as a Home Office civil servant, Expert dietician Lucy Daniels told us about 020 8385 3070 [email protected] gave a vivid account of the structure and diet and nutrition. It proved a fascinating ethos of this highly complex institution. Child Survivors Association–AJR and informative afternoon. Laura Levy Henri Obstfeld A window into a world most of us rarely 020 8954 5298 [email protected] glimpse. Fritz Starer Inside the AJR continued overleaf 

13 journal may 2014

INSIDE THE AJR continued from page 13 SPECIAL EVENT

Bromley CF A Very Special Afternoon The Last Train We are, as always, appreciative of Liana and Hazel’s hospitality and a delicious lunch to Tomorrow was provided at our meeting. A very special OUTING Sunday 9 November 2014, 3 pm afternoon in the company of friends where TO WESTCLIFF at The Roundhouse, London NW1 topics as diverse as cultural identity and The world-famous composer and conductor Carl mothers-in-law were discussed. TUESDAY 10 JUNE 2014 Davis will perform the London premiere of his tribute Dorothea Lipton Join us for our annual outing to Westcliff. to the Kindertransport, The Last Train to Tomor- row, on Sunday 9 November at The Roundhouse, North London A Virtual Walk Down We will have the opportunity to socialise with London NW1. the Strand members of the AJR Essex Group, with a buffet We were about to sing ’Let’s All Go Down lunch at Westcliff Synagogue on arrival. We will As the date marks the anniversary of Kristallnacht, the proceedings will include a commemoration of the Strand’ when Kathryn introduced our then have a tour of Southend, a trip along the pier by train, tea at the Pier Café and, hopefully, the the Reichspogrom of 9-10 November 1938. speaker, Elaine Wein, who took us on a chance to sit and enjoy the weather. virtual walk down the Strand, illustrating it The event will also feature The Marriage of £24 pp includes refreshments on arrival, buffet Figaro Overture by Mozart and Mendelssohn’s Violin with some of the many interesting buildings lunch, tour of Westcliff, pier train, tea at Pier Café, there. David Lang Concerto performed by the City of London Sinfonia and return coach journey from London. and the Finchley Children’s Music Group, together For further details, please contact with an outstanding young violin soloist from the Susan Harrod on 020 8385 3070 Yehudi Menuhin School. or at [email protected] AJR TRIP TO ISRAEL As the event will take place on a Sunday afternoon, If you are interested in a possible trip we particularly encourage members to bring along to Israel later this year please telephone their children and grandchildren. Carol Rossen or Lorna Moss on OPERATIC Details of how to purchase tickets will be 020 8385 3070. AFTERNOON announced in due course, but to register your AND CREAM TEA interest in attending please email SUNDAY 15 JUNE 2014 [email protected] ~~ DINNER ~~ TUESDAY 6 MAY 2014 CLASSIFIED at 7.00 pm at London Jewish Cultural Centre Joseph Pereira (ex-AJR caretaker with Ian Austin MP Grim’s Dyke Hotel, Mansion House, over 22 years) is now available & Karen Pollock MBE Old Redding, Harrow, Middx HA3 6SH for DIY repairs and general of Holocaust Education Trust This is truly an English treat, in keeping with the maintenance. No job too small, As part of the AJR’s annual three-day trip to London we house and its heritage! very reasonable rates. will be holding a dinner at LJCC with guest speakers Ian We begin with a guided tour of the house and Please telephone 07966 887 485. Austin and Karen Pollock. grounds, followed by a Full English Cream Tea, Ian Austin has been MP for Dudley North since 2005. In with sandwiches, homemade scones and tea 1999 he was appointed a political advisor to Chancellor fancies. Principal opera singers perform excerpts of the Exchequer (later Prime Minister) Gordon Brown from their favourite operas. and was well known as one of Gordon Brown's closest Time 2.30 arrival, 3 pm start spring grove London’s Most Luxurious advisors. Place Guests to meet in the Lobby and Library Karen Pollock is Chief Executive of the Holocaust Bar. Tours of the house and grounds will begin RETIREMENT HOME Educational Trust (HET) and a member of the Jewish at 3 pm. Opera begins at 4:45 pm. 214 Finchley Road Human Rights Coalition UK. She will talk about the work Dress Code Smart London NW3 of HET in educating future generations. Price £29.00 per person - Includes Opera  Entertainment A kosher supervised meal with drinks Performance and Full Cream Tea, preceded by  Activities will be served. tour of house and grounds  Stress Free Living  24 House Staffing Excellent Cuisine Cost £25.00 per person. Transport will be available All places must be booked in advance. at an additional cost  Full En-Suite Facilities For further details, please contact For further details, please contact Call for more information or a personal tour Susan Harrod on 020 8385 3070 or at Susan Harrod on 020 8385 3070 020 8446 2117 or 020 7794 4455 [email protected] or at [email protected] [email protected]

Join us for a visit to see this AJR ANNUAL LONDON TRIP AJR OUTING masterpiece of Indian design Tuesday 6 May – Thursday 8 May 2014 and workmanship in the heart of London and marvel at the intricate This year’s trip will include a visit to Kenwood House; dinner at the marble and wooden carvings. London Jewish Cultural Centre with guest speaker Ian Austin MP; a Our visit will last approximately guided tour of the National Theatre and a matinee performance of their 2 hours and will consist of a latest production A Taste of Honey; a relaxing evening and dinner at short welcome and introductory an award-winning kosher Chinese restaurant; a visit to Camden Arts address, a video presentation, and Centre; and a boat trip down The Thames with lunch. Plus, as always, a guided tour of the Mandir. We the opportunity to meet friends old and new. Thursday 15 May 2014 at 11.00 am will then have lunch at a nearby Accommodation will be at a London hotel for members based outside vegetarian restaurant. London. Members living in London can participate in the daily events. BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, For further details, please contact For further details, please contact Susan Harrod at Head Office on Neasden, London Susan Harrod on 020 8385 3070 020 8385 3070 or at [email protected] Europe’s first traditional Hindu Temple or at [email protected]

14 may 2014 journal ObituarIES Zygfryd Klipstein, born Zywiec 6 March 1922, died Leeds 2 February 2014 ygfryd Klipstein, an important figure camps. Many, including Zygfryd’s joined her in England on a two- in the last decades of the Bradford family, made their way to warmer week entry permit. They were Orthodox Jewish community, has climes in Soviet Central Asia. married by Rabbi Schonfeld with passedZ away at the age of 91. They arrived in Uzbekistan but a minyan comprising one friend Zygfryd arrived in Bradford in 1952, quickly the population soon swelled and nine strangers. Fortunately, rising to the position of Chief Textile Designer uncontrollably as thousands when Zygfryd’s permit expired, at George Garnett and Sons. He learned his of Russian refugees appeared, the authorities did not deport profession in southern Poland. The story of how bringing disease and famine in him. Some months later, Zygfryd he ended up in Bradford begins at the outbreak their wake. Zygfryd’s family rented was able to take up the position of the Second World War. a windowless room at the back at Garnett’s in Yorkshire and, During the second week of the War, the train of a mud hut in Samarkand and five years on, he became fully in which Zygfryd’s family was fleeing east was Zygfryd found work in a textile naturalised. overtaken by the Wehrmacht. The Jews were factory. He suffered many trials, In Bradford, Berta and Zygfryd separated and imprisoned in the synagogue at including a stint in prison for continuing found the peaceful haven they had longed for. Lancut but were later released. Since it was unsafe to refuse Russian citizenship, sickness from Their sons Richard and Philip were born and to remain under German occupation, Zygfryd scarlet fever, and two months in a coma after Zygfryd became an active member of the managed to cross the River San into the Russian contracting typhus. Eventually, the Poles were Bradford Hebrew Congregation. He served as sector. Over the next few weeks, the family was allowed to form their own fighting units. Head of the Education Committee, Head of reunited in Lvov. However, in June 1940 they Zygfryd’s unit passed through Majdanek, two the Chevra Kadisha, and President. When the were transported into the heart of Siberia as weeks after it had been liberated, and Zygfryd Bradford community dwindled, Zygfryd and punishment for refusing Russian citizenship. saw many of the Nazi atrocities at first hand. Berta moved to Leeds, where Zygfryd joined At one point, Zygfryd fell into an ice-cold When the War ended, Zygfryd returned to the Shadwell Lane synagogue choir. Zygfryd’s Siberian river and had to have his clothes cut Bielsko-Biala, where he completed his studies. passion for singing had begun years earlier, in off with an ice pick. On another occasion, logs He met his wife-to-be, Berta Bienenstock, the choir of the Grand Synagogue of Bielsko- broke loose from a railway truck but jammed shortly before she left for England on one of the Biala, built in 1881 and destroyed by the Nazis just as he was about to be crushed. Somehow, ships arranged by Rabbi Schonfeld. Meanwhile, in 1939. Zygfryd and Berta both joined the the family survived on forest berries, nettles and Zygfryd and his mother travelled through Leeds AJR group. a few meagre rations. Austria and crossed illegally into Italy, living Zygfryd is survived by Berta, sons Richard When the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact there as stateless persons for the next four years. and Philip, and five grandchildren, who all live collapsed in 1941, Polish prisoners were By 1951 Berta had obtained a degree in in Israel. eventually released from the Siberian labour Mathematics and Chemistry, when Zygfryd Philip Klipstein

Melitta Roter, born Vienna 5 July 1920, died London 31 December 2013 y mother Melitta was born in Vienna At this time, my grandmother sounding like she had arrived in in 1920 to Sofie Maiman, who ran a boarding house for refugees England just a few weeks ago, were had come to Vienna from Crakow, and soldiers and it was through this the things that coloured the whole MPoland, and David Maiman from Chortkov, that my father, Eric Roter, having of my mother’s life and left an now Russia. arrived in the UK just days before indelible impression on my life and From an early age Melitta showed an the outbreak of war in September on those of my own family. One of aptitude for the arts and, when she was in her 1939, found and made contact with her greatest skills was making that teens, was given a contract as a member of the my mother, a name he recognised old-time Viennese potato salad that corps de ballet in the Vienna State Opera under as a former dancing colleague of his she made to perfection and over the then Director and Head of the Ballet School, sister Rita. the years we all consumed many Margarethe Wallmann. Had they been able to They were married on 6 July hundreds of kilos of it. televise the New Year’s Day concert in those 1941 in Manchester and then Melitta was for several years a days, Melitta would no doubt have been one travelled throughout the country while he was member of the AJR. The organisation gave her of the dancers in the ballet sequences that now in the Pioneer Corps, subsequently settling in a great deal of support and she also had much form part of the annual televised concerts from London, where they remained for over 60 years. enjoyment from attending various activities the Musikverein in Vienna. It was televised once My mother tried in vain to obtain a position in the groups in Edgware and, subsequently, again the day after she passed away. at the Ballet here in London, but Dame Ninette in Whetstone after she came to live with us in Her contract was terminated abruptly when, de Valois, founder of the Sadlers Wells Ballet Southgate. as a Jew, she was asked to leave. Following the Company, which later became The Royal Just as a recent article in the AJR Journal Anschluss, Melitta left her mother country Ballet, was at that time keen to have a company mentioned, I too have many happy memories twice – on the first occasion getting as far as of mainly British dancers. So my mother gave of the Dorice, Cosmo Restaurant and Lessiter’s Metz in eastern France before being turned up all ideas of the ballet and used yoga as a Chocolate Shop on the Finchley Road. I wonder back and, on the second, finally arriving in means of keeping herself fit, exercising once whether anyone else remembers Mr Kaye’s England in September 1938 and making her or twice a week until shortly before she passed restaurant at the bottom of some flats in St John’s way to Manchester, together with her mother, my away. Wood, where many Continental families met for grandmother, to become a factory worker making In the meantime, my father had been able to lunch on Sunday? military uniforms. She was almost certainly not trace his own mother and sister as far as Riga. An illness in May last year meant that my a very good machinist and she often spoke of Even the help offered by a cousin here, the mother came to live with us for some months the kindness of the girls she worked with, who actress Wanda Rotha, was insufficient to enable before suddenly taking a turn for the worse and were on piecework and actually lost money while them to get out of Vienna in time to avoid the passing away at the very end of the year. trying to help her. This wartime effort on behalf of death march. She is, and will continue to be, greatly missed her new home and country no doubt encouraged Being Viennese, dancing in the ballet, by her daughter, son-in-law and grandsons. what was to become a life-long allergy to sewing. speaking German and, right to the very end, still Rita Hockman

15 journal may 2014

bombers were almost commonplace here ten years ago, ending only when stringent security measures were put in place and Dorothea Shefer-Vanson a wall was built to prevent potential terrorists from reaching their target – the civilian population. And, of course, the One week last September attack on New York’s Twin Towers has led to the introduction of extensive security happen to be one of those annoying to work, I’m less inclined to drive into town checks at airports all over the world. In people who wake up early in the morning to engage in group activities. addition, Israel’s security forces have full of vim and vigour and ready to tackle In order not to be bored while exercising, foiled innumerable attempts by terrorists anything.I Getting up at around 6 am is no I watch the various TV news channels, to sow murder and mayhem in Israel over big deal for me and sometimes I wake up switching between Sky, BBC, France 24 the years. even before that and have no option but to and Fox News. This way I get an overview Here in Israel, security personnel check get up and start my day. of what’s going on in the world and feel ladies’ handbags and the trunks of cars at I have made it part of my morning that I’m not completely cut off from what’s the entrances to shopping malls, cinemas, routine, after having a cup of coffee and happening out there. theatres and supermarkets. Israel is accused scanning the newspaper, to go down into But that week last September I found of over-reacting, even paranoia, but these my basement, which contains exercise myself getting more and more depressed measures seem to be required and, even equipment and a television set. And so I with what I was seeing and hearing as though really determined terrorists will walk for about half an hour on the treadmill terrorist attacks featured almost constantly overcome such obstacles, we are well advised (just under two kilometers) and then have on the television screen. Terror attacks in to adopt the motto of the microprocessor a set routine of exercises – some upright, Afghanistan. One hundred people killed giant Intel: ‘Only the paranoid survive.’ some on a floormat, some with leg weights, by suicide bombers in a church in Pakistan. The prime minister of Kenya has said others with hand weights – for another half About the same number massacred in a that terrorism is an act of cowardice and an hour. I acquired the routines over the shopping mall in Kenya. Ongoing attacks England’s prime minister claims that course of the last 20 or 30 years, first in the with countless casualties in Iraq. Scenes those who engage in terror are not acting late Uri Michael’s fitness studio in Jerusalem of devastation, terror and grieving people. in the name of religion. Fine phrases that and subsequently in the fitness centre at my Mass shootings by disturbed individuals in achieve little except, perhaps, to soothe the place of employment. Of course, exercising the US and the dire situation in Syria, with consciences of those who allow religious in a group is very different from exercising thousands of people being killed or made extremism to flourish. alone, but by now my routine has become destitute daily, have become a matter of I looked out of the window and saw the so fixed that I hardly have to think any more routine by now. sun shining and flowers blooming. The week and the exercises seem to follow on naturally What is the world coming to? We of the Jewish High Holidays brought friends from one another. I enjoy exercising on my Israelis have had more than our fair share and family together. Peace has returned to own. I also enjoyed exercising in a group in of terrorist attacks in the past. Scenes of my soul, but it looks as if it’s time for the the past but nowadays, as I no longer go in crowded buses being destroyed by suicide whole world to adopt Intel’s motto.

 letters to the editor cont. from p.7 in 1938 the Schottengymnasium was back, any awareness – of each other’s but reopened by the Abbey after the War the only school in Austria (and perhaps existence. (I didn’t discover anything about and still flourishing. Greater Germany) to disregard the official the Schottenschule on the other side of As for our ’notoriously snotty’ (does instructions about ’non-Aryan’ students the Schottenhof until 2010 after reading he mean snooty?) Schottengymnasium, I and it stood by them until the end of Cölestin Rapp’s history of the Schottenstift, don’t recognise myself or the school in this the school year, helping us with, among published in 1959.) As an old boy of the description and would be very interested other things, emigration problems. I am Schottenschule, a public municipal primary to hear how it manifested itself to him or delighted to read in Hans Eirew’s letter how school which no longer exists, he would anyone else now or in 1938. Hans Eirew well the Hietzinger Gymnasium behaved not have been an old boy of a monastic too may have missed the point about there towards its own victimised scholars and grammar school closed down by the Nazis being no identity between George Vulkan’s that it treated them ’with courtesy until primary school and our senior grades. the day we left’. The difference is that we F. M. M. Steiner, neither left nor were asked to leave. Deddington, Oxfordshire If I can understand George Vulkan’s JACKMAN . complaints, it seems that he thinks they were unhelpful in unearthing the history SILVERMAN switch on electrics COMMERCIAL PROPERTY CONSULTANTS of his school and that they seemed Rewires and all household unwelcoming to him as an old boy. He electrical work has clearly not grasped that there was Telephone: 020 7209 5532 never any identity between the two PHONE PAUL: 020 8200 3518 schools – no contact – or even, if I think [email protected] Mobile: 0795 614 8566

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