Constellation Program Overview John F. Connolly Office October 2006 A Bold Vision for , Authorized by Congress

♦ Complete the International Space Station ♦ Safely fly the until 2010 ♦ Develop and fly the () no later than 2014 ♦ Return to the no later than 2020 ♦ Extend human presence across the and beyond ♦ Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program ♦ Develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures ♦ Promote international and commercial participation in exploration NASA Authorization Act of 2005 TheThe AdministratorAdministrator shallshall establishestablish aa programprogram toto developdevelop aa sustainedsustained humanhuman presencepresence onon thethe Moon,Moon, includingincluding aa robustrobust precursorprecursor programprogram toto promotepromote exploration,exploration, science,science, commercecommerce andand U.S.U.S. preeminencepreeminence inin space,space, andand asas aa steppingstepping stonestone toto futurefuture explorationexploration ofof MarsMars andand otherother destinations.destinations.

October 2006 2 Exploration Strategy Themes

♦ Use the Moon to prepare for future human and robotic missions to and other destinations

♦ Pursue scientific activities to address fundamental questions about the solar system, the universe, and our place in them

♦ Extend sustained human presence to the moon to enable eventual settlement

♦ Expand Earth’s economic sphere to encompass the Moon and pursue lunar activities with benefits to life on Earth

♦ Strengthen existing and create new global partnerships

♦ Engage, inspire, and educate the public

October 2006 3 NASA’s Exploration Roadmap 1st Human Orion Flight 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Initial Orion Capability Lunar Outpost Buildup 7th Human Lunar Robotic Missions Lunar Landing

Science Robotic Missions

Mars Expedition Design CommercialCommercial Crew/CargoCrew/Cargo forfor ISSISS

Space Shuttle Ops

OrionOrion DevelopmentDevelopment AresAres II DevelopmentDevelopment OrionOrion ProductionProduction andand OperOperationsations

Early Design Activity LunarLunar LanderLander DevelopmentDevelopment AresAres VV DevelopmentDevelopment EarthEarth DepartureDeparture StageStage DevelopmentDevelopment SurfaceSurface SystemsSystems DevelopmentDevelopment

October 2006 4 The Moon – the First Step to Mars and Beyond….

♦ Gaining significant experience in operating away from Earth’s environment • Space will no longer be a destination visited briefly and tentatively • “Living off the land” • Human support systems ♦ Developing technologies needed for opening the space frontier • Crew and cargo launch vehicles (125 metric ton class) • Earth ascent/entry system – Orion ♦ Conduct fundamental science • , physics, astrobiology, historical geology, exobiology

NextNext StepStep inin FulfillingFulfilling OurOur DestinyDestiny AsAs ExplorersExplorers

October 2006 5 Components of Program Constellation

EarthEarth DepartureDeparture OrionOrion -- StageStage CrewCrew ExplorationExploration VehicleVehicle AresAres VV -- HeavyHeavy LiftLift LaunchLaunch VehicleVehicle LunarLunar LanderLander

AresAres II -- CrewCrew LaunchLaunch VehicleVehicle

October 2006 6 How We Plan to Return to the Moon Orion

♦♦AA bluntblunt bodybody capsulecapsule isis thethe safest,safest, mostmost affordableaffordable andand fastestfastest approachapproach •• SeparateSeparate CrewCrew ModuleModule andand ServiceService ModuleModule configurationconfiguration •• VehicleVehicle designeddesigned forfor lunarlunar missionsmissions withwith 44 crewcrew −−CanCan accommodateaccommodate upup toto 66 crewcrew forfor MarsMars andand SpaceSpace StationStation missionsmissions •• SystemSystem alsoalso hashas thethe potentialpotential toto deliverdeliver pressurizedpressurized andand unpressurizedunpressurized cargocargo toto thethe SpaceSpace StationStation ifif neededneeded ♦♦55 metermeter diameterdiameter capsulecapsule scaledscaled fromfrom ApolloApollo •• SignificantSignificant increaseincrease inin volumevolume •• ReducedReduced developmentdevelopment timetime andand riskrisk •• ReducedReduced reentryreentry loads,loads, increasedincreased landinglanding stabilitystability andand betterbetter crewcrew visibilityvisibility

October 2006 7 Orion is Capable of Supporting International Space Station Missions

♦ Transport up to 6 crew members on Orion for crew rotation

♦ 210 day stay time

♦ Emergency lifeboat for entire ISS crew

♦ Deliver pressurized cargo for ISS resupply

October 2006 8 Orion System Elements

Orion consists of four Launch Abort System -- functional emergency escape during launch modules

Crew Module – crew and cargo transport

Service Module – propulsion, electrical power, fluids storage

Spacecraft Adapter – structural transition to

October 2006 9 Orion Project Schedule Overview

FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15


Project Requirements Prime Award W PDR CDR E Project Design VI Tumble Trans. Max q Abort High Alt. AbortREAbort Abort 1’st Human Devt. Proto Launch LAS R LAS 9/2014 PA PA

Development / Qual DE Orion Orion Testing Ares Orbit UN FT FT1 FT2

Flight Article Production

Integrated ARES-Orion Launches

October 2006 10 How We Plan to Return to the Moon Project Ares

♦ The safest, most reliable and most affordable means of meeting crew requirements is a system derived from Space Shuttle components • Capitalizes on human rated systems and existing facilities • The most straightforward growth path to later exploration launch needs

♦ 131 metric ton lift capacity required to minimize on-orbit assembly and complexity – increasing mission success • A clean-sheet-of-paper design is too expensive and risky • The current Shuttle system lifts 100 metric tons to orbit on every launch – but 80 metric tons is the Orbiter

Ares I

October 2006 11 Ares Launch Vehicle Elements

Composite Shroud

LAS Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) Orion (Crew Module / )

Spacecraft Adapter LOx/LH2 Instrument Unit 1 J-2X Engine Forward Skirt Al-Li Tanks/Structures

Upper Stage Interstage J-2X Upper Stage Engine

Interstage Forward Frustum

Core Stage

LOx/LH2 5 RS-68 Engines Al-Li Tanks/Structures First Stage (5-Segment RSRB) 5-Segment 2 RSRBs

Ares I Ares V 22 Mt to 53Mt53Mt toto TLITLI 65Mt65Mt toto TLITLI inin Dual-Dual- L Laaunchunch ModeMode withwith AresAres II 131Mt131Mt toto LEOLEO October 2006 12 Building on a Foundation of Proven Technologies - Launch Vehicle Comparisons -


Crew Lunar Lander 90 Earth Departure Stage (EDS) (1 J-2X) 226Mt lb LOx/LH 2 S-IVB Upper Stage (1 J-2 engine) (1 J-2X) 110Mt Lox/LH2 127Mt LOx/LH2

60 S-II (5 J-2 engines)

450Mt LOx/LH2 Core Stage Overall Vehicle Height, m Height, Vehicle Overall 5-Segment Reusable (5 RS-68 Engines) Solid 1410Mt LOx/LH2 S-IC Booster (5 F-1) 30 (RSRB) 1770Mt LOx/RP 5-Segment 2 RSRB’s

Space Shuttle Ares I Ares V V Height: 56m Height: 98m Height: 109m Height: 111m Gross Liftoff Mass: 2040Mt Gross Liftoff Mass: 910Mt Gross Liftoff Mass: 3310Mt Gross Liftoff Mass: 2950Mt 25Mt to LEO 22Mt to LEO 53Mt to TLI 45Mt to TLI 65Mt to TLI in Dual- 119Mt to LEO Launch Mode with Ares I 131Mt to LEO October 2006 13 Ares I - Crew Launch Vehicle

♦ Serves as the long term crew launch capability for the U.S. ♦ 5 Segment Shuttle ♦ New liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen upperstage • J2X engine ♦ Large payload capability

October 2006 14 Ares V – Heavy Cargo Launch Vehicle

♦ 5 Segment Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters ♦ Liquid Oxygen / liquid hydrogen core stage • Heritage from the Shuttle External Tank • RS68 Main Engines ♦ Payload Capability • 106 metric tons to • 131 Metric tons to low Earth orbit using Earth departure stage • 53 metric tons trans-lunar injection capability using Earth departure stage ♦ Can be certified for crew if needed

October 2006 15

♦ Transports 4 crew to and from the surface • Seven days on the surface • Lunar outpost crew rotation ♦ Global access capability ♦ Anytime return to Earth ♦ Capability to land 20 metric tons of dedicated cargo ♦ Airlock for surface activities ♦ Descent stage: • Liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen propulsion ♦ Ascent stage: • Storable Propellants

October 2006 16 Typical Lunar Reference Mission

MOONMOON Vehicles are not to scale.

LSAM Performs Ascent Stage 100 km Insertion Expended Low Lunar Orbit

Earth Departure Service Low Stage (EDS) Module Earth Expended Expended Orbit Orion

EDS, LSAM Direct Entry Land Landing EARTHEARTH October 2006 17 High Priority Lunar Exploration Sites

North Pole +

17 CentralCentral FarsideFarside 21 HighlandsHighlands 13 +AristarchusAristarchus PlateauPlateau + 3 15 17

RimaRima Bode Bode 24 + Mare Tranquillitatis 9 Mare Tranquillitatis + Mare Smythii 20 Mare Smythii 6 + 1 3 5 11 16 OceanusOceanus + 12 ProcellarumProcellarum 14 16 OrientaleOrientale BasinBasin FloorFloor +


SouthSouth Pole-AitkenPole-Aitken Basin Basin FloorFloor LunaLuna + SurveyorSurveyor ApolloApollo + South Pole Near Side Far Side

October 2006 18 Possible South Pole Outpost

♦ The lunar South Pole is a likely candidate for outpost site ♦ Elevated quantities of hydrogen, possibly water ice (e.g., Shackelton ) ♦ Several areas with greater than 80% and less extreme temperatures ♦ Incremental deployment of systems – one mission at a time • Power system • Communications/navigation • Habitat • Rovers

• Etc. October 2006 19 The Moon - the First Step to Mars and Beyond….

♦ Regaining and extending operational experience in a hostile planetary environment ♦ Developing capabilities needed for opening the space frontier ♦ Preparing for human ♦ Science operations and discovery

TheThe NextNext StepStep inin FulfillingFulfilling OurOur DestinyDestiny AsAs ExplorersExplorers October 2006 20 Constellation Leverages Unique Skills and Capabilities Throughout NASA and the Aerospace Industry

Ames ATK Glenn Goddard • Lead Orion • SRB Fuel Mfg & Test • Lead Orion Service Module and • Communications Thermal Protection Spacecraft Adapter integration Support Langley System ADP • Ares Upper Stage support and • SE&I support • Lead Orion Launch • Ares analysis development for ADFT-0 upper Abort System support stage module Integration & • Mission & Ground • Program SE&I & T&V Support Landing System Ops support ADP • Program Data • Lead Ares ADFT-0 Systems Support vehicle integration • Program SE&I & • Ares analysis T&V Support support • Program SE&I & Dryden T&V Support • Lead Orion Abort Flight Test Integ/Ops • Abort Test Booster Marshall Procurement • Ares Project • Flight Test Management Article • Orion LAS and SM Devt/Integ SE&I Support • Program SE&I & JPL T&V support • Program SE&I & T&V support • Mission Ops support KennedyKennedy • Orion Thermal ••GroundGround OpsOps Protection ProjectProject System Support ManagementManagement ••LeadsLeads groundground processing,processing, launchlaunch & landing/recovery WhiteWhite SandsSands & landing/recovery • Orion Abort planningplanning && • Orion Abort execution TestTest BoosterBooster execution TestTest SiteSite Johnson Johnson MichoudMichoud Stennis • Constellation Program Management Stennis • Constellation Program Management ••SRBSRB • Rocket Propulsion • Orion Project Management & Integration • Rocket Propulsion • Orion Project Management & Integration AssemblyAssembly TestingTesting forfor AresAres • Lead Crew Module Integration • Lead Crew Module Integration ••ProgramProgram SE&ISE&I && • Mission Ops Project Management 21 • Mission Ops Project Management T&VT&V SupportSupport October 2006 ThankThank you!you!

October 2006 22