The of the Elements, in Pictures

Alkali Noble Atomic The color of the symbol is the color of the element in Color Key Number Liquid its most common pure form. 1 of 18

Periods Symbol Examples metallic solid Metals H 1 red liquid He 2 Symbols at room colorless gas Alkali temperature H Noble Gases 1 Alkali Earth Metals Nonmetals 1

A Z Human Body Alkali Metals Metals _____ium top ten elements by weight Group Group Group Group Halogens Sun and Earth's Crust Name 13 14 15 16 17 Balloons Stars 2 top eight elements by weight Transition Metals MetalsPoor Li 3 Be 4 Magnetic B 5 C 6 N 7 O 8 F 9 Ne 10 ferromagnetic at room temperature Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Widgets Noble Metals Superheavy Elements 2 -resistant 2 Radioactive Rare Earth Metals all are radioactive Metals How it is (or was) used Only Traces Found in Sports Basis of Life's Advertising Batteries Emeralds or where it occurs in nature less than a millionth percent of earth's crust Equipment Protein Air Toothpaste Signs Na 11 Mg 12 Never Found in Nature Al 13 Si 14 P 15 S 16 Cl 17 Ar 18 only made by people Aluminum

3 3 Transition Metals Stone, Sand, Swimming Chlorophyll 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Airplanes and Soil Bones Eggs Pools Light Bulbs K 19 Ca 20 Sc 21 Ti 22 V 23 Cr 24 Mn 25 Fe 26 Co 27 Ni 28 Cu 29 Zn 30 Ga 31 Ge 32 As 33 Se 34 Br 35 Kr 36

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Fruits and Shells and Stainless Electric Light-Emitting Photography Vegetables Bones Bicycles Aerospace Springs Steel Earthmovers Structures Wires Instruments Diodes (LEDs) Electronics Copiers Film Flashlights Rb 37 Sr 38 Y 39 Zr 40 Nb 41 Mo 42 Tc 43 Ru 44 Rh 45 Pd 46 Ag 47 Cd 48 In 49 Sn 50 Sb 51 Te 52 I 53 Xe 54

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Global Chemical Mag Lev Cutting Radioactive Electric Searchlight Pollution Liquid Plated Car Thermoelectric High-Intensity Navigation Fireworks Lasers Pipelines Trains Diagnosis Reflectors Control Jewelry Paint Displays (LCDs) Food Cans Batteries Coolers Disinfectant Lamps Cs 55 Ba 56 57 - 71 Hf 72 Ta 73 W 74 Re 75 Os 76 Ir 77 Pt 78 Au 79 Hg 80 Tl 81 Pb 82 Bi 83 Po 84 At 85 Rn 86 Cesium Rare 6 Earth 6 Metals Atomic X-Ray Nuclear Mobile Lamp Rocket Low-Temperature Fire Anti-Static Radioactive Surgical Clocks Diagnosis Submarines Phones Filaments Engines Pen Points Spark Plugs Labware Jewelry Thermometers Thermometers Weights Sprinklers Brushes Medicine Implants Fr 87 Ra 88 89 - 103 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Ds 110 Rg 111 Cn 112 Nh 113 Fl 114 Mc 115 Lv 116 Ts 117 Og 118

Actinide 7 7 Metals Superheavy Elements Laser Luminous Traps Watches radioactive, never found in nature, no uses except atomic research 119 120 121... 8 La 57 Ce 58 Pr 59 Nd 60 Pm 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tm 69 Yb 70 Lu 71 Rare Earth 6 Metals Telescope Lighter Torchworkers' Electric Motor Luminous Electric Motor Color MRI Fluorescent Smart Laser Laser Scientific Photodynamic Lenses Flints Eyeglasses Magnets Dials Magnets Televisions Diagnosis Lamps Actuators Surgery Communications Surgery Fiber Lasers Medicine Ac 89 Th 90 Pa 91 U 92 Np 93 Pu 94 Am 95 Cm 96 Bk 97 Cf 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 Actinide Metals 7 Radioactive Gas Lamp Radioactive Nuclear Radioactive Nuclear Smoke Radioactive Mineral Medicine Mantles Waste Power Waste Detectors Analyzers Waste Analyzers radioactive, never found in nature, no uses except atomic research

© 2005–2016 Keith Enevoldsen Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License Hydrogen belongs to no definite group. It forms Noble Gases are inactive, or inert. Each atom compounds by either donating an like an alkali The Periodic Table of the Elements, in Words has exactly the number of it needs to have or accepting an electron like a . Chemical Bonding a full outer shell, so these atoms almost never bond with other atoms. That is why these are all gases. Atoms form molecules by bonding together. Atoms give, take, or Nucleus of Particles Alkali Metals are very reactive protons and share electrons to achieve full outer electron shells. +1 and readily form compounds but are Metalloids are Nonmetals, in Halogens are reactive Group 1 not found free in nature. They form 0 Na Cl H O H Ag Ag partly like metals and their solid state, nonmetals and readily 18

Periods -1 Electron partly like nonmetals. are usually brittle form compounds but are salts and alkali (-neutralizing) Electron Ag Ag Ag H Hydrogen 1 H H For example, they are (they break rather not found free in nature. He Helium 2 compounds such as baking soda. In shells Na+ Cl- explosive gas, O Ag Ag , which than bend) and They combine with alkali inert gas, second lightest element; pure form, they are very soft metals Salt Water Silver lightest element; An atom has a nucleus, made of protons and neutrons, means they conduct they are insulators metals to form salts 90% of atoms in which catch fire on contact with surrounded by electrons orbiting in cloud-like shells. Ionic bond Metallic bond electricity in some of both heat and (halogen means 1 the universe, water. Smaller shells are surrounded by larger shells. in sun and stars, 1 sun and stars, One atom takes an Atoms share their Shared outer conditions. electricity. salt-former). balloons, water (H20), The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom. electron from another outer electrons. electrons flow, lasers, Alkali Earth This determines the chemical properties of the atom. life's organic 2 atom and the oppositely conducting heat 13 14 15 16 17 supercold molecules Metals are reactive Protons have positive , neutrons are neutral, charged attract. and electricity. refrigerant Li Lithium 3 Be Beryllium 4 and readily form and electrons are negative. Normally, an atom has equal Groups B Boron 5 C Carbon 6 N Nitrogen 7 O Oxygen 8 F Fluorine 9 Ne Neon 10 lightest metal, lightweight metal; compounds but are numbers of protons and electrons. An is a charged atom Elements in the same group, or column, are similar because they hard black solid; hard diamond, colorless gas; colorless gas; yellowish inert gas; soft, reactive; non-sparking not found free in with more or fewer electrons than protons. typically have the same number of outer electrons. This table , soft graphite; 78% of air, 21% of air, H2O, poison gas, orange-red lightweight copper tools, nature. Their The atomic weight of an element is the average number of shows some easy-to-remember common numbers for each group. fertilizer, basis of life's organic molecules, 65% of the body, most reactive neon tubes for 2 aluminum alloys, aerospace, protons plus neutrons. You can easily estimate the atomic stiff fibers, organic molecules, protein, muscles, organic molecules, element; advertising signs, 2 are called alkali Group number 1 2 3-12 13 14 15 16 17 18 batteries, X-ray windows, weight: it is usually 2 to 2.5 times the atomic number. sports equipment, animals, plants, DNA, ammonia, blood, breathing, glowing fluorite, lasers, impact-resistant beryl gems: . In pure Outer electrons* 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 heat-resistant CO2, wood, paper, fertilizer, fire, half of toothpaste, supercold An element is a substance made from one or more atoms of cookware, emeralds and form, they are soft number* +1 +2 +2 +3 +4,-4 -3 -2 -1 0 borosilicate glass, cloth, plastic, explosives (TNT), Earth's crust, nonstick cookware, refrigerant mood stabilizer aquamarines and somewhat brittle the same atomic number. A compound is a substance made semiconductors coal, oil, gasoline refrigerants minerals, oxides CFC refrigerants from two or more elements chemically bonded. * typical The valence number is the number of electrons Na Sodium 11 Mg Magnesium 12 metals. given (+) or taken (-) when bonding. Al Aluminum 13 Si Silicon 14 P Phosphorus 15 S Sulfur 16 Cl Chlorine 17 Ar Argon 18 soft metal, lightweight metal; lightweight non- hard ; glowing white waxy brittle yellow solid; greenish poison gas; inert gas; reactive; chlorophyll in corroding metal; quartz, granite, solid (also red skin, hair, salt (NaCl), bleach, 1% of air, salt (NaCl), nerves, green plants, Transition Metals are typical metals: they are strong, shiny, Poor Metals are usually kitchenware, cans, sand, soil, clay, and black forms); eggs, onions, stomach acid, most abundant 3 baking soda, talc, basalt, malleable (they can be hammered into shape), flexible (in thin soft and have low melting foil, machinery, , glass, bones, DNA, garlic, skunks, disinfectant, inert gas, 3 antacids, lye, soap, aluminum alloys, sheets or wires), and they conduct both heat and electricity. temperatures. cars, planes, bikes, algae, diatoms, energy-storing hot springs, drinking water, light bulbs, soda ash, glass, cars, planes, bikes, feldspar, granite, semiconductors, phosphates (ATP), volcanos, gypsum, swimming pools, "neon" tubes, papermaking, flares, sparklers, clay, ceramics, computer chips, fertilizer, , rubber, acids, PVC plastic lasers, street lamps antacids 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 corundum, gems silicone rubber detergent, matches papermaking pipes and bottles gas K Potassium 19 Ca Calcium 20 Sc Scandium 21 Ti Titanium 22 V Vanadium 23 Cr Chromium 24 Mn Manganese 25 Fe Iron 26 Co Cobalt 27 Ni Nickel 28 Cu Copper 29 Zn Zinc 30 Ga Gallium 31 Ge Germanium 32 As Arsenic 33 Se Selenium 34 Br Bromine 35 Kr Krypton 36 soft metal, soft metal; soft lightweight strongest hard metal; hard shiny metal; hard metal; medium-hard hard metal, medium-hard colored metal, non-corroding soft metal, melts brittle metalloid; brittle metalloid; brittle gray solid; dark red liquid; inert gas; reactive; bones, teeth, milk, metal; lightweight metal, hard strong hard tough steel, metal, magnetic; magnetic; metal, magnetic; conducts heat and metal; on a hot day; semiconductors, , photocopiers, disinfectant, high-intensity salts, nerves, leaves, vegetables, aluminum alloys, heat-resistant; resilient steel, (Fe-Cr-Ni), earthmovers, steel alloys hard strong steel, stainless steel electricity well; galvanized steel, semiconductors, transistors, semiconductors, laser printers, pools and spas, lamps, headlights, 4 nutrients in fruits shells, coral, racing bikes, aerospace, structures, kitchenware, crushers, are mostly iron, cutting tools, (Fe-Cr-Ni), wires, cookware, brass (Cu-Zn), light-emitting rectifiers, diodes, light-emitting photocells, photo film, flashlights, 4 and vegetables, limestone, chalk, stadium lamps, racing bikes, vehicles, springs, nichrome heaters, rails, plows, axes, structures, turbines, kitchenware, brass (Cu-Zn), batteries, white diodes (LEDs) photocells, diodes (LEDs) red glass, flame retardant, lanterns, soap, fertilizer, gypsum, plaster, furnace bricks, artificial joints, driveshafts, tools, car trim, paints, batteries, vehicles, magnets, magnets (Al-Ni-Co), nichrome heaters, (Cu-Sn), paint, phosphors (GaAs), lenses, (GaAs), dandruff shampoo, leaded gasoline, "neon" tubes, potash, matches, mortar, cement, aquamarines white paint, aerospace, recording tape, fertilizer, Earth's core, blue glass, ceramics, nicad batteries, coins, pipes, in TVs and lamps, signal lights, infrared windows signal lights, rubber sedatives lasers gunpowder marble, antacids blue sapphires violet sapphires emeralds & rubies amethysts red rocks, blood vitamin B-12 coins, Earth's core blue crab blood fertilizer tiny lasers tiny lasers Rb Rubidium 37 Sr Strontium 38 Y Yttrium 39 Zr Zirconium 40 Nb Niobium 41 MoMolybdenum 42 Tc Technetium 43 Ru Ruthenium 44 Rh Rhodium 45 Pd Palladium 46 Ag Silver 47 Cd Cadmium 48 In Indium 49 Sn Tin 50 Sb Antimony 51 Te Tellurium 52 I Iodine 53 Xe Xenon 54 soft metal, soft metal; soft metal; non-corroding high-melting-point high-melting-point radioactive, non-corroding non-corroding non-corroding soft shiny metal, non-corroding soft metal; non-corroding brittle metalloid; brittle metalloid; violet-black solid; inert gas; reactive; red fireworks, phosphors in neutron-resistant non-corroding metal; long-lived; hard metal; hard shiny metal; hard metal, conducts soft metal, toxic; , soft metal; solders, alloys, disinfectant for high-intensity atomic clocks, flares, color TVs, metal; metal; hard steel, first human-made electric contacts, labware, absorbs hydrogen; electricity best electroplated glass seals, solders, lead hardener, semiconductors, wounds and lamps, headlights, 5 global navigation phosphors, lasers (YAG, YLF), chemical pipelines, chemical pipelines, cutting tools, element, only leaf switches, reflectors, labware, of all elements; steel, glass coatings, plated food cans, batteries, bullets, photocopiers, drinking water, stadium lamps, 5 (GPS), nuclear batteries, furnace bricks, nuclear reactors, superconductors, drill bits, traces on Earth pen tips, electric contacts, electric contacts, jewelry, nicad batteries, liquid crystal bronze (Cu-Sn), semiconductors, computer disks, added to salt projectors, vacuum tube medical high-temperature furnace bricks, magnetic armor plate, but found in stars, catalyst, thermocouples, dentistry, silverware, coins, red and yellow displays (LCDs), cups, photocells, thermo-electric to prevent strobes, lasers, scavenger diagnostic tracer, superconductors , levitation trains, gun barrels, medical hydrogen catalyst, catalyst, dentistry, paints, semiconductors, glassmaking, matches, coolers and thyroid disease, spacecraft nuclear fallout zircon gems MRI magnets fertilizer diagnostic tracer production pollution control pollution control photo film fire sprinklers diodes, photocells fire sprinklers flame retardant generators photo film ion engines Cs Cesium 55 Ba Barium 56 57 - 71 Hf Hafnium 72 Ta Tantalum 73 W Tungsten 74 Re Rhenium 75 Os Osmium 76 Ir Iridium 77 Pt Platinum 78 Au Gold 79 Hg Mercury 80 Tl Thallium 81 Pb Lead 82 Bi Bismuth 83 Po Polonium 84 At Astatine 85 Rn Radon 86 soft metal, melts soft metal, non-corroding high-melting-point highest-melting- high-melting-point non-corroding non-corroding non-corroding most malleable , soft metal, dense, soft, low-melting-point radioactive, radioactive, radioactive gas, on a hot day, absorbs X-rays; metal, non-corroding point metal, dense; dense metal; high-melting-point hard metal, dense metal; element, dense toxic; toxic; non-corroding brittle metal; long-lived; short-lived; short-lived; reactive, largest stomach X-ray Rare absorbs neutrons; metal; filaments in rocket engines, hard metal, densest element labware, non-tarnishing thermometers, low-melting-point metal, toxic; solders, fuses, first radioactive small traces environmental 6 stable atoms; contrast enhancer, Earth labware, lamps and TVs, heater coils, densest element (same as osmium); spark plugs, colored metal; barometers, mercury alloys, weights, solders, fire sprinklers element found, in nature, hazard, 6 atomic clocks, green fireworks, Metals control rods in surgical tools, cutting tools, lab filaments, (same as iridium); labware, catalyst, jewelry, coins, thermostats, low-temperature batteries, bullets, (plugs melt small traces cancer medicine surgical implants global navigation whitener and filler submarines, artificial joints, abrasives, electric contacts, electric contacts, spark plugs, pollution control, ultra-thin street lamps, thermometers, crystal glass, when hot), in nature, for cancer (GPS), vacuum for paper, plastic, plasma torch capacitors, thermocouples thermocouples, pen tips, needles, pen tips, needles cracking, gold leaf, fluorescent lamps, undersea lamps, old plumbing, cosmetics pigment anti-static brushes, treatment tube scavenger and rubber electrodes mobile phones catalyst fingerprint powder processing fats electric contacts dentistry photocells radiation shield tobacco Fr Francium 87 Ra Radium 88 89 - 103 Rf 104 Db 105 Sg 106 Bh 107 Hs 108 Mt 109 Ds 110 Rg 111 Cn 112 Nh 113 Fl 114 Mc 115 Lv 116 Ts 117 Og 118 radioactive, radioactive, Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson short-lived long-lived; atoms larger luminous watches Actinide 7 than cesium; (now banned), 7 small traces medical radon Metals Superheavy Elements in nature, production, studied in radiography, laser atom traps radwaste radioactive, short-lived; never found in nature, no uses except atomic research 119 120 121... 8 La Lanthanum 57 Ce Cerium 58 Pr Praseodymium 59 Nd Neodymium 60 Pm Promethium 61 Sm Samarium 62 Eu Europium 63 Gd Gadolinium 64 Tb Terbium 65 Dy Dysprosium 66 Ho Holmium 67 Er Erbium 68 Tm Thulium 69 Yb Ytterbium 70 Lu Lutetium 71 soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; radioactive, soft metal; soft metal; soft metal, best soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; soft metal; soft metal, Rare Earth Metals are all soft metals. optical glass, most abundant torchworkers' strong magnets long-lived; magnets (Sm-Co), phosphors in neutron absorber, phosphors in nuclear infrared lasers, fiber optic rarest stable fiber optic densest and They are chemically similar to scandium and telescope rare earth metal, didymium eye- (Nd-Fe-B), human-made, electric motors, color TVs and magnetic; color TVs and control rods, laser surgery, signal amplifiers, rare earth metal, signal amplifiers, hardest yttrium and are difficult to separate from eyepieces, lighter flints, glasses (Pr-Nd), electric motors, small traces speakers and trichromatic lamps,magnetic resonancetrichromatic lamps, MRI phosphors, eye- laser infrared lasers, infrared lasers, infrared rare earth metal; 6 camera lenses, gas lamp mantles, lighter flints, speakers and in nature, headphones, luminous paint, imaging (MRI) computer disks, computer disks, rangefinders, laser surgery, laser surgery, fiber lasers, cancer-fighting each other. lighter flints, self-cleaning arc lamps, headphones, luminous dials, infrared sensors, lasers contrast enhancer, magnetostrictive magnetostrictive computer disks, pink glass, phosphors stainless steel photodynamic arc lamps , magnets, lasers, sheet thickness infrared-absorbing phosphors, neutron smart smart materials yellow glass filters , alloys (light-activated) Actinide Metals are all radioactive glass polishing yellow glass lighter flints gauges glass radiography (Terfenol-D®) (Terfenol-D®) vanadium alloys medicine . They are used mainly for their radioactive properties. Ac Actinium 89 Th Thorium 90 Pa Protactinium 91 U Uranium 92 Np Neptunium 93 Pu Plutonium 94 Am Americium 95 Cm Curium 96 Bk Berkelium 97 Cf Californium 98 Es 99 Fm 100 Md 101 No 102 Lr 103 radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, radioactive, Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Radioactivity. Atoms with the same number of protons long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived, dense; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; long-lived; small traces most abundant small traces nuclear small traces small traces never found never found never found never found but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. in nature, radioactive element, in nature, reactor fuel, in nature, in nature, in nature, in nature, in nature, in nature, 7 Some isotopes are stable; others are radioactive — cancer medicine, nuclear no uses, nuclear weapons, neutron detectors, nuclear smoke detectors, scientific no uses, scientific their nuclei eventually disintegrate. The radioactive neutron source, reactor fuel, radwaste counterweights, dosimeters, reactor fuel, sheet thickness instruments, radwaste instruments, half-life is the time for half the nuclei to disintegrate. radwaste gas lamp mantles, armor piercing nuclear weapons, spacecraft power, gauges, mineral analyzers, mineral analyzers, On this chart, an element is called long-lived if the tungsten filaments bullets radwaste nuclear weapons radwaste radwaste radwaste radioactive, short-lived; never found in nature, no uses except atomic research half-life of any of its isotopes is more than one year; otherwise it is called short-lived. © 2005–2016 Keith Enevoldsen Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License