What is energy? Energy is the ability to use force to move an object over a distance or to cause change in matter. Energy is a quantity that can be measured. The joule is the unit used to measure energy and is represented by “J”. Joule units measure energy just like meters measure distance, degrees measure temperature, or seconds measure time. Joule units can be understood as how much energy is needed for change. In the slingshot picture, the boy applies energy by pulling back on the stretchy elastic bands. The applied energy to the slingshot results in the energy of motion when the boy releases the elastic band.
Types of Energy You have previously learned about using different types of energy, for example, mechanical, light, sound, electrical, and thermal energy. All types of energy can be categorized as one of two basic types of energy - kinetic energy and potential energy. Potential energy is energy stored in an object, or energy waiting to happen. Sometimes, potential energy is described as gravitational potential energy because objects have the potential to change their positions due to the force of gravity. Sometimes, it is described as chemical potential energy, because the energy is stored within the matter itself. Sometimes, potential energy is described as elastic potential energy because it is stretched or compressed within the object. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Only matter in motion has kinetic energy.
6th Grade Science Activity 3; Week of April 27th
Activity: Characteristics & Examples of Potential Energy Use the information you have learned to fill out the chart below. Rewrite each statement on the correct side of the chart. Hint: All choices will be used.
Potential Energy Kinetic Energy
The energy that is stored within the matter of an The energy of moving objects object.
A diver standing at the edge of the diving board. The energy stored within the matter of the object. The energy of moving objects. Measured in joules (J). Depends on the surrounding system, because stored energy is based on current position as compared to usual position, For example height or stretch. Can be transferred from one object to another object within a system, for example: the motion of bowling ball can strike and transfer energy of motion to bowling pins. An arrow flying through the air towards a target. Part of the total energy of a system and can change based on the variables of height, mass or elasticity. Measured in joules (J). Part of the total energy of a system and can change based on the variables of speed or mass. Can’t be transferred to other objects, for ex: the elasticity of a rubber band cannot transfer to another rubber band. Depends on the surrounding system, because the motion of the object is shown by comparison to other objects within a system.