the Great Attacks Main Idea: II of Macedonia united the Greek ­states. Macedonia lay north of Greece. The were warriors. They raised sheep and horses, and farmed. By 400 B​.C.,​ Macedonia was almost as powerful as the Greek city­states. A Plan to Win Greece In 359 B.C., Philip II became king of Macedonia. He wanted to defeat the Persian . But to do that, he needed to increase Macedonia’s strength. His plan was to take over Greek lands, so he could gather more soldiers. Philip trained his army to fight like the Greek . King Philip also started training soldiers to fight on horseback. These soldiers made up his unit. Philip knew the cavalry would give him a military advantage over most Greek armies. So, one by one, he began to take over the Greek city­states. He took some city­states over by force, bribed leaders to follow him, and others united with his kingdom after he discussed his plans with them. Some of ’ great public speakers warned that King Philip threatened their freedom. leaders urged Athens and other city­states to fight the Macedonians. But the were weak, divided, and exhausted from the . The Peloponnesian War was a bad time for Greece as Athens and fought each other for control of Greece. Greece’s weakness was good news for Philip. The Athenians tried to fight Philip’s army, but they could not stop him. In 338 B.C., the Macedonians crushed the Greeks at the Battle of near Thebes. With this victory, King Philip now controlled all of Greece. Alexander Builds an Empire Main Idea: conquered the Persian Empire and spread Greek culture throughout other parts of the world. Alexander was a , the son of the king of Macedonia. He was born in Macedonia in July 356 B.C. Between the ages of 12 and 13, Alexander was taught by the great Greek philosopher named A​ ristotle.​ was also born in Macedonia, but he lived for a long time in Athens (Greece). It was Aristotle, more than any other teacher, who taught Alexander to greatly respect the Greek way of life. Alexander spoke Greek.

He knew Greek history. He believed in the Greek gods. When he was a boy, Alexander dreamed of teaching everyone, everywhere, about the wonderful Greek culture he knew and loved so much. But Alexander was also trained to be a ruler ­ a king, a warrior, and a leader of men. He was taught that his job was to expand the Macedonian empire, and to rule at all times with a firm hand. Alexander's father, King Philip II, had conquered most of the Greece by 337 B.C. But, before Philip could conquer the Persian Empire, he was murdered in 336 B.C. His son Alexander took over. Alexander was only 20, but he had already been in battle many times. When Alexander became king of Macedonia, he also inherited his father’s ambition. Alexander’s goal was to defeat the Persian Empire and help spread Greek culture to new areas.

Alexander’s Conquests Alexander invaded Minor in 334 B.C. He had about 37,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 warriors on horseback (his cavalry). At the Battle of Granicus, he destroyed the local Persian army. At that time, the ruled many Greek in Asia Minor. During the next nine months, Alexander freed those city­states. He also defeated a large Persian army at . Then Alexander went south. By the winter of 332 B.C., he had captured and . He built the city of in Egypt. It became famous for , science, and . In 331 B.C., Alexander went east. He defeated the Persians at Gaugamela, near . Then his army took over the rest of the Persian Empire. His father’s dream was fulfilled. But Alexander did not stop. He marched east for the next three years. His army got as far as modern . In 326 B.C., Alexander and his army crossed the and fought many battles in . His soldiers grew tired of war, so Alexander agreed to go home. Going home, the army crossed a desert in what is modern . There was very little water. Heat and thirst killed thousands of soldiers. When soldiers found some water, they gave it to Alexander in a helmet. Alexander poured the water on the ground. He showed his soldiers that he was willing to suffer the same thirst and pain that they did. Alexander arrived back in Babylon in 323 B.C. He wanted to invade southern Arabia, but he died 10 days later. He was only 32 years old.

Alexander’s Legacy Alexander was a great and brave military leader. Sometimes he rode into battle before his army. Some considered this foolish, but his bravery inspired his soldiers. Alexander always tried to copy his , . Achilles was one of the warriors in the epic poem called T​he I​liad, w​ritten by . When he died, Alexander was the most powerful ruler in the ancient world. That is one reason we call him Alexander the Great. A legacy is what a person leaves to other people when he or she dies. Alexander’s legacy was a world that knew about Greek culture. Wherever Alexander and his army went, they spread the , ideas, and art. There is another reason that Alexander is “Great.” Alexander also learned things in Asia and . He took those ideas with him as he traveled, spreading them to new areas. Alexander began the Hellenistic Era. Hellenistic means “like the Greeks.” The Hellenistic Era is the time when Greek ideas spread to people who were not Greek.

The Empire Breaks Apart Alexander wanted the Macedonians, the Greeks, and the Persians to become one cultural group. He used Persians as local officials and encouraged his soldiers to marry Asian women. After Alexander died, his empire fell apart. His generals could not decide on who should become the next king, so they fought amongst themselves. It became four separate Hellenistic kingdoms: Macedonia, Pergamum, Egypt, and the . Greek was the official language of these kingdoms. And the often gave jobs to a Greek or Macedonian. By 100 B.C., Alexandria was the largest city in the Mediterranean world. The Hellenistic kings built many other cities, too. These cities needed many workers. They needed architects and engineers. They also needed philosophers, artists, and artisans. The kings asked Greeks and Macedonians to move to these cities. These colonists helped to spread the Greek culture as far east as modern and India.