Journal of Nanomedicine Research

Study of Composition and Morphology of (CdO) for Eliminating Cancer Cells

Abstract Research Article

The effects of substrate temperature on the structural, optical, medical and Volume 2 Issue 5 - 2015 electrical characteristics of (CdO) films are investigated in the current study. Films are deposited on substrate at different temperatures, Heidari A* and Brown C ranged between 450–600 ºC, using Spray Pyrolysis Technique. According to X– Ray Diffraction (XRD), it is found that the films are polycrystalline and Cadmium Faculty of Chemistry, California South University, USA Oxide (CdO) is of a hexagonal wurtzite structure which the preferred direction *Corresponding author: Heidari A, Faculty of Chemistry, of its crystal plane is (002). The maximum optical transmittance of films is more California South University, 14731 Comet St. Irvine, CA than 85%. The size of crystallites is calculated with the maximum value in 500º C. 92604, USA, Email: Furthermore, Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles were synthesized in deionized by laser ablation of Cadmium plate. In the current paper, the effects of laser Received: October 28, 2015 | Published: December 19, pulse energy and wavelength on the characteristics of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) 2015 nanoparticles were studied. Analyses of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were confirmed that size distribution of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles is reduced by increase in laser pulse energy. Fluorescence spectrum of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles shows violet emission accompanied by blue and green band. UV emission with high intensity shows that nanostructure of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) is of a little deficiency. Also, the current study aims to study the linear and non–linear optical characteristics of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles and their applications. Firstly, fluorescence spectrum, as a linear characteristics of Cadmium Oxide (CdO), as well as second harmonic generation and two photons absorption, as non–linear characteristics of Cadmium Oxide (CdO), are studied. Then, some aspects of medicinal and pharmaceutical applications of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles for eliminating cancer cells such as the effect of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles on DNA of human cancer cells and the interaction of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles with DNA of cancer cells are originally investigated. It should be noted that the range of considered parameters are separately clarified and explained in each of related sections (Figure 1).

Keywords: Cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles; Laser ablation; Optical parameters; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD); Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM); Laser pulse energy; UV emission; (PLD); Cancer cells; Composition; Morphology; Medical characteristics; Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS); Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

Figure 1: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles with 50000x zoom.

Submit Manuscript | J Nanomed Res 2015, 2(5): 00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 2/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

Abbreviations: CdO: Cadmium Oxide; XRD: X–Ray Diffraction; TEM: Transmission Electron Microscope; PLD: Pulsed Laser harmonic generation and two photons emissions. Deposition; DLS: Dynamic Light Scattering; SEM: Scanning characteristics such as fluorescence, high resolution second Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles are of anti–cancer Electron Microscope properties. Because of their unusual optical, chemical, photo Introduction electrochemical and electrical properties, Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles are interesting for scientists and researchers. It has been found that most of heavy metals such as Cadmium can have a direct and wide (4.05 eV) and are of unique eliminate cancer cells in low concentrations. The main mechanism applicableSemiconductor characteristics films of Cadmiumfor gas Oxidesensors, (CdO) solar nanostructures cells, laser, of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles’ effect on cancer cells is and etc. Cadmium Oxide (CdO) is polycrystalline and through DNA and protein damage and also destruction of the cell is of wurtzite structure and is an n–type semiconductor [1-28]. wall. In addition to Cadmium, other heavy metals such as and have anti–cancer properties. The interesting fact about the anti–cancer properties of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles different techniques such as magnetron sputtering [29,30], Pulsed is that they are not dangerous for human and mammalian cells. LaserCadmium Deposition Oxide (PLD) (CdO) [31-39], films Spray have Pyrolysis been produced Technique using [40] As a result of such unique characteristics, Cadmium Oxide (CdO) and sol–gel [31-55]. Spray Pyrolysis Technique is one of the least nanoparticles have been widely used in industrial countries. The expensive and most simple methods for producing Cadmium action mechanism of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles is similar to other nanoparticles but its main activation is through destruction of the cell wall. This feature of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) transparentOxide (CdO) conductor films. The technique [56-87]. is one of the most industrial methods for deposition of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) films and other nanoparticles makes them very useful for eliminating cancer cells Cadmium Oxide (CdO) is a unique chemical which is of both [208-213]. semiconductor and piezoelectric characteristics. Compared On the other hand, Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles to other semiconductors, Cadmium Oxide (CdO) has higher have opened new horizons to scientists and researchers for the Exciton binding energy (75 meV) and gap energy of about 4.05 prevention of cancer and its treatment. In this regard, Cadmium (eV) [88-108]. Various chemical methods have been reported Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles–based therapy has emerged as a for synthesizing the nanostructure of Cadmium Oxide (CdO). new branch of nano–based treatments. The Cadmium Oxide Most of the methods are so expensive and complex, especially (CdO) nanoparticles, which are made in various forms, are for controlling the size of particles and uniformity of their size. However, laser ablation is one of the emerging methods for researches, especially the researches about its applications on synthesizing the nanostructure of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) [109- cancerwidely treatment. interested Cadmium in the field Oxide of medicinal (CdO) nanoparticles and pharmaceutical are used 121]. The most important characteristic of this method is that it is possible to control the size of produced material by changing out the cancer of live cells, attacking to cancer cells, improving various parameters such as laser wavelength, laser pulse duration, thein various sensitivity fields of such cancer as deliverycells to imaging of drug andto the observing tumor cells, them pulling more pH of solution, added surfactant and temperature [121-153]. accurately [214-218]. In the current test, shaping up of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Recently, multifunctional Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles nanoparticles by laser ablation is studied and the effects of have been used for early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. If laser pulse energy and wavelength on size of nanoparticles and pancreatic cancer detects at advanced stages, surgery and optical and medical characteristics of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) chemotherapy usually are not useful. As Cadmium Oxide (CdO) in room temperature are investigated. Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles stick to cancer cells, they can easily detect observe is a semiconductor of II–VI with direct band gap of about by MRI. By testing mice that had been implanted cancerous tumor 4.1 (eV) in room temperature and exciton binding energy of inside their body, it was found that these nanoparticles which about 75 (meV) [154-183]. Exciton recombination of Cadmium have colorful spectrum near IR region can be observed using Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles to UV emission of about 415 especial cameras. This method proves early diagnosis of cancer nanometers [184-190]. Many researchers are interested in this using Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles and supports new characteristic of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) to be used in LEDs with short wavelength [191,192]. Due to sharp exciton transition of to identify the precise location of the tumor before surgery, to Cadmium Oxide (CdO), it can be used in semiconductor lasers. detecthope in risk finding margin a cure around for cancer. the tumor These andnanoparticles to track responses can be used to Moreover, it can be used as transparent of solar cells treatment after surgery [219-223]. [193-198]. Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles are also used for drug Comparing with nanoparticles of other toxic semiconductors, delivery to cancer cells. However, due to the very tiny size of the Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles are of lowest toxicity Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles, each can carry only small [199, 200]. Today, a great part of multivitamin pills and dietary amounts of the drug. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize millions supplements contain Cadmium [201-204]. In addition, Cadmium or even billions of these nanoparticles for drug delivery to the Oxide (CdO) presents in various cosmetics and anti–solar creams. Hence, Cadmium Oxide (CdO) can be considered as a chemical drug to the desired location will be resolved without affecting compatible with the body [205-207]. Further, this chemical is healthyexact cancer cells. location. Recently, In successful this way, difficultyapplication to deliverof Cadmium anti–cancer Oxide an appropriate option for bioapplications due to its good optical

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 3/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

(CdO) nanoparticles in the early detection of cancer cells has and Low volume requirement (as little as 2 (µL)). Variations of been shown. Furthermore, a sensor has been made by Cadmium electromagnetic absorption spectrum in the range of 400 to 1300 Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles which can identify lung cancer through nanometers were measured by PG instruments Ltd spectrometer. patient breath. At the moment, the accuracy of the device which The Varian Cary Eclipse Fluorescence Spectrophotometer, has been tested on a group of healthy individuals and individuals equipped with Xenon lamp, was used to evaluate characteristics with cancer is 86 percent [224-230].

ofTable fluorescence. 1: Laser wavelength and pulse energy for prepared samples. Laser Wavelength emission,In the second current harmonic study, for generation the first and time, two we photons originally emissions study 784 1256 andlinear also and medicinal non–linear and optical pharmaceutical characteristics applications such as fluorescenceof Cadmium (nm) Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles for eliminating cancer cells. In this Energy of Pulse (J) 0.71 0.89 2 2.5 3 3.5 regard, the effect of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles on DNA Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 of human cancer cells and the interaction of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles with DNA of cancer cells are investigated. Analyses Test Method Structural characteristics glass substrate using 1 molar solution with Diffraction (XRD). Figure 2 shows X–Ray Diffraction (XRD) of the distilledNon–doped water and Cadmium ethanol. Oxide The volume (CdO) of films solution were is produced 65 (ml) and on The structural characteristics of films are studied using X–Ray the ratio of ethanol to water is 2:2. The temperature of solution was changed between 450 and 600 ºC. The obtained solution was areproduced polycrystalline films in various and have temperatures. a wurtzite The structure. results obtainedBy increasing from theX–Ray temperature Diffraction up (XRD) to 500º analysis C, a better shows crystalline that the produced structure filmswith to the bottom of warm layer, pyrolytic process produces and a certain preferred direction is obtained. At higher temperatures, sprayed with flow rate of 55 (lit/min). By reaching the close drops the crystalline structure collapses and the intensity of (002) peak After completion of deposition process, the temperatures of reduces. The crystallite size of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) can be Cadmium Oxide (CdO) film with high adhesion occurs. calculated by Scherrer equation. (XRD) spectrum of compounds is achieved by PANalytical–X’Pert films were reduced to the room temperature. The X–Ray Diffraction device is used to investigate structural characteristics of samples. ATR–FTIRPro MPD with spectrum Cr Kα raysin thein the range angle of range 400–1000 of 2θ = 5°–nanometers 80°. The is obtained by a ATR–FTIR Bruker Spectrophotometer. The spectrum shows optical characteristics of samples. Also, in the current research, grain sizes are calculated by X`Pert HighScore Plus software based on Scherrer equation. Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles were produced by laser ablation of Cadmium plate (99.99%) in distilled water. Before testing, Cadmium plate and beaker were washed and cleaned by alcohol, acetone and distilled water in ultrasonic device (ultrasonic bath). Then, Cadmium plate was placed in a beaker

9 (ns) pulse width and repeating rate of 15 (Hz) for 9 minutes. In thisfilled test, by 40Nd:YAG (ml) laserdistilled with water switch and Q waswas used.subjected In this to state,laser laserwith emission with 3–3.5 (mm) diameter was focused using a lens with 95 (mm) focal distance. Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles were produced using Nd:YAG laser with 1256 (nm) wavelength and 2-3.5 (J) pulse energy and Nd:YAG laser with 784 (nm) wavelength (second harmonic) and 0.71 and 0.89 (J) pulse energy. Table 1 Figure 2: temperatures. lists the details of prepared samples. Various detecting analyses X–Ray Diffraction (XRD) of the produced films in various were used to identify the characteristics of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. To evaluate the shape and size of the produced The variations of crystallite size as a function of substrate nanoparticles, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM HD– temperature is shown in Figure 3. Firstly, the crystallite size 2700) were used. In addition, size distribution of Cadmium Oxide increases up to the maximum value of 63.7 (nm), at 500º C, with (CdO) nanoparticles was measured by Dynamic Light Scattering increase in temperature of substrate and then decreases. Increase (DLS) system Malvern Zetasizer with particle size range 0.3 in crystallite size with increase in temperature may be due to (nm) to 10 (µm), temperature range 90 ºC, size measurement of improve in process of reaction between sprayed drops as well as sizes < 1nm, size measurement of molecules with MW < 1000Da improve in mobility of atoms in the surface of substrate.

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 4/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles with 50000x zoom. The size of these nanoparticles are about 250-400 nanometers. Fluorescence: Fluorescence is a spontaneous emission induced by linear stimulation of photons. Fluorescence of semiconductors such as Cadmium Oxide (CdO) can be explained using energy levels. Using a photon with higher energy level than gap energy, it can be possible to stimulate electrons of conducting band and move them to conducting band and hence, only holes with positive charge remain on the valence band. This electron and hole is called exciton. Electrons on conducting band and before recombination can be non–optically transited (usually vibration transition type) between the available compressed levels in conducting band. In this state, the energy difference between electron and hole is lower than the initial state and hence, the produced photon from recombination of electron and hole is of longer wavelength than Figure 3: Variation of crystallite size against temperature. the initial stimulator photon. If the energy level of stimulator photon is higher than the gap energy of semiconductor, electron Optical characteristics moves to higher levels of conducting band but if the energy level of photon is lower than the gap energy, there is no absorption Figure 4 shows the spectrum transmitted through Cadmium stimulation of these nanoparticles obtained from stimulation gap 400-1000 (nm) at the temperature between 450-600º C. and hence,9 nanometers there is disclosureno emission. with The wavelength single photon of 430 fluorescence and 470 TemperatureOxide (CdO) filmsvariation in a isregion of a key with role wavelength in transparency ranged and between optical

380nanometers nanometers are shownwavelength in Figure (4.4 eV)5. As which can be is relatedseen in tothis gap figure, edge increasingcharacteristics the temperature of films. The of diagramssubstrates, obtained transparency from reduces. spectrum It excitonthe fluorescence transition. emission of these nanoparticles has a peak in cantransmitted be concluded through that films increase are transparent in temperature in visible makes region devastating and by hence, leads to reduce in transparency. effects due to penetration of substrate compounds into films and

Figure 5: Fluorescence spectrum of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Figure 4: The spectrum transmitted through Cadmium Oxide (CdO) The other peak, which is wider and is seen in green zone, is films produced at various temperatures. Optical, Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Characteristics or Cadmium vacuum. In these nanoparticles, such impurities and hence,induced the by associatedsurficial deficiencies transitions such were as inevitable. impurities, However, andthe of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles Sample preparation: Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles used in the current study are produced by gas evaporation technique. emissions induced by deficiencies are not always inappropriate; As the goal of the current study is using Cadmium Oxide (CdO) in theySecond can beharmonic used as efficient generation source of light. bioapplications, 0.1 (gr) of the nanoparticles are solved in 55 (ml) Since Cadmium Oxide (CdO) has a considerable non–linear of deionized water. All presented results are obtained in room temperature. Figure 1 is pointed out in abstract shows the results investigating non–linear characteristics of Cadmium Oxide obtained from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technique on (CdO).coefficient, High thepower other pulse part laser of thewith current high peak study power is focused should onbe

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 5/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

used to observe non–linear characteristics. Tunable installed on the mount of camera to remove the descending laser sapphire laser with pulselength of 185 femtoseconds was used to light. Figure 6 shows the results of second harmonic stimulation stimulate Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Cadmium Oxide of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in photon counting state (CdO) nanoparticles sample solved in water was subjected to NIR and in wavelengths of 800, 825, 850, 875, 900, 925, 950, 975 emission in quartz cell. Laser light was focused on quartz cell and 1000 (nm). By distancing from 800 nanometers wavelength, using a lens with focal distance of 22 (cm) and second harmonic laser power has a descending trend which causes to reduce in was generated. To detect the second harmonic signal, two lenses second harmonic peaks of these nanoparticles. Figure 6 shows with wide mount and with degree of 180 from descending light normalized results. were used. Before entering signal to detector, a NIR filter was a b c

d e f

g h i

Figure 6: Second harmonic spectrum of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles with various stimulated wavelength: (a) 800 (nm); (b) 825 (nm); (c) 850 (nm); (d) 875 (nm); (e) 900 (nm); (f) 925 (nm); (g) 950 (nm); (h) 975 (nm); (i) 1000 (nm).

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 6/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

Two photons absorption were used for imaging and tracing of animal cells. When Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles stimulate with a The current investigation shows that second harmonic signal of these nanoparticles can be used for stable and longtime 4ex>Eg and there is a considerable two photons absorption cross imaging and tracing. Since two photons absorption is of more section,wavelength two thatphotons the energyabsorption of descending occurs. Therefore, photon (ex) if Cadmium satisfies penetration depth and is accompanied by heat production, two Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles stimulate with wavelength ranged photons imaging was always accompanied by heat and sample between 900–950 nanometers, two photons emissions occurs. In burning and can be used to eliminate cancer cells. a narrow range (950-1000 nanometers), two photons absorption occurs in addition to second harmonic generation, simultaneously. Results and Discussion Figure 7 shows this state for 4 different wavelengths schematically. Figure 8 shows absorption spectrum of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles considering the absorption of distilled water as reference.

Figure 7: Simultaneous spectrums of two photons emission and second harmonic generation.

As can be seen, emission induced by two photons absorption Figure 8: Absorption spectrum of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles is wider than second harmonic generation. In this narrow zone, in distilled water produced at (a) 784 nanometers wavelength, (b) shorter wavelength means that the contribution of two photons 1046 nanometers wavelength. absorption is higher and by increasing wavelength, two photons emissions disappears. In Figure 7, Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles are stimulated by wavelength between 900 and 930 The peak of UV absorption resulted from absorption of nanometers and second harmonic generation and two photons Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles exciton is happened at 322– emission are simultaneously appeared (in this case, arrangement 363 nanometers wavelength. The effect of size of nanoparticles is similar to second harmonic detection in counting photon case). on electronic structure of semiconductors explains by increase in band gap with decrease in size of particles which attributed to Applications of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in quantum surrounding effect. A blue shift in the edge of absorption medicine and pharmaceutics was observed with increase in laser pulse energy which can be used to qualitatively describe the size distribution of particles. Currently, nano–atto second pulse lasers are used to image In smaller nanoparticles (in higher laser energies), a sharp peak from biosamples. Such systems are of very high power peak of exciton is presented in the absorption spectrum which shows which is higher than the failure threshold of biosamples. However, limited size distribution of nanoparticles in the sample and for average power of lasers is important for non–linear imaging of larger particles, this is not observed in absorption spectrum (in biosamples. It may be possible that pulse lasers have average lower laser energies). The reason is the fact that a number of power less than 1.5 (W) and peak power more than 1.5 (GW). exciton peaks in various energies are related to nanoparticles Since relaxation time between pulses are adequate (repeat rate of with various sizes which overlaps each other. Therefore, it can about 105MHz), the average power of laser is lower than failure be expected that size distribution of nanoparticles extends. This threshold of biosamples while their peak power is of required capability to non–linearly stimulate samples. resulted from Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis in various Second harmonic generation is only a frequency conversion samplesassumption (Figure is confirmed 9). using size distribution of nanoparticles process and no absorption occurs in this process, so it can be used As can be seen in Figure 9, size of nanoparticles is decreased to image from bioamples. Cadmium Oxide (CdO) is able to pass with increase in laser pulse energy. The average size of through cell wall and enters into the cell. In this manner, non– nanoparticles is listed in Table 2. linear characteristics of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 7/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

particles and hence, larger particles. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles, which are in the scale of about 250 nanometers, are shown in Figure 10. As can be seen, nanoparticles are approximately spherical and their sizes are reduced by increase in laser pulse energy. Variations of size distribution of nanoparticles by increase in laser pulse energy are similar to the results obtained from Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis. In other words, size distribution of nanoparticles is uniform. By increasing the laser pulse energy, larger nanoparticles can be simply broken into smaller parts due to interaction with intense laser pulse. Figure 9: Size distribution of nanoparticles resulted from Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis (1) sample 3, (2) sample 4, (3) sample 5 and (4) sample 6. Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles which are stimulated by Xenon lamp in Figurewavelength 11 showsof 407 the nanometers. fluorescence Usually, spectrum emission of Cadmium band in

Table 2: Size of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. UV peak, which is usually consideredUV and visible as an fields indication are observed of Cadmium in fluorescence Oxide (CdO) spectrum emission, of Sample is called edge band emission or exciton transmission. However, 1 2 3 4 5 6 emission bands in visible zone are induced by recombination Size (nm) to DSL of holes resulted from photon emission with charged, ionized – - 84 73 69 65 lattice Cd and or impurities. First of all, if stimulation energy is Size (nm) to TEM consideredstate in inherent considerably deficiencies lower such than as gap Oxygen energy blank and space, the second, inter– 83.4 51.6 87.7 68.9 45.4 37.9 if the intensity of visible light emission induced by increase in Considering the fact that Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) analysis shows hydrodynamic size of particles, the results of spectrumdensity of is deficiencies dominant and is veryits intensity high. In increases all samples with of increase Cadmium in this analysis is considerably higher than those resulted from laserOxide pulse (CdO) energy nanoparticles, while the intensity the peak of ofthe UV presented in fluorescence peaks in Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images. It may be due visible zone is decreased. In other words, severe exciton emission to the forming of bond between carboxyl group on the shows that the produced Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles are next surface, which can to transversal connection between

of little deficiencies.

Figure 10: Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles with 35000x zoom.

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 8/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

Figure 11: Fluorescence spectrum of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles produced at (a) 784 nanometers wavelength, (b) 1256 nanometers wavelength.

General outline of energy level graph of Cadmium Oxide nanoparticles on DNA of human cancer cells is listed in Table

3d photoluminescence of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in (CdO) nanoparticles is shown in Figure 12. Various deficiencies 3. In addition, Figures 13 &14 demonstrate fluorescence and electron is severely interacted with O2p electron of Cadmium Oxide violet zone (a) from proximity of conducting band edge to deep are considered in this model. The first principle shows that Cd level of receptor and (b) from deep level of donor to valence band, be attributed to transmission from conducting band to deep holes respectively. Moreover, as can be seen, Figures 15 & 16 display (CdO). As can be seen in Figure 12, fluorescence in violet zone can trapped in a level such as VCd. Blue emission can be considered as direct recombination of conducting electron in Cd3d band and Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in different wavelengths. intensity dependence of fluorescence and photoluminescence of hole in O2p valence band. The usual process for green emission Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and is as following: transmission mechanism (a) from proximity of also Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images of Cadmium conducting band edge to deep level of receptor and (b) from deep Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles (a) before interaction with DNA of cancer cells and (b) after interaction with DNA of cancer cells is ++ trapped in a deep hole trapped in center of V0 leads to visible shown in Figures 17 & 18, respectively. Also, as another novel emission.level of donor to valence band. Recombination of surficial electron achievement, simulation of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles before and after interaction with DNA of cancer cells is illustrated It should be noted that the effect of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) in Figure 19.

Figure 12: General outline of energy level graph of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles.

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 9/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

Figure 13: Fluorescence of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in violet zone (a) from proximity of conducting band edge to deep level of receptor, (b) from deep level of donor to valence band.

Figure 14: Photoluminescence of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in violet zone (a) from proximity of conducting band edge to deep level of receptor, (b) from deep level of donor to valence band.

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 10/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

Table 3: Effect of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles on DNA of human cancer cells.

DNA of Human Cancer Cells (ppm) after Concentrations DNA of Human Cancer Cells (ppm) before Interaction with CdO Interaction with CdO Control 1.84±0.23 7±0.63 17.34±0.73 1.94±0.01

0.001 μg/ml CdO 1.67±0.42 0.01±0.0001 0.003 μg/ml CdO 1.73±0.19 0.01±0.0001 0.005 μg/ml CdO 1.94±0.54 0.01±0.0001 0.007 μg/ml CdO 2.28±0.11 0.01±0.0001 0.07 μg/ml CdO 2.73±0.81 0.01±0.0001 0.7 μg/ml CdO

Figure 15:

Intensity dependence of fluorescence of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in different wavelengths.

Figure 16: Intensity dependence of photoluminescence of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles in different wavelengths.

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 11/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

Figure 17: Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles with 95000x zoom (a) before interaction with DNA of cancer cells, (b) after interaction with DNA of cancer cells.

Figure 18: Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles with 55000x zoom (a) before interaction with DNA of cancer cells, (b) after interaction with DNA of cancer cells.

Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 12/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

Figure 19: Simulation of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) nanoparticles before (left illustration) and after (right illustration) interaction with DNA of cancer cells.

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Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042 Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Copyright: 13/20 Eliminating Cancer Cells ©2015 Heidari et al.

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Citation: Heidari A, Brown C (2015) Study of Composition and Morphology of Cadmium Oxide (CdO) Nanoparticles for Eliminating Cancer Cells. J Nanomed Res 2(5): 00042. DOI: 10.15406/jnmr.2015.02.00042