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The in the USA Prof. R. Hickey SS 2015

CALIFORNIA AND UTAH ENGLISH

Ekaterina Kleinbreuer and Mohamed Yusef (LN, Seminar) Modul IV, VI or VIII • Ekaterina Kleinbreuer, LN, Seminar Outline

• 1. English • 1.1. General and historical information • 1.2 of Girl and Surfer Dude • 1.3 • 1.3.1 Phonetic features • 1.3.2 Lexical features • 1.4. Conclusion

• 2. Utah English • 2.1. History and Demograpic Change in Utah • 2.2.Religious Affiliation • 2.3. Linguistic Behavior California today

http://www.history.com/topics/us-states/california General and Historical Information

• First Settlement: early 1700’s è Spanish missionaries • Date of Statehood: September 9, 1850 è 31st state of the USA • Capital: Sacramento • Nicknames: The Golden State; The Land of Milk and Honey; The El Dorado State; The Grape State • Land : 155,779.221 • Population: 38,802,5001

1" Census Bureau." California QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. Sacramento

Interesting facts

• California has the largest economy in the United States • In 2012, it was ranked the 9th largest economy in the world • Considered to be the hottest, driest place in the United States, Death Valley often reaches temperatures greater than 120 F • Southern California has about 10,000 earthquakes each year, although only 15 to 20 of them have a magnitude greater than 4.0 • Despite its urbanization and the loss of land to industry, California still leads the country in agricultural production California’s Population

United States Census Bureau." California QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. of California

• Stereotype of Valley Girl originated in the 1970’s

• In 1982 realized the song “Valley Girl”, which contains a monologue of “Valleyspeak”. It made popular the phrases “like totally gag me with a spoon”and “grody to the max”

• Valley Girl and Surfer Dude speech is usually associated with speech which contains words such as awesome, totally, fer sure, harsh, gnarly, dude

• http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x33dhm_ moon-unit-zappa-valley-girl_music Leanne Hinton University Penny Eckert Stanford of California University California Phonetic Features

California Vowel Shift2

2 "Penny Eckert's Web Page." Penny Eckert's Web Page. 3 Gordon, Matthew. "Vowel Shifting.” PBS. PBS • The vowel /ɪ/ in him, sit, and bid is moving in two directions. Before /ŋ/, it raises to the vowel [i] as in beam, bean e.g.: think sounds more like theenk Before other consonants, it shifts towards the vowel in hem, set, and bed . e.g.: did sounds more like dead

• The vowel /ɛ/ in bed, set, send is shifting towards the vowel/æ/ in bad, sat, . e.g.: friend sounds more like frand

• The vowel /ʌ/ in but, rust, bun is shifting towards the vowel [ɛ] in bet, rest, Ben . e.g.: fun sounds more like fen • The vowel /æ/ in hat, hand, pass is splitting into two variants. Before nasal consonants it becomes a diphthong, and the first part of the diphthong is shifting towards /iy/ e.g.: stand sounds more like steeand Before other consonants, as in hat, rack, cast, it shifts in the other direction, towards the vowel in hot, rock, cost e.g.: that sounds more like thot

• The distinction between the vowels in cot and caught, Don and Dawn has been lost. The merged vowel is pronounced between the two. e.g. mom sounds like mawm

• The vowel /u/ in boot, soon, dude is shifting towards the vowel in bit, sin, did. e.g.: move sounds like miiuw

• The back vowels in boa move forward, so it sounds more like bewt California lexical features

• discourse marker or quotative “like” e.g.: “I’m like, ‘where have you been?’

• “like”as a filler e.g. in place of thinking sounds "uh" and "um”

• quotative “be all” • e.g.: And she was all "Were you in the church?" and I was all "yeah”

• Northern Californian colloquialism “hella”meaning "many", "much", "so" or "very”. e.g.: "I haven't seen you in hella long"; "There were hella people there”

Eckert, Penny, and Norma Mendoza-Denton. "California English." "Stanford Linguists Seek to Identify the Elusive California Accent." Stanford University. California English

• http://www.dialectsarchive.com/california-1 Conclusion

• California is relatively young state of the USA and the recent studies are showing that California English differs from the other varieties of English and it continues its developing being influenced by high ethnic diversity

• Stereotypical California English constitutes features of “Valleyspeak”and Surfer Dude

• California Shift combines both Southern Shift and Northern cities Shift References

• "California." IDEA International Dialects of English Archive. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 June 2015.

• "California." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 12 June 2015. .

• Gordon, Matthew. "Vowel Shifting." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 14 June 2015.

• "Penny Eckert's Web Page." Penny Eckert's Web Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 14

• Researchers Say Californians Really Do Have an Accent. KCRA News, 8 Sept. 2014. Web. 12 June 2015. .

• "Stanford Linguists Seek to Identify the Elusive California Accent." Stanford University. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2015.

• "United States Census Bureau." California QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 June 2015.

• Wolfram, Walt, and Ben Ward. American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2006. Print. ENGLISH IN AMERICA PROF. R. HICKEY SS 2015 AMERICAN ENGLISH IN UTAH

Yusef Mohamed 2 Fach BA Modul VI The Schedule

• The City of Utah

• The Author David Bowie

• His Research

• Vowel Changes

• Sound Files

• Historical Part

• Conclusion

Utah

Metropolis: Salt City

3 Million people; NRW 18 Million

62% Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint. Short LDS or (Mormoms) David Bowie

l Associate Professor: The University of Anachorage

l Sociolinguist and Dialectologist

l Desert Dialect the vowel change before l

1. short i → short e 2. long e → short i milk → melk steel mill → still mill pillow → pellow long a → short e house for sale → house for sell

l The people in Utah think this as a stereotypical for Utahn English A Stigma of Utahn English

l Long u l Card/cord merger pool, → pull, full or → ar Example: → Spanish Fark l Strongly present in the metropolitan areas. l Therefore the following examples are nearly ordinary: born → barn corn → carn Southern features

l Long i → ah time, bye or guide → tahm, bah, gahd

l The reason for these changes will be explained by the history of the first English-speaking settlement in Utah Utah's link to the Northen United States

l In 1930 the dramatist and historian T. Earle Pardoe drew words connection between Utah and the Northen United States

It appears that Utah was linguistically influenced by the Northen Cities, when it comes to the lexical choice of words Using husk instead of shuck or moo instead of low Sound Samples

• Sound Sample 1 A • 19 Years Old Female From Salt Lake City

• Sound Sample 2 B • 31 Years Old Male From Salt Lake City The

l The first English-speaking settlers were from the LDS church

l They were forced out from Nauvoo, Illinios

l Previously, they were in and Kirtland, (near Cleveland)

l However, the LDS church was founded in Fayette,

l Most member lived in New York and . Possible Reason for this Mixture

l On the one hand you l On the other hand you have these Northen have also these Southern varities of English; in varities of English; in New York, northen Missouri and Pennsylania and northen southern/ eatern Illinios Ohio

l The Adults: lexical choice of words from the North l The Children: the sound of words from the South Conclusion

• As California, Utah also very late(1850) become a state of the United State. • Consequently, Utah English is, at core, both Southern and Northen American English. • Yet the reason for this differs from California: Already the first English-speaking settler of Utah adopted both features of the American English References

• Wolfram, Walt, and Ben Ward. American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2006. Print.

• “Utah." IDEA International Dialects of English Archive. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 June 2015.

• Bowie, David and Morkel Wendy. “Desert Dialect (Utah)“in: Wolfram, Walt, and Ben Ward. American Voices: How Dialects Differ from Coast to Coast. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2006. Print.