plasma Physics and Lasers


Fast nonradiative bansition


N, (l,ower laser level) 0rg Fast &caY cl)l No (Ground lerd)


Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota

Plasma Physics and Lasers .Course Development Committee Chair Ilerson Prol. Ashol< Sharma Prof. L"R. Gurjar Vice-Chancellor Director Academic Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota

Convener and Members Convener Sushil Rajpurohit Assistant Professor of Physics Vardhman Mahaveer Open LJniversity, Kota Nlembers

1. Prof. J.A. Sheikh 2. Prof. (Retd.) N.S. Saxena Deptt. of Physics & Dean Research Deptt. of Physics University of Kashmir,srinagar University of ,

3. Prof'. (Retd.) K.P. N{aheshryari 4. Prof. N.K. Jaiman Formerly physics H.O.D., Depfi. of Department of Pure and Applied physics Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore University of Kota 5. Dr. P. Arumugam, t 6. Dr. B.S. Sharma Associate Professor of physics Sr. Lecturer & H.O.D., Deptt. of physics Deptt. of the Pliysics,IIT Roorkee R.R. Govt. College,

7. Dr. Ghanshyam Sharma 8. Dr. Kamlesh Yadav Associate physics, Prof'essor- of Assistant Professor of physics Deptt. of Pure and physics Applied Central University of Punjab, Bathinda University of Kota

9. Dr. S.K. Sharmn 10. Dr. Arvind Pareek Assistant physics Prot'essor of Director (Regional Centre)tsharatpur Deptt. of Physics, HBTI, Kanpur Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota 11. Dr. Anuradha Dubey Depuly Director School of Science &Technology Vardhman IVlahaveer Open University,Kota Editor & Unit Writers MPH-09: Plasma PhYsics and Lasers

:: :-r - - il,S, Sharnta i - -. : ',.:er & H.O.D., Deptt. of Physics ' -:,-, t. College, Alwar Units - :..t \\ riters 2,4-ll . : t'. ,Retd.) K.P. Maheshwari Indore ' --::.i H.O,D. , Deptt. of Physics, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya ' , : \lahendra Kumar 16- l8 - :r.:i.rrlt Prolessor of Physics, Lucknow University

l13 , Pranav Saxena ..,:,;iate Professor of Physics' JECRC University, Jaipur

12-15,19 Dr, Shvam Sunder Sharma ..sistant Prof'essor of Physics. Govt. Women Engg' College,

Academic and Administrative Management

Prof. Ashok Sharma Prof. L.R. Gurjar \-ice-Chancellor Director (Academic) Yardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota

Prof. Karan Singh Dr. Subodh Kumar Dircctor (MP&D) Additional Director (MP&D) \iardhman Mahaveer Open Universitll' Kota Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota

Print: October 2016 ISBN: S ?S*S t -S,ilS fi-s$ $ -5

means \ll Right reserved. No part of this Book may be reproduced in any form by mimeograph or any otlrer u,ithorit penlission in writing from Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota' priltecl and Plblished on behalf of the Registrar, Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota'

Printed by : MPH-09 Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota

Plasma Physics and Lasers

Unit No. Unit Pages General Properties of plosma: Urtit-l L-25 Introduction: general properties of plasmas : definition of plasma, plasma production, Saha's ionization formula. Debye Shielding, Occurrence plasmas {lnit-2 of in Nature: 26-50 Particle effects and collective effects, Debye shielding, plasma frequency. Occurrence of plasmas in nature, the sun ancl its atmosphere, solar wind, ionosphere. Applications of Plasnm Physics : physics: Unit-3 Controlled Tlrcrmonucleor 5l_66 Applications of plasma physics, controlled thermonuclear physics, MHD

generator, pl asma p-ropul si on, se l f c onsistent formuration. cltarged Pafiicle Motion Electromagnetic Ilnit-4 in Field and Drifts: 67-92 Chargbd particle motion in constant ancl uniform electromagnetic field, drift due to an external force, charged particle motion in non-uniform magnetostatic fields. Drifts: gradient drift, curvature drift , combined gradient-curvature drift. Unit'S Plasma Dielectric Constant, Magnetic Miwor Effect, Cyclotron Resonance: 93-l 1 1 Plasma dielectric constant, adiabatic invariants, magnetic heating of a plasma, cyclotron resonance, magnetic mirror effect. Magneto Hydrodynamic (MHD) Lrnit6 Equations: Lt2-t32 Macroscopic equations for a conducting fluid, MHD equations, diffusion in a magnetic field, ambipolar diffusion. t/nit-7 Some Basic Plasnru phenontena and pinch Effict: 133-159 Debye shielding problem, plasma sheath, Langmuir probe, electric potential on the wall. Pinch effect, equilibrium pinch, Bennet- pinch, kink instability, sausage i4stability, Unit-B MHD Wayes: rcO_U4 MHD waves, propagation parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic {ielcl, Alfuen waves, magnetosonic waves' In Magnetized Colcl Plasma: 17s-t96 Unit-9 Dispersiort Relation, Wave Propagation Wavesinplasmas,dispersionrelation,waveplopagationinmagnetizedcold to Bo plasma, propagation parallel and perpendicular ' t97-216 Uttit-l7 Faraday Rotatiott antl Landau Duntpittg: rotation' waves in hot plasmas, wave- Resonances and reflection points, Faraday Landau damping, ponderomotive force' I partictre interaction, s 2t7-234 r a ct i o tt a n d P ar nnt et ric I nst abilitie : Unit-l1 B e arn- Plasm a I nte t beam instability' Two stream instability, beam plasma interaction' stimulated Raman scattering' Parametric instability, Wave-wave interaction, stimulated Brilliouin scattering, growth rates' 'r7,<-'.)<') OPeration: Unit-12 Introduction to Luser light in cavities, light Introduction to laser operation, lasers and laser light, Einstein theory of light -matter emission and absorption in quantum thoory, interaction, stimulated absorption and emission rates' t]ttit.l3Laseroscillatiott:PopulationRateEqttations,GainandThresltoldGain253-272 B Einstein A B coefficients, relations among A and Population rate equations, 3nd coefficients.Laseroscillation:GainandThresholdGain. Spatial llole Burning 273-292 Urit-l4 Laser Oscillation: Three & Four Level Laser Schemes and populations' three-level- laser Feedback, threshold, rate equations for photons gain and gain saturation' spatial scheme, four-level -laser scheme, small signal hole burning. 293-313 Unit-l5 Q-Switchittg,Mode Locking: phase-locked oscillators, mode locking. Q-switching, methods of Q-switching, 3t4-347 tlnit-l6 Specrfic Lasers and Puntping Mechanisnts: rare-earth ion lasers and Specific lasers and pumping mechanisms: Solid-state lasers, gas-dynamic pumping, Dye lasers, He-Ne lasers, CO, electric-discharge lasers, excimer lasers' 348-390 Unit-|7 LasersResonators: Gaussian beams' Laser resonators, resonator stability, paraxial wave equation, 391-408 -Tlnit-I8 Colrcrertce and Some Spectfic Applications of Lasers: optical coherence, spatial and temporal coherence, some laser applications, measurements' wave propagation in optical fibers, distance and velocity 409-426 Unit-19 Laser Gyroscope, Applications of Lasers: Lasergyroscope,ApplicationsofLaserindefense,industry,medicine Preface

The present book entitled " Plasma Physics and Lasers" has been designed so as to cover the unit-rvise syllabus of MPH-09 course for M.Sc. Physics (Final) students of Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Kota. Primary objective of this book is to provide a basic text for the students to stLrdy plasma physics and Lasers.First eleven units deal with Plasma Physics and remaining units deal with Lasers- Basic concepts of Electrodynamics is prerequisite to understand the plasma Physics. This book offers a broad vierv on laser physics. This text stafis at a rather elementary level and will smoothly lead the reader into the more difficult problems of laser physics. Each unit begins with objectives , introduction and principles together with illustrative and other descriptive material .The illustrative examples serve to illustrate and amplify the theory, bring into focus on important concepts .Numerous proofs of the theorems and derivations of the fundamental results are included . The units have been written by various experts in the field. We believe that this book is well suited to self learaing. Although we have made all efforts to make the text error free, yet errors riray remain in the text. We shall be thankful to the students and teachers alike if they point these out to us. Any further comments and suggestions for future improvement are welcome and will be most gratefully acknowledged. ffieffimmmmmffi ffiem&res #f WMffiti, Kmtm

. Director Regional Centre, Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Director 'l 938, Lohagal Road, Regional Centre, Ajmer-305001 Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Email:- [email protected] 2127 2-27 3, Kudi bhaktasani, R.H.B., Mob. No. +9194'1 4024828, +91941 4024953 -342001 Director Email ;- rcjd [email protected]. in Regional Centre, Mob. No. +919414024834, +919414024956 Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, 9/4-5 Mukta Prasad Nagar, Director Pugal Road, Opp. Sabji Mandi, Regional Centre, -334001 Vardhman Mahaveer Open UniversityCampus, Email:- [email protected] Rawatbhata Road, Mob. No. +919414024969, +919460060191 Kola-324021 Director Email :- [email protected]. in Regional Centre, Mob. No. +91941 4024972, +91941 4024829 Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Commerce College Campus, JLN Marg Director Jaipur-302004 Regional Centre, Email :- [email protected] Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Mob. No. isrsamo,$3a, +s1s41 4o26isr Old RTO Building , Near Surajpole Director - 3'13001 Regional Centre, Email:- [email protected] Vardhman Mahaveer Open University, Mob. No. +919414024975 , +919414024836 MSJ College Campus Bharatpur- 321OO1 Email :- [email protected]. in Mob. No. +919414024829, +91 5644 2340656 TOLL FREE : 1800-180-6166


Rawatbhata Road, Kota - 324021