College of Engineering Department of

History of Architecture

4th year – 1st Semester

M.S.C. Madyan Rashan

Academic Year 2018-2019 Lecture Information

Course name Lecture’s title 01 Lecturer Madyan Rashan Lecturer’s Information [email protected] [email protected] +9647703315409 The objective This lecture explains the idea of modernism, and how it shaped the 20th century’s architecture. Previous Lecture

 Modernism  Chicago School  Louis Henry Sullivan  Art Deco Russian

 Constructivism was a style that originated in Russia in the beginnings of the 1900s.  It was an artistic movement, and had social and political roots.  Then it moved strongly on architecture.  It had a huge effect on many styles that came after it, basically the modern styles; and its effect was strong and everlasting till some of the contemporary styles, like the deconstruction.  It also had its effect on other design and artistic fields, such as painting and theater. Russian Constructivism  The constructivism took place with the soviet revolution, and was affected by the political and social ideas spreading.  The revolution encouraged socialism and nationalism which was reflected on art and architecture.  The revolution resulted in the establishment of the Soviet union, backing up the ideas of communism, socialism, equality and eliminating the differences between the social classes.  The artistic and architectural styles were also affected by the political and social ideas. Russian Constructivism  Along with the constructivism, there was another movement also in Russia, called the supermatism.  Supermatism was an artistic movement that was based on the abstract shapes and pure colors.

Kazimir Iakov Malevich, Chernikhov Eight right , 1922 rectangles Russian Constructivism  Some of the basic characteristics of this movement included:  The use of clear, well identified, strong masses; along with very clear and strong interlocks. The joint between the masses in a composition were very fixed, strong, and affected by the rigidity of a machine. Russian Constructivism  The use of different types of materials and architectural elements, that would show a strong contrast; like thick masses with slender steel members, or very rough concrete surface with a glass surface. Russian Constructivism  The style was affected by the look to the future, this is the shapes were expressing this idea as much as possible, with the use of new compositions and relationships.  For the previous reasons, and the use of technology, the style was sometimes referred to as the Russian . Russian Constructivism

 Examples:  The earliest and probably the first product within the style is the “Monument to the Third International” commonly known as “Tatlin’s tower”.  It was designed by Vladimir Tatlin, in 1920. Russian Constructivism

 Examples:  The tower was supposed to be built of iron, steel and glass.  It also had a building under it for lectures and conferences.  It was supposed to be 400m high. Russian Constructivism

 Examples:  Zuev Workers' Club Russian Constructivism

 Examples: Russian Constructivism

 Examples:  Russian Constructivism

 Examples:

Rusakov Workers' Club Van Nelle Factory in Rotterdam Russian Constructivism

 Examples: Russian Constructivism Collective Housing design (Nikolai Ladovsky, 1920)

 Examples:

Model of El Lissitzky’s cloudprop proposal (1925)

 Bauhaus was a German school of architecture.  It was first established in in 1919, then in in 1925, then in in 1932.  It was administrated by different architects, such as and Mies Van Der Rohe; and included many other great names in architecture and art, like (De Stijl), El Lissitzky (Constructivist) and . Bauhaus  The first school was established in Weimar in 1919, and the chief was Walter Gropius. It was closed in 1925.  The school was re-established again in Dessau in 1925. In 1928 its administration changed and the new chief was .  He stayed till 1930, and after that the administration changed again and this time the principle was Mies Van Der Rohe. The school was closed in 1932.  In 1932 the school was re-opened, but this time it lasted a year and was closed in 1933.  Its architects left , pressured by the Nazi regime. Bauhaus  The design approach of the school was affected by the industrialization, and the industrial production; so the style tried to represent the “industrial production of buildings”.  This also encouraged the idea of mass production in architecture.  They also promoted simplicity and clarity of masses and forms. Bauhaus  The school encouraged the ideals of functionalism, and how the function of the building must be represented in the form of the building, and even affect it.  Since most of the artists of the school were expressionists, it also promoted in architecture.  Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.  Ivan Albright, David Aronson, Henryk Gotlib. Bauhaus

 Emphasis on the basic elements of points, lines and planes.  The school gave a lot of attention to the technology and its effect on architecture.  They also studied the various materials to be used.  They also encouraged the craftsmanship of their students. Bauhaus

 The school’s program depended heavily on mixing the art and science with the practical training of students, preparing them for the outer world.  They promoted the use of basic shapes and colors.  It promoted the strong interruption with history.  There was a strong effect on using grid organizations.  The school tried to give a complete view of its theories. Bauhaus

 Bauhaus school building, Dessau, (Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer). Walter Gropius

 Walter Gropius was a German architect.  He comes from a family of architects.  He started working in the office of .  In 1910, he left his office and established his own work along with another architect, Adolf Meyer.  In 1919, he became the Bauhaus school’s principal and one of the main formulators of the so called “international style”. Walter Gropius  Walter Gropius was a functionalist, who believed that the function of the building must be reflected in its form.  His buildings has clear masses, with simple and easy circulation.  He tried to push the technologies available at the time, to create a technologically advance architecture.  Most of his buildings have a slight horizontal emphasis, with balanced and equal vertical elements. Walter Gropius

is one of the most important buildings designed by Gropius and his associate Meyer.  It is a shoe’s factory in Germany.  They tried to reshape the form of industrial buildings.

Fagus Factory, Germany, 1913. Walter Gropius

 It was affected by the design of another building, the tribune factory designed by Peter Behrens.  The Fagus factory was the opposite and inversion of the tribune factory in some way, like for example the building’s corners.

AEG Tribune factory, Peter Behrens, 1910. Walter Gropius

 One of the most important things the architects did was the free corners.  The load bearing elements were not put in the corners to leave it free, which introduced the corner window.  It also has large glass surfaces that covers the entire height of the building.  The building looks stable due to relationship between the masses and the piers’ sizes.

Fagus Factory, Germany, 1913. Walter Gropius

Monument to the March Dead (1921) dedicated to the memory of nine workers who died in The , . Weimar. Walter Gropius MetLife building,

Harvard graduate center Walter Gropius

 Baghdad university Mies van der Rohe

, was a German architect. He is one of the pioneers of .  He is known for his extreme simplicity in architectural compositions.  He also tried to make the new style “modern style” to be an international one, and to represent the time he lived in.  Mies is known for his famous statement “less is more”. Mies van der Rohe

 He worked under the supervision of Peter Behrens, and later would start his private career.  His early work was affected by the classical trends and traditional styles, but in the beginning of 1920’s he started his new .  Mies was the last principal of the Bauhaus, and after the problems with the Nazi regime he moved to the . Mies van der Rohe  Some of the most important characteristics of his work included:  The emphasis on the open spaces, or what is called “an open plan”.  He tried to show the industrial materials in his works (steel, glass).  Minimalism in the design of his buildings. Mies van der Rohe

 Barcelona Pavilion, 1929 Mies van der Rohe

, 1951 Mies van der Rohe

, 1958.  It was designed by Mies van der Rohe and . Mies van der Rohe

 New National gallery, 1968 Mies van der Rohe

Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Library, S. R. Crown Hall, 1956 1972