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1981 The iB blical View of the in 's The aM rble Faun Lois Darlene Hanson Eastern Illinois University This research is a product of the graduate program in English at Eastern Illinois University. Find out more about the program.

Recommended Citation Hanson, Lois Darlene, "The iB blical View of in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The aM rble Faun" (1981). Masters Theses. 3001. https://thekeep.eiu.edu/theses/3001

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"The story of the fall of man!" One can easily tell that The Fall is the main topic in The Marble Faun. Hawthorn� in this romance, is asking whether man's fall in the was for man's betterment or not. He is also asking if sin is our power of regeneration, for with­ out the sin of and there would have been no need for a savior.

This theory is known as the Fortunate Fall of Man.

Hawthorne �s suggesting within The Marble· Faun that our sin is both original and.-renewable--it is something that we have no control over.

We are victims of the past. Donatello's sinful act is put in such a way that it is impossible to decide whether he is responsible for the murder; it is no common crime, but a re-enactment of the original fall.

The Marble Faun is an analogy of the . Miriam, of course, represents Eve for she is the first to commit a. sin in the story a.s Eve was in the Garden. Donatello is compared to Adam. He was not the first sinner, but lived in innocence until he met the �oman who induced him to sin.

It was with the thought of obtaining a higher lalowledge that Eve partook of the fruit. It is also knowledge that intrigues the characters in The Marble Faun. They are searching for a specific kind of knowledge, na.mely--is evil good?

411.226 Among other analogies of The Fall is that of guilt. Soon after their fall, knew they were guilty. Miriam and Donatello tried t? cast the feeling behind them but could not. Right after the fall of Adam and Eve came a loss of fellowship with God. Miriam and

Donatello experience this loss as well. They no longer pray with ease, and feel that the window of heaven has been closed to them.

Because of Adam and Eve's fall, the whole human race fell with them and all mankind became sinners. Miriam, too, realizes that "an individual wrong-doing melts into the great mass of human crime, and makes us--who dreamed only of our own little sin,--makes us guilty of the whole. "

Another effect of The Fall was that all nature became cursed. With­ in this story we are shown an Arcadia which represents innocence. But because of sin, man can no longer live in Arcadia, and hence we have


Because of man's sin, death entered into the world. Donatello very painfully finds this out when he is trying to communicate with the ani­ mals as in times past. But he fails. The only animal to appear is a lizard which signifies the coming of death.

So what is the cure Hawthorne gives us? He gives three--repentance, love, and the hope of an after-life. But none of these will really work.

Donatello only repents to man and not to God, Miriam refuses to repent.

Love is used over and over within Hawthorne.' s romances • Miriam no longer lives in isolation and thinks only of herself. She falls in love with Donatello. Hilda comes down from her tower to marry Kenyon. But this does not save them either.

The last hope is that of an after-life, But to go to heaven, one needs a Savior, which is lacking throughout the whole story and which is the theme of the Bible from which The Marble Faun is an analogy. THE BIBLICAL VIEW OF THE FALL OF MAN



The story of the fall of man! Is it not repeated in our ro­ mance of Monti Beni? And may we follow the analogy yet further? Was that very sin--into which Adam precipitated himself and all his race--was it destined means by which, over a long pathway of toil and sorrow, we are to obtain a higher, brifhter, and more profound happiness, than our low birthright gave?

The story of the Fall of Man must have been important to Nathaniel

Hawthorne, for most of his romances and short stories have this theme within them . He uses it as his main topic in The Marble Faun. Hawthorne, in this romance, is asking whether man ' s fall in the Garden of Eden was for man's betterment or not. He is also asking if sin is our power of regeneration, for without the sin of Adam and Eve, would· not have had to die, and then there would have been no need for a savior.

This particular theory that has caught Hawthorne's attention is known as the Fortunate Fall of Man.

The idea of the Fortunate Fall has to do with "loss of innocence, initiation into the complexities of experience in a world of ambigously good and evil, experience of guilt so obscurely ·related to specific acts 2 as to seem more 'original' and necessary than avoidable."

Eden had never been far in ·the background, whether Hawthorne was writing of the decayed garden in The House of the Seven Gables, or "of the attempts of iref'orniers to urido the fall in a utopian community"?: found 2

within . One may also find the analogy of the

Garden of Eden in "Rappaccini 's Daughter" being used as the major plot.

Many of Hawthorne's short stories that are thought of as stories of initiation also have to do with the Fall of Man . Robin, in the story

"My Kinsman, Major Molineux," has just come from the country , where he has experienced a life of inno cence . He goes to the city to find his kinsman and encounters sin. This may be Hawthorne 's only story in which a fall is presented as being carefully fortunate . Some of his other stories, such as "" and "Rappiccini 's Daughter," find

The Fall not so fortunate . Young Goodman Brown , as if in a dream with the devil , finds that evil is universal , even in the best of peo ple.

This stuns him so much that he loses all of his fa ith, even in that which is good . He becomes lost and remains so because he cannot accept reality .

Giovanni first thinks of Beatrice as an , then as a fiend , but never 4 as a human being. Giovanni , like Young Goo dman Brown , ca nnot accept the fact that all of us , no matter how great or small , have some sin within us .

The story , "Roger Malvin's Burial ," hel ps us to understand The Marble

Faun. Hawthorne has concealed Reuben's guilt to the extent that it ap- pears a general hu man condition which he has no control over rather than an act he might have avoided. Therefore , Hawthorne is trying to convey that our sin is both original and renewable . We are as the Pyncheons , part victims of the pa st, yet in the present we sin . This is the way

Hawthor ne ha ndles the plot of The Marble Faun . Donatello 's sinful act is put in such a way that it is just as impossible to decide whether he is responsible for the murder as it is to decide if Reuben is responsi- ble for leaving Roger Malvin to die. Donatello 's murder is no common J

crime, but a re-enactment of the original fall.

Hyatt Waggoner states that the idea of the Fortunate Fall came about when Christians were contemplating the story of the old and new covenants and felt a need to express their gratitude to God for the way He has made good out of evil. Man has fallen, but God has picked him up again. Be- cause of our sin, God sent His only Son to die for our sin. Therefore,

Waggoner believes Hawthorne feels that the atonement does for us what we cannot do for ourselves.5 Since man has fallen and Christ has made an atonement for our sins, man now has the opportunity to go to heaven when he dies, which he did not have before The Fall.

The point needs to be made at this time that the idea of the Fall

of Man versus the Fortunate Fall of Man is very real to Hawthorne • Many critics refer to The Fall as a myth, meaning it is only a story and not a true happening. However, to Hawthorne, the Fall of Man is a true hap­ pening, no mere story or myth, nor does he ever refer to it as such.

Hawthorne lived when the Puritan way of life seemed to be the accepted way to live and the held to strict Calvinistic ideas. Haw­ thorne's wife was a very strong religious person as well, and he admired her much for the faith to which she held. If the Fall of Man is just a myth to Hawthorne, why did he spend his whole writing career on the sub­ ject? Because it is important to him. Hawthorne states that he did not like to write fiction--for fiction to Hawthorne 'meant a story which does not leave the reader with something to think about. He felt ill at ease writing about something that has no meaning. He likes to write romances, and within them he wrote about something very important to him--religion.

The idea of The Fall bothers Hawthorne. He does not know what to make of it. The romance to which we are directing our attention, The 4

Marble Faun, deals closely with the Biblical happening of the Fall of

Man, seeming to be a modern day version o·f man's fall and the complica- tions that follow it. Within it, Hawthorne does some questioning. Not only is he asking if The.Fall is fortunate, but also the opposite. Is man doomed because of The Fall, and is everyone else affected because of one man's fall?

Hawthorne is not the first person to advance the theory of The Fall being fortunate. The idea dates back to the very early 1600's and before.

John Milton refers to the idea in his essay "Areopagetica". Good and evil, according to M�lton, grow up in this world almost inseparably. And the knowledge of good is so interwoven with evil, that they are hard to distinguish. What is so fortunate to Milton about this idea is that Adam 6 fell into knowing good and evil, that is to say, knowing good by evil.

Another mention of the Fortunate Fall is by Giles Fletcher, dating back to 1610, in a poem titled "Christ's Triumph Over Death." Fletcher questions very seriously whether The Fall is bad for men. Instead, he pens the followings

Such joy we gained by our parentalls, That good or bad, whither I cannot wiss, To call it a mishap, or a happy miss.

That fell from Eden, and to heaven did rise , , .• Oh cursed tree, and yet 0 blessed fruitl That death to him, this life to us doth gives Strange is the cure, when things past cure r7vive, And the Physitian dies, to make his patient live.

So one can see that the idea of the .Fortunate Fall antidates Haw- thorne. But before Hawthorne's time, if one dwelt on the subject of The

Fall as being fortunate, he would have been considered a heretic, for the theory of The Fall being fortunate is considered somewhat of a rebellion toward God. The Bible clearly states that no one should do wrong, for 5

it is a sin, and God cannot stand sin in His sight. Therefore, if God cannot stand sin, cam one possibly think that He will put His approval on the idea of The Fall as being fortunate? No!

The idea of the Fortunate Fall found not only a wide recognition but a ready welcome in the nineteenth century and on into the beginning of the twentieth. It was during· the nineteenth century that a great seg- ment of the populace started questioning the Bible and God because of the

• theory of evc:tl.ution presented by Darwin which states that man is getting better, not worse. One view ·of··The Fall at this time is that of repudia- tion. "They dissolve the literal authority of The·Fall. They feel it was like the walls of a prison house in which generations have had to 8 dwell among false shadows of fear and guilt and condemnation." They want to get rid of this idea which to them is a fable that was never a

9 fact.

"The scope of religion became, on the whole, more and more restrict­

0 ed, and eventually man learned completely to do without it.111 The nine- teenth century, according to Paul Roubeczek, can be seen as an experi- ment--"the attempt of European man to renounce Christ and to live

11 without God." - Man, after about two thousand years of blind belief, is now free. did not· entirely disappear, but was pushed back more and more� " ...By many, Christ and the Christian conception of

God were completely renounced. Nietzsche only stated most definitely what was felt throughout Europe when he wrote Antichrist and proclaimeds

'God is dead. "112 And one can be certain that whatever was felt in Eur- ope made its way to America.

To some, 6

The new vision of a 'scientific' universe •..was a glorious dream, as men discovered that much or all of dogmatic Christian­ ity was sheer superstition, thank God, and look forward, with joyful anticipation in some cases, to a new revelation of man's destiny. To put the situation another way, if Modernism for most Victorians threatened to destroy the comforts of belief, for a subsential minority·it promised to end the discomforts of belief.

So what, in the nineteenth century, if one repudiates the old religion,

did one choose to take its place? Many depended on a "Religion of Human-

ity in which man took the place of God as the object of devoted love and

4 service •. ;" 1 So, for many in the nineteenth century, God was placed

on a shelf left to collect dust and become forgotten; in His place was

put man. Man· wanted to get rid of the idea of The Fall of Man, which to

him is a fable that was never.a fact.15 He likes the idea of the For-

tunate Fall because it lets the spirit of man go free, not having to

answer to a God for what they have done.

With this background, one can begin to understand why Hawthorne

wrote about the subject. He was being pulled in two directions: one in

which the Puritans and his wife believed, and the other held by those who

were more liberal. Hawthorne did not have the strong faith of his· wife,

although he has expressed time and again he wished he did. Yet, he did

not feel entirely comfortable with the liberal view either.

Even though Hawthorne has told this story many times prior to ·The

Marble Faun; we have just seen it as a glimpse along with some other

religious themes, or suggested as allusions as in The House of the Seven

Gables. But in The Marble Faun he has made it his specific subject. One

can readily pick up the analogy to Adam and Eve within the story. Miriam,

of course, stands for Eve. Miriam is the first one who commits a sin in

the story as Eve was the first in the Garden of Eden. Because of Miriam's 7

association with Beatrice in the book, we can assume that Miriam's sin also is against her father just as Eve's was against her Heavenly Father.

Miriam, too, is the one who helps lead Donatello to his fall. If it had not been for her, Donatello might never have fallen.

Donatello may be compared to Adam.. He was not the original sinner, but lived in innocence until he met the woman who-induced him to sin.

Some theologians have speculated that Adam know full well what he was doing when he partook of the fruit, not being deceived as Eve. Donatello also knew full well what he was about to do. As Eve may have encouraged

Adam. to partake of the fruit verbally, Miriam encouraged Donatello to commit his sin with her eyes, which spoke for her--hence, his fall.

When Eve-partook of the fruit that the serpent held -before her, he beguiled her with thoughts of knowledge. It is the fruit of lmowledge of good and evil that he is pointing out to Eve, saying she would have the same lmowl:edge as God. It was this aspect of knowledge that in-

truiged Eve. It . is also lmowledge that intrigues the character in --The

Marble Faun. Because Donatello becomes wiser after-his sin, his friends feel he has attained someth:Lng important to human nature. The characters are searching for a specific kind of knowledge, nam.ely--is evil good?

This knowledge-�s what the serpent is trying to persuade Eve with, th at it is good for her to commit.the sin. He, of course, does not mention the consequences if she does. Hawthorne is inve·stiga ting this idea for himself within this book. Not only is he attempting to define The Fall and figure out if it is indeed· fortunate or not, but he is also trying

to justify God's ways to man •

When the uncorrupted, faun-like Donatello, who has grown up in rural Ardadia living close to nature, leaves and comes into contact with 8 evil in the corrupt city, he ends by committing a murder. This dreadful, sinful act, though apparently done innocently, leaves him a more thought- ful and mature person than he was before.

Soon after Donatello's experience, Miriam is the first to notice the analogy which happened in Eden and reflects,

The story·o£ the £all 0£ man! Is it not repeated in our romance ·of Monte Beni? And may we follow the analogy yet further? Was that\tha..tvery sin--into which Adam precipitated himself and all nis race,--was it the destined means by which, over a long pathway of toil and sorrow, we axe to attain a higher, brighter, and more profound happiness, than our lost birthright. gave?

Will not this .••account for the permitted existence of sin, as no other theory can? (p.491)

Here starts Hawthorne's questioning of the Fall of Man. Is Adam's sin fortunate? Is each man's reinactment of The Fall equally fortunate? If so, Hawthorne is saying that perhaps Donatello's sin is really a blessing.

Again Miriam asks of Kenyon, "Was it a means of education, bringing a simple and imperfect nature to a point of feeling and intelligence which it could have reached under no other discipline?" (p.491)

Hawthorne, through Miriam, is asking why God permits sin. One reason, he assumed, must be because it is educational; therefore, it must be good. But one cannot find this particular theory in the Bible. God put man into the garden for fellowship. God let man have a free will to be able to choose what he wanted to do and how he wanted to act. If

God did not let man have this choice, He would·have puppets with whom He could have no fellowship. This is not what God wanted. God placed Adam

1n a probationary position whereby he represented all other members of the human race. When Adam chose to sin against God, the whole htiman· race fell with him. After they did so, God in His love made a way to escape the consequences of eternal death. So God permitted sin for the sake of 9 fellowship, not for man's good . Those who consider The Fall fortunate are in reality trying to make· good out of evil . God has a stiff warning for such people . In Isaiah 5:.ZOff, God threatens:

Woe unto them that call evil good and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkne ss Woe unto ·them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight! . . . Therefore as the fire devoureth the stubble, and the "flame consumeth the chaff , so their·root shall be as·rottenness, and their blossom shall go up.as dusts because·they have cast away the law of the LORD of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel • . Therefore is the anger of the LORD kindled agaanst his people for all this His anger is ·not turned away • • • "

As we saw earlier , the people of the nineteenth century welcomed the idea of the Fortunate Fall because it was more compatible to what they wanted to believe . God's anger will be kindled against such people.

Just because Miriam asks whether or not Adam·'s fall is fortunate and therefore Donatello's , does not mean this is the theory Hawthorne holds .

It depends upo� �hich character one would choose as Hawthorne 's spokes- man.

We have· already seen partially what Miriam thinks . Before Donatello's fall , he is all innocence and incapable of feeling as deeply or thinking as deeply as ·the other members of the human race . His companions do not think of him as being truly human because certain characteristics which are part of th� human race seem denied him . But after his sin, he is seen as sadder and wiser, and is able to look at humanity and make statements about it that shoW"much thought, which is something he has not been able to do before . Miriam believes, then, that Donatello's fall opens up the way to a higher existence for him .

Not only does Miriam feel that sin has educated Donatello, but she 10

also feels that sin would be good for Hilda; for after Donatello and

Miriam's reinactment of The Fall, Hilda can feel no sympathy for what

Miriam is going through. Hence, Miriam says of Hilda, " .••as a human creature and a woman among earthly men and women, you need a sin to soften you." ( p.243)

But one cannot necessari�y choose Miriam as the sole spokesman.

Miriam is far more free with her thoughts and ideas than Hawthorne would probably be in real life·.· He would more nearly hold to the phil- osophy of Kenyon. Kenyon's position is like that of any human being at- tempting to understand God, man, and the universe. One reason one can assume Kenyon is Hawthorne's spokesman is that he is the one to whofil

Miriam and Hilda turn for advice, and is a reasonable person who may strike up a friendship with Donatello and be invited to his tower. He is also seen as a man of sympathy and understanding. His judgments are acceptable to the characters of the story and seem to be what Hawthorne 16 himself might have said. Kenyon, to whom Miriam is addressing her questions, does not know exac.tly what to think about her liberal views.

He tells Miriam that he fears·she is treading too deeply where 'She does not belong. Nevertheless, after watching Donatello and contemplating the change within him, he thinks over what Miriam tells him, and later dis- cusses the subject with Hilda. He hasn't any conclusions of his own when he talks to Hilda; he is all questions--no answers. Talking to

Hilda, he asks of her,

Here comes my perplexity . . . Sin has educated Donatello, and elevated him. Is sin, then,--which we deem such a dreadful blackness in the universe,--is it like sorrow, merely an element of human education, through which we struggle to a higher and purer state than we could otherwise have attained? Did Adam fall, that we might ultimately rise to a loftier paradise than his? ( p.519) 11 '

He goes on again to tell Hilda,· "You do not know, for you never learned it from your own heart, which is all purity and rectitude, what a mix-

I ture of good there may be in evil . " ( p.4- J6)

Hilda, who reP,resents the Puritan view, is aghast at this sugges� tion. With such a reaction of horror on the part of Hilda, Kenyon quickly backs down and retracts what he has said, saying he never did believe it fn the first place. But Kenyon ponders both Miriam's and

Hilda's views·, and he ·is still questioning. He finds that neither one is quite satisfactory to him.

Hilda, of course, reacts with horror to Miriam and Kenyon's sug- gestion as to the Fortunate Fall of Man. To her, there is nothing for.- tunate about 'Ihe Fall at all. In retaliation to Kenyon's question

whether there is any 600d in evil, she answers, " , ••there is, I believe, only one right and one wrong, and I do not understand, and may

God keep me from ever understanding, how two things so totally unlike can be mistaken for one another . • •" ( p �437) Hilda does not believe that The Fall has enlightened·111an for his good but has instead lowered man. As has been previously-stated, she is the representative of the

Puritan thought and it has often been said that Hawthorne.wished he could have the faith of Hilda. She is very strong in what she believes and will not tolerate any other view. She continues to reprimand Kenyon by· saying, "Do -you not perceive what a mockery your· creed makes, not only of all religious sentiments, but of moral law? And how it annuls and obliterates whatever precepts of Heaven a.re deepest within us?" ( p.520)

When Kenyon says to Hilda, "Were you my guide, my counsellor, my inmost friend, with that white wisdom which clothes you as a celestial garment, all would go well. 0 Hilda, guide me home!" ( p.520) , it is conceivable 12

to imagine Hawthorne saying the same thing • There is a parallel be·-

tween what Kenyon has just asked of Hilda and how Hawthorne thought of

his wife, Sophia. Hawthorne felt himself "saved" by his marriage to

Sophia because her faith helped counteract his own dark questionings.·

Kenyon may be wiser in the ways of the world, but Hilda is wiser when

1t comes to religious truth.

Hawthorne seems to have given Hilda a special insight concerning

the Fortunate Fall that he has not given to the others. Miriam be-

lieves and Kenyon wonders that, "since sin is education, we ought to

violate our conscience in order to attain the improvement ·that will

17 . result." But to Hilda, her friends are conf'using history and the

actual fall. The Fall describes the constant human condition--that sin

is original in all men; no one is �eft out, and it is considered an un-

fortunate happening. If taken as history, then some might be led to

question if we ought to imitate Adam and sin deliberately, so that Christ,

who is the second Adam, may come to redeem us. But God clearly covers

this very point in the Scripture when he inspires the Apostle Paul to

write in Romans 5i20-6i2i " ...-. where sin abounded, grace did much more

abound; .•.What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that

grace may abound? God forbid." The idea o-f' the Fortunate Fall has many

theological implications, but as Hilda points out, they are all the wrong 18 ones.

I have given much credit to Hilda within this thesis, and rightly

so. Even though' she may have ·her weak points, she is the one whom

Hawthorne puts high in a tower within the heavens to worship; and even

when he did bring· her down to earth, he brought her down to be "enshrined

and worshipped as a household saint • • " ( p.523) If Hawthorne adores 13

Hilda this much, we as readers should give her the credit she deserves.

But there seem to be some who do not give her the credit which she so rightly deserves. Virginia Birdsall, in her essay entitled "Hawthorne's

Fair-Headed Maidens1 '!be Fading Light," downgrades Hawthorne's fair- haired ladies and describes Hilda by using a description taken out of

Mosses From an Old Manses

Here was the pure, modest, sensitive, and shrinking woman of America,--shrinking when no evil is intended, and sensitive like diseased flesh, that thrills i£ you but point at it; and strangely modest, without confidence in the modesty of other people; and admirably pure, with such a quick apprehension of all impurity.1119

I certainly do not see Hilda shrinking when there is no evil in- tended; she only shrinks from·evil, which is something everyone ought to do. Even though Ms. Birdsall may have this unfavorable opinion of Hilda, she realizes this cannot be taken as Hawthorne's view, for in a footnote she comments, "Since this description, in context, is included as a pa.rt of a satirical comment on Eilgkish travellers in America, it reflects a 20 point of view with which Hawthorne probably did not agree.

Ms. Birdsall would like'to suggest that Hawthorne felt himself to be "haunted rather than actually won over" by these fair-headed maidens

21 and "that his attitude toward them remained always ambivalent." She feels that Hawthorne subconsciously feels attracted to the dark ladies and thinks the fair ones "dull and wishy-washy." Because of this she feels that within '!be Marble Faun, "Miriam has become the figure whose influence is significant, and Hilda is left to be little more than an

1122 onlooker • • But again in her footnotes she states that this is a "somewhat controversial position." If her idea is so controversial, then it is safe to assume that the opposite is true, which is what this thesis maintains--that the dark-haired ladies are not the true heroines, 14

but the fair-headed.

There are many effects which took place immediately after The Fall which Hawthorne has incorporated into the romance. The first is found in Genesis 3J7,10, which consist of a feeling of personal and fear on the part of· Adam and Eve. Miriam and Donatello feel this, too, right after their fall. They try to throw their guilt feelings 0££. Miriam

tells Dona�llo, "Forget it! Cast it all behind you! •.•The deed has done its office and has no existence any more." (j>. 207.) But it does not work to forget the evil one has committed. It will �ome back to haunt you.

Soon after Miriam has counselled Donatello thus, "she shivered" because of her thoughts: she found she could not lightly toss away the deed they had done out of her mind. She realized that what they had done connected them with others who had done likewise, "all of them, and many

another •••has been made our brother and sister, by what we have done this hour!" (p.208) Donatello realizes they are now "cemented with his

(the dead man's) blood." (p.206) He also realized that it corrupted them and their deed would "grow more noisome forever and forever." (p .207)

Alas, they will never be able to forget it as long as they live.

The second effect of The Fall was a loss of· fellowship with God.

Before The Fall, God came down into the garden to talk with Adam and

Eve. Adam and Eve were always there, waiting also for the fellowship and time of talking. But after their sin, it was not the same. They could not face the sinless God and hid themselves. They could no 10nger talk to Him freely and neither could God talk with them as freely as before. Miriam and Donatello also realize their sin and know they, too, have lost their fellowship with God. They can no longer pray with ease. 15

Soon after their fall, the two behold Hilda in her tower with her hands

clasped exte.nding towards heaven. She is praying. At that moment Miriam's

"own sin ruled· upon her and she shouted, with the rich strength of her

voice, 'Pray for us, Hilda, we ·need it!'" (p.209) Hilda has committed

no sin; therefore, heaven and the throne of God a.re open unto her and she

may freely enter with prayer whenever she wishes--not so with Miriam and

Donatello. As soon as Miriam cries to Hilda to pray for them, Hilda im­

mediately shuts the window and disappears. "Miriam felt this to be a

token that the cry of her condemned spirit was shut out of heaven.;, (p.209)

One cannot have sin within himself and be able to talk to God, Isaia�

591l,21 "Behold,-· :the LORD's hand is not shortened, that it cannot· save,

neither His ear heavy, that i·t cannot hear. But your iniquities have

separated between you and your God, and your sins have hidden his face

from you, that he will not hear." ·so far, Miriam: and Donatello have not

asked God for forgiveness of their sin. As yet, they feel they have done

no wrong, for Miriam tells Donatello, "Surely, it is no crime that we

have committed. One wretched·and worthless life has been sacrificed to

cement two other lives for evennore." (p.206) Donatello agrees, respond­

ing, "For evennore, Miriam!" The only way they will begin to feel peace

and come back into fellowship with God is to cas� away their pride, admit

they have done wrong, and ask for forgiveness.

After Adam and Eve sinned, they were afrai� to meet with God. ·There­

fore, " .••Adam and Eve hid themselves from the presence of the LORD

GOD amongst the trees of the garden," (Genesis 318). When the Lord came

to the garden, as was His custom· every day at the same time, He called

out for Adam, for it was the first time that Adam had not been there waiting. Adam answered say��· "I heard thy voice in the garden, and I 16

was afraid, ..•and I hid myself." (Genesis )110) But Adam found out

he cannot hide from God. Neither can the two companions in The Marble

Faun. Miriam and Donatello think they can forget the sin.they have com-

initted and only they themselves will know what they have done. At first,

there is security in that thought. Alas, it is not to be, for just a

few minutes after their sin, Miriam finds herself thinking, "Where, then,

was the seclusion, the remoteness, the strange, lonesome Paradise, into

which she and her companion had been transported by their crime? Was

there, indeed, no such refuge ••.?" (p.208) Miriam finally knows what

each person must sooner or later find out--there is no refuge away from

God. One cannot run away from Him, Psalm 1)717-121

Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? Or whither shall I flee

from thy presence? ••.If I say, Surely the darkness shall

cover me; even the night shall be light about me • Yea, the · darkness hideth not from thee, but the night shineth as the day; the darkness and the light are both alike to thee.

Miriam also realizes that one sin is all it takes to associate her

with all of the other sinners of the human race and that she is no better

or worse than they. However, she does not like the idea; to her it is a

" terrible thought, that an individual wrong-doing melts into the great

. mas1S of human crime, and makes us--who dreamed only of our own little

sin,--makes us guilty of the whole." (p.208) It may be a terrible

thought, but the Bible says, "For whosoever shall keep the whole law,

and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all," (James 2110).

Another effect of The Fall was the cursing of the serpent and all

animals. '!be serpent is "cursed above all cattle, and above every

beast of the field •• :•(Genesis )114), and is condemned to crawl upon

his belly. Because of Adam and Eve's fall, nature is cursed as well, with the serpent receiving the worst judgment because it is the one used 17

by for beguiling Eve, and consequently, Adam, into sinning. Be­

cause of the serpent, Adam and Eve must now die. And since the animal

kingdom is cursed, Adam �nd Eve no longer have the same relationship with

it as before '!he Fa.11. Prior to The Fall, they could walk among ·the an­

imals without being afraid. It. might also be considered that they had

some sort of communication with the animals and could converse back and

forth, since Eve and the serpent talked to each other. It must have been

a natural thing to do; otherwise Eve would have been frightened away.

Hawthorne plays upon this idea heavily

tello as a faun, born in innocence and able also to communicate with the

animals, living in Arcadia, a "Golden Age, before mankind was burdened

with sin and sorrow, and before pleasure had been darkened with those

shadows that bring it into high relief, and make it happiness." (p.104)

Before his fall, while he and Miriam were. in a garden, a bird hap­

pened by. "Donatello gave a peculiar call, and the little feathered

creature ca.me fluttering about his head, as if it had known him through

many summers." (p.103) Miriam, observing this, thinks to herself, "How

close he stands to nature!" (p.lOJ) After Donatello's fall, this was not

to be. When Kenyon talks Donatello into trying to communicate with the

animals, Donatello is unsure, replying, "I doubt whether they will remem­

ber my voice now. It changes, you know, as the boy grows toward manhood."

(p.286) In other words, because of sin, he is changed, and the animals

may not recognize him. Nevertheless, he tries two or three times. The

only thing that comes to him is a brown lizard, which Hawthorne uses as

a symbol for the serpent. When Donatello sees the lizard, he flings himself on the ground, sobbing. Kenyon cannot understand why his friend is in so much anguiah. When asked, Donatello replies, "Death, Death. 18

They know it.'' (p.288) This the sculptor does not understand. "Who know it?", Kenyon wants to know; · · "And what is it they know?" (p; 288) So with a broken heart Donatello explains to his friend, "They know it, they shun me! I live in the midst of a curse . No innocent

thing can come ·near me •..they are friends of mine no longer." (p.288)

The serpent is what helped bring death to Adam and Eve, and it is the lizard which symbolizes a serpent that makes Donatello realize that he, too, must die because of his sin. Kenyon, trying to comf°ort Donatello, tells him, "We all of us, as we grow older, lost somewhat of our proximity to nature. It is the price we have to pay for experience." (p.288-9)

Donatello, speaking, I'm sure, for the whole human race, replies, "A heavy price, then!" (p.289)

The Fall· of Man also resulted in the woman being in subjection to the man. It is only after The Fall that the Lord commands the husband to have rule over the wife. When The Marble Faun _opens, we find Miriam and Hilda both·single and independent, trying to make a living for them­ selves. In fact, Miriam takes pride in the fact that she is single and able to handle her own affairs. It is only after theft. f'all that she replies, "I threw away my pride." (p.364) Whereas before, she wanted to cast off Donatello, she now desperately wants him. She would "willingly fling her woman's pride at his feet." (p.J64) Hilda, too, comes down from her old tower and changes her life--to be ,.worshipped as a household saint, in the light of her husband's fireside." (p.521) For the first time, Hilda seems to be human, encompassing herself in a human condition-­ marriage, which requires of her, at least at that time, to be in sub­ jection to her own husband. Another curse that came because of The Fall was the sentence of 19

physical death. God tells Adam· and Eve, "In the sweat of thy face shalt

thou eat bread, till thou return unto the grounds for out of it wast thou

taken: for dust thou a.rt, and unto dust shalt thou return." (Genesis 3il9)

As we have seen earlier, Donatello comes to the realization that for his

sin, he must die. He now comprehends the extent of his sin. He is no

longer innocent. Donatello is now left with a terrible sense of loneli�

ness, of being alien to the world. He has now found out that innocence

23 is a condition of the mind rather that a place. Because of this, Dona-

tello's whole being changes. The sculptor, Kenyon, sees Donatello after

the crime, and "was surprised and alarmed to observe how entirely the

fine, fresh glow of animal spirits had departed out of his face ...All

his youthful gaiety, and with it his simplicity of manner was eclipsed,

if not utterly extinct." ( p.213) Sin de.finitely changes a person. Some-

times the change can be seen on the outside. One can, at ti.mes, look at

a person and judge what kind of person he is. It seems to show through

in his talk, actions, and even by the way he looks in the face. One

look at Donatello's face, and Kenyon can tell the d.ifference.

So also can Miriam tell the difference. When we first look at

Miriam's ideas about the Fall of Man, we see she thinks Donatello's

action was a·good thing. But this is only what she says. I am convinced

that is not how she really feels, but that she would like to believe this

only because it is convenient for her to do so. When she sees Donatello

after he has committed his sin, and sees how he is changed, she does not think it is for the better. Notice that the good qualities she expresses

about Donatello are all in the past tense:

You were the rarest creature in all the world, and seemed a being to whom sorrow could not cling--you, whom I fancied to belong to a race that had vanished forever, you only surviving, 20

to show mankind how genial and how joyous life used to be, in some long gone age--what had you to do with grief or crime? .

mine is the responsibility .••my heart foreboded it--that the cloud in which I walked would likewise envelop you. ( p.230) ·

Before The Fall, man was innocent, knowing no crime. But with Eve and her fall she drew man into sin as well. Miriam, as Eve, has pulled

Donatello down from some higher plane into her own lower one. Miriam says of Donatello, "He has done himself a greater wrong than .I have dreamed of ...Alas! it was a sad mistake." ( p.232) Yes, it was a sad mistake, one which he would have to die for.

The last consequence of The Fall is the expulsion from the Garden of Eden. God was concerned that man might eat of the , and live forever in his sin, and then God would not be able to make a way for man to escape. "So he drove out the man, and he placed at the east of the Garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life." (Genesis 3124) So man was turned out from the Garden. Miriam and Donatello, too, find themselves placed within a garden befora their fall. It is a beautiful garden; it seems as if the Golden Age had "come back again within the precincts of

' this sunny glade, thawing mankind out of their cold formalities."· ( p.106)

It was a glimpse back into the old Arcadic way of life before sin had entered into the garden. In this garden, while everyone is dancing,

"Miriam resembled a Nymph, as much as Donatello did a Faun." ( p.106)

Hawthorne has Miriam living as she would have been in the past. Donatello, encouraged by Miriam's behavior, asks everyone to "Dance! dance!" For

"if we take breath, we shall be as we were yesterday . . . Dance , Miriam, dance!" ( p.107) So Miriam dances and Donatello tries his best to continue the spell. Regretfully, it cannot last for long. Soon, in the midst of 21

all the gaiety, there come evil omens, "Always some tragic incident is s hadowed forth or thrust sidelong into the s pectacle." (p.110) It does not take long for Miriam to retire from the dance� Donatello rushes to

her, urg ing h P.r to come back • He cries out, "Why should this happy-· hour e nd s o soon.? " (p. t 11) With words of wisdom, Miriam replies, "It must end here1,Donatello •.•.•.and .such· hour5, �believe, do,not often repeat themselves in a 'lifetime." (p. 111) Miriam is not far from the truth.

Those happy hours before The Fall will never come again •. They never return to the garden again, because soon arter comes their fall, and she and Donatello go into hiding.

Because sin and death have entered the world, one can no longer have an Arcadian way of life. Whether or not The Fall was fortunate, Hawthorne has not yet told us, and has basically left it impossible for us to know what he thought. It cannot be told without violating Hawthorne's sense of the truth of life as he perceives it, and without his sense of the limitations of words and rational thoughts in such areas. True, Miriam; who believes The Fall is fortuante and often characterizes Hawthorne's darker side, receives his sypipathy, but she cannot always act as his

sp�kesman •. Even if he did give:her his sympathy, Hawthorne admired

Hilda's view more and wished he could have her faith. Miriam simply raises a question which is within Hawthorne's mind, but evidently he can­ not give us a decisive answer. Or perhaps the qu�stion raised is impos­ sible for him to answer. As it is impossible for Kenyon and Donatello to speak the meaning of the green shrub growing on the tower, Hawthorne notices that "It is a great mistake to try to put our best thoughts into ruman lan�a�e." (p.298) 22

Sometimes, what words cannot do, the arts can . In a passage from

Hawthorne 's Notebooks , he says , "pictorial art , devoutly exerc ised, might effect in behalf of religious truth; involving, as it does , deeper mys- teries of revelation, and bringing them close to man 's heart , and making him tenderer to be impressed by them, than the most eloquent words or

24 preacher or prophets ." To know what the romance at its deepest level means , we need to veer aw�y from the questions of Miriam: and Kenyon to

2 the myths and symbols Hawthorne uses to mold the story. 5

To do this, we turn to the chapter called "Myths" . "In it, Haw- thorne gives us what Miriam , on another occasion, demands of Donatello ,

'the latest news from Arcady ,' which is, in effect, that nature has no

26 cure for what· ails us ." However beautiful the old Arcadian myths may be, however sad it is we have lost our innocence , they are not true in this fallen world . Now that he has experienced sin, Donatello can no longer reenter Arcadia .

The main thrust of this chapter is the legend of the spring , near

Donatello 's castle . One of his forefathers found it to be inhabited by a beautiful maiden with whom he fell in love . On summer days she would appear and cool his brow with her touch . One day the maiden refused to appear because his ancestor tried to wash off a bloodstain in the pool .

Summer, here , is a symbol of innocence before The Fall , and during this time being close to nature is enough . Eventually, winter has to come and with it comes death , and Arcadianism cannot deal with this.

Kenyon, who seems to be the one who understands the symbolism within this , comments on the legend of the springs "He (Kenyon) understood it as an apologue , typifying the soothing and genial effects of an habitual 3 2

intercourse with nature , in all ordinary cares and griefs , while , on the

other hand , her mild influences fall short in their effect upon the ruder

passions, and are altogether powerless in the dread fever-fit or deadly

chill of guilt.·" (p. 5) The two friends talk a little and then part. 28

Sin and death have entered the world , leaving it no longer innocent. So ,

whether or not The Fall is fortunate is impossible to answer , "but at

lea3t the world we know is no unfallen earthly paradise . Evil is in it,

7 and nature itself offers no satisfactory cure ."2

So what is the cure Hawthorne gives us? It is not the same cure

the Bible has to offer . The cure according to Hawthorne , "insofar as

there is any , lies partly in repentance and love in this world , and partly

8 in the hope of another life ."2 · Part of this is Biblical . The only cure

the Bible has to offer against the evil in this world and against an ever-

lasting death is one of repentance and accepting Jesus Christ as Savior .

This is what The Marble Faun and all Hawthorne 's other stories dealing

with this subject are lacking. When one talks of The Fall of Man , included

is a Savior to redeem one from an everlasting fall . Man cannot save him-

self after he has sinned, and this story has no Savior to redeem Miriam ,

Donatello and the others as there is in the Bible .

Hawthorne , however , does use repentance as a way of redemption . Re-

pentance is the first thing the Bible asks of us . In Acts Jil9, it

states, "Repent ye therefore , and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out • • " After his sin, Donatello is never the same again. He

is worried about what he has done , but Miriam persuades him , "Forget it!

Cast it all behind you . The deed has done its office , and has no

existence any more ." (p. 7) So , at first, they fling the past behind 20

them. A few years later, however , Donatello cannot keep the sin within 24

him. He is "haunted with .strange remorse, and an urunitigable resolve to

obtain what he deems justice u:po n himself ." ( p.490) He feels that, "when

a wrong has been done, the doer is bound to submit himself to whatever

tribunal takes cognizance of such things, and abide its judgments ."

( p·�490 ) Donatello knew that to receive a certain peace and contentment

of heart, he would have to repent. But it does not do him much good; he

is only repenting to man and not to God . Man could not save Donatello;

he is sentenced for life. He went to no one who could redeem him. Re-

penting to man is important, but·if it is salvation one is looking for,

he must also repent to God .

As there was no salvation for Donatello, neither is there any sal-

vation for Miriam . Miriam does not believe that repentance, especially

to man, is needed. She tried hard to combat Donatello 's need of repent-

ance, but it was in vain. She assured him that there is "no such thing as earthly justice, and especially none here, under the head of Christ-

endom." ( p.490 ) Again , Miriam is wrong . The world is to judge those who

do wrong. If not, crime wohld be rampant. Therefore, God has set rulers

in authority �o make laws and to make sure those laws are carried out.

Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers . Whosoever, therefore, resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God ..

For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil ••• For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do

that which is evil, be afraid; •••for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil . Romans 13:1-4

If Miriam cannot repent, no sa-l vation will come to her .

Hawthorne also uses love as a cure for mankind. Because of sin,

both Miriam and Donatello grow inwardly. Miriam no longer lives in iso- lation and thinks only of herself . She lets herself fall in love with 25

Donatello and when he has been put away for life , she dedicates herself

to a life of penitence and to the service of the one she loves. It is

for love that Donatello commits his sin and because of sin grows morally and spiritually. Hilda comes down from her tower to marry Kenyon and

even repents of turning away Miriam at a time when Miriam needs her most.

In short, all the characters fall in love .

Despite the use of love in Hawthorne 's romances, this has not saved

them. Obviously, love does not help Hester and Dimmesdale within The

Scarlet Letter . Hester pleads w1th Dimmesdale when he is dying , to tell

29 her they "have ransomed one another with all this woe!11 But the min­

ister can promise her nothing . and Holgrave , in The House of the

Seven Gables fall in love , too . But it does not save them. They do what

the past generations have done . Evil does not get better . They move from the Pyncheon house, which is terribly mixed up with evil , to a new

Pyncheon house that is bought with bad money . And Holgrave , instead of

sticking to his origianl ideals, leaves them and becomes like the Pyn­

cheon forefathers. Holgrave now wishes that Jaffery Pyncheon had made his house out of stone instead of wood , so it could be passed down from generation to generation instead of letting each generation start over anew . This is Hawthorne 's way of showing that there is no escaping evil . The Bible says the sins of your fathers will visit you even unto

the third and fourth generations . There is no Savior in this novel either.

So what is the main hope Hawthorne supplies? That of an afterlife : but it is used in the wrong way . Hilda is the story 's guiding light.

"The 'higher hopes' of another life that will rectify the wrongs of this one are implied in Kenyon 's deference to Hilda, in his plea that she lead 26

him home .1130 Hilda is the solid religious person in this story and Ken­

yon is the skeptic . Hilda is the one who tends to the light--the light

which stands for religious faith. She makes sure it will never ©O out .

As the light is high in the tower , it seems to be a symbol for a higher

hope--that of heaven. It would be for Hilda , for throughout this novel

she has carried through the idea of the Puritan thought quite well .

There is no doubt that the Puritans believed in an after-life . But to

go to heaven, one needs a Savior·, and again, this is lacking in the


Hawthorne uses other imagery to suggest hope . At the beginning

of the chapter called "The Owl Tower ," we find Donatello and Kenyon

climbing its stairs . Kenyon, in this chapter , sees many different analo­

gies, all having to do with hope for man . Kenyon sees the stairs as man's life in his spiritual state . One starts at the bottom and the

stairs are difficult to climb; nevertheless, one may "struggle upward

into the pure air and light of Heaven at last ." (p.292) This may sug­

gest that Hawthorne feels it is up to man to_ get to heaven, maybe by his good works, and that it is a struggle all the way . But the Bible does

not teach this . It is not a struggle to get to heaven; it comes instant- aneously as a gift . " It is the gift of God; not of works , lest any man should boast ." (Ephesians 218 ,9)

At the end of the chapter , Donatello and Kenyon are beholding the landscape . They can see 'two or three different types of weather from where they are s sunshine in one part , black patches from clouds , a thunderstorm , and then sunshine again. Kenyon can see an analogy to this , comparing it to God and man's life . Man, on the bottom , cannot under­ stand the ways of God. Therefore , Kenyo n asks for God's will to be done . 27

Soon after this vision, he sees "a little shrub , with green and glossy leaves growing out of the stone pavement. Donatello wonders if the shrub teaches any good lesson. It must, he conjectures, if the wide valley has one . Kenyon replies that it must, "or it would have perished long ago . II ( p.2 99) And since it' 1has beerr with Donatello all his life ,

Kenyon asks Donatello the meaning . But Donatello replies, "It teaches me nothing ," then adds , "But here was a worm that would have killed it; an ugly creature , which I will fling over the battlements ." (p.299) Even though he cannot see an immediate meaning , he must have felt one was there or he would not have killed the worm . If Kenyon sees any meaning here , he utters none ; neither does Hawthorne . Earl-ier, Kenyon' s view of the landscape increases his "reliance on His providence" (p.298) whereas

Donatello sees nothing but sunshine and shadows, and no particular rea- son for either one . Kenyon has just told his companion that "it is a great mistake to put our best thoughts into human language ." (p.298) Now , when he sees the green shrub growing out of the tower , he cannot even attempt to state the meaning for Donatello. The tradi tiona.l color of hope is green, and the plant is growing in a most �ikely place . The chapter ends with Donatello killing the worm that would have destroyed his hope •31

Toward the beginning of the book in the chapter called "Subterran- ean Reminiscences ," the four companions find themselves deep within the catacombs . They "wandered by torchlight through a sort of dream ." (p.39)

The dream Hawthorne has them go through is a symbol of man's life . They start out in darkne ss . Donatello and Hilda, both of whom Hawthorne re- gards as innocents , find the darkness revolting . Darkness can suggest I 28 sin and death , and heretofore , Donatello and Hilda have not experienced

sin, so that they are not prepared for the darkness of the catacombs .

In other words , they are not prepared for the sin which their lives en­ counter .

The darkenss does not bother Miriam as it does the other two . She is more experienced in the things of the world and hardened by sin. The only thing that bothers Miriam about the darkness of the catacombs is

"the possibility of going astray in this labyrinth of darkness .. II

(p.41 ) It does· not matter to Miriam what one believes, only that one does believe . When Kenyon asks the guide if anyone has ever been lost in the catacombs , he is told the story of "a pagan of old , who hid himself in order to spy out and betray the blessed saints , who then dwelt and worshipped in these dismal places." (p.41) The pagan has ever since been groping in the darkness. The pagans, those who do not believe in God , will live in darkness forever. They will never see the light which is God.

While this story is being told, Miriam loses herself within the darkness of the catacombs . Miriam is not a strict Christian; therefore , it is easy for the darkness of the world to pull her away . But later, she comes back to the brightly lit spot where the rest of her companions are . She has something within her that makes her want to come back to the light. So it is with most humans .-- something compels them to believe that there is a God . As the group is making their journey through the catacombs , "their gloomy pathway tended upward , so that , through a crev­ ice, a little daylight slimmered down upon them, or even a streak of sunshine peeped into a burial niche ." �p.40) Since God is Light, man's need is to receive the light which comes from Him , leaving the darkness 29

behind . But, as we are humans , we sin, and sometimes go back into the

darkex recesses of the cave , as did the four friends . Yet, in the end,

they all come out into the sunl ight, even the old pagan . "Here every­

thing about this context unites to suggest a purely 'religious' hope-­

1132 in the sense of a hope for immortality .

So , Hawthorne leaves us only with a hope that there is an after­

life . He also comes to no direct conclusion whether The Fall is fortu-

nate . It may be that he , like Kenyon, f.ibd.s it hard to express his best

thoughts in human language and decides to remain dumb on the issue . It

may also depend upon which character 's view one considers the truth ac­

cording to Hawthorne . This may have been Hawthorne 's point, that every ­

human being interprets whatever comes his way differently than another being, as Kenyon and Donatello do with the landscape . He has left it up

to us as individuals what we hold as truth concerning the Fortunate Fall

of Man . On the day we behold our Savior face to face , then we shall

know what now remains a mystery to some .

Many reader� and critics are disappointed with The Marble Faun, and

�ightly so . It should have been Hawthorne 's best romance in that his whole career had prepared him for it, for most of his short �tories and

all of his completed romances had been written prior to The Marble Faun .

Instead, is superior to them all , and even The

Blithedale Romance is easier reading , for there are many passages one wishes to skip over in The Marble Faun, and may do so with no damage to

the plot . "There is a very large gap in it between intended and achieved

meaning . Hawthorne failed with Rome , and he failed with Hilda , and both were essential to the achievement of his intention."JJ 30

Hilda is a stereotype of a nineteenth century woman . "The only way of interpreting her that will 'save' Hawthorne and his novel is to take the :portrait (of Hilda) ironically, but this we cannot do if we consider all of the evidence ."34 Miriam tells us that Hilda 's innocence is like

"a sharp steel sword ," which makes for judgments that are "terribly severe ." Here it seems safe to assume that Hawthorne agrees with Miriam .

Yet her sharp innocence is partly what Hawthorne finds attractive in

Hilda. . He pays much tribute to her and has Kenyon marry her so that she may guide him home in the area of faith .

But to us, as modern day readers, Hilda is a little hard to stomach .

She seems very self-righteous and is uncharitable. Her main course throughout the novel is to keep herself spotless . This in itself is not necessarily disagreeable , but rather the way in which she goes about it, lacking human warmth. She is very adamant in turning away her friend ,

Miriam , just when she needs her most, because she does not want to be- come stained with the contact of sin. It is only at the very end of the book that Hilda softens and repents that she did not help her friend .

She does come down from her tower to marry Kenyon , but she still keeps her self-righteousne ss . According to Hawthorne , she came down "to be h'0rl:;-elf�-·enshrined and worshipped as a household saint ." ( p .521) Hilda never believes for a moment that there can be any mixture of good and evil, which is something Hawthorne 's male characters have to learn . But

Hawthorne felt this way charming to young girls and did not want them to gain a knowledge of the world . Men protected the women of the nineteenth century from the reality of the world , because it is not · pleasant to the woman to know it and come into contact with it . 31

Hawthorne , too, greatly depended on all that Rome has to offer to

help him with this book. If Hilda is a failure, Rome is a much greater one. Rome typified the nast, experience, and sin, and he contrasts it 35 with America with its new beginning and innocence. This would have been a good idea had he pursued it and worked it out with more detail .

But it ·seems as if he ju�t took very long passages from hi s Notebooks and flung them into the romance. There is too much about Rome and art, and one wishes to skip such passages entirely. His carrying out the theme of The Fall is excellent, but this alone cannot carry the novel.

Even while The Marbl e Faun has these impairment s, it does have some strengths. It is easy to pick up the connection between the original

Fall of Man and Donatello 's fall. You also have your choice of theme s.

Not only are there theolo gical ones , but there are philosophical and psychological themes as well. There is nothing quite like this within

Hawthorne's period. We, ouselves, can sympathize with Donatello, for it is not just he, but all of us who "travel in a circle, as all things heavenly and earthly do ." So, we find that Hawthorne feels the loss of innocence is sad , and it is very naive t� think that we have not lost it, too. 1n 0utraged, suffering humanity' must learn to live with 36 1the blackness that lies beneath us, everywhere. '" But let us be like Kenyon wh en up in the tower overlooking the storming land �cape.

"Within the domain of chaos, as it were, (he sa�) hill-tops • • •

brightening in the sunshine ••••"( p.305) He learned that even

though what now remains a mystery to man, God is still in control •.

"His will be done.'! (p.298) FOOTNOTES

1. Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Marble Faun (Chicago: Houghton Mifflin Co ., 1860) , pl491 . (Subsequent references to The Marble Faun will be shown in the text with the page number in parentheses.)

2. Hyatt H. Waggoner , Hawthorne a A Collection of Critical Essays , edited by A.N. Kaul (Englewood Cliffs , N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1966) , p.164.

3. Ibid. , p .164.

4. Ibid ., p.164.

5, Hyatt H. Waggoner , Hawthorne: A Critical Study (Cambridge , Mass .: The Belknap Press of Harvard Univsity Press, 1963) , p.21).

6. John Milton, Areo:pagetica and Of Education (N.Y.: Appleton-Century­ Crafts , Inc., 1951), p.17.

7, Giles Fletcher , The Poetical Works of Giles Fletcher and Phineas Fletcher (Cambridge a University Press , 1908), I, p.61.

8. George Buttrick, The Interpeter 's Bible (Abington Press, 1952) ,I, p.502 .

9. Ibid. ,

10. Paul Roubiczek, The Misinterpretation of Man (Port Washington ,N.Y. 1 Kennikat Press, Inc., 1957), p. 1,2.

11 . Ibid . , p . 2 .

12 . . Ibid.

13. Ibid.

14. Walter E Houghton, The Victorian Frame of Mind (New Haven, Conn.a Yale University Press, 1957), p. 48.

15 . Ibid. , p • 271 •

16 . Buttrick, p. 502

17. Mar jorie J. Elder , Nathaniel Hawthorne a Transcendental Symbolist (Ohio University Press, 1969) p. 166.

18. Waggoner , p. 166.

19. Ibid . , p. 167.

20 . Virginia Ogdon Birdsall , "Hawthornes Fair-Headed Maidens: The Faiding Light" , AmU zi Literar Works r A Guide for Colle e Students, edited by Lee Steinmetz Evanston , Il l.:Row, Peterson, and Co ., 1962) ' p • 184 . 21 . Ibid. , p. 184.

22. Ibid. , p.18J.

23 . Ibid. , p • 18 5. 24 . Terence Martin, Nathaniel Hawthorne (N.Y. t Twayne Publishers , Inc., 1965) , p. 168.

25. Waggoner , p. 168 .

26. Ibid . ,

27 . Ibid .

28 . Ibid . , p . 169 .

29. Norman Holmes Pearson, and Tales of Nathaniel Hawthorne , ed. ( N.Y.s Randon House , 1937), p. 236.

JO. Waggoner , p. 170.

31 . Ibid .

)2. Ibid., p. 171 .

JJ .

)4. Ibid. , p. 173.

J5. Ibid.

)6. Ibid. , p. 174. B I B L I 0 G R A P H Y

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Cohen , B. Bernard . Tha Recognition of Nathaniel Hawthorne . Ann Arbor s The University of Michigan Press, 1969 .

Elder, Marjorie J. Nathan iel Hawthorne s Transcendental Symbolist . Ohio University Press, 1969 ,

Fletcher , Giles . The Poetical Works of Giles Fletcher and Phineas Fletcher . Cambridges University Press , 1908.

Fogle , Richard Harter . Hawthorne Fictions The Ligh t and Dark . Univ­ ersity of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

Gronbech, Vilhelm . Religious Currents in the Nineteenth Century. Lawrence s The University of Kansas Press, 1964.

Gross, Seymour L. A 11Scarlet Letter\' Handbook. San Francisco : Wadsworth Publishing Co ., 1960 .

Houghton, . Walter E. The Victorian Frame of Mind. New Have n, Conn .1Yale University Press, 1957 .

Kaul , A.N. Hawthorne s A Collection of Critical Essays . Englewood Cliffs, N .J. ' Prentice-Hall , Inc.,1966.

Lewis, R.W.B. The American Adam . The University of Chicago Press, 1955 ·

Male, Roy R. Hawthorne 's Tragic Vision. University of Texas Press. 1957 ,

Martin, Terence . Nathaniel Hawthorne . N.Y. s Twayne Publishers, Inc., 1965.

Mc Pherson, Hugo . Hawthorne as Myth Maker . University of Toronto Press , 1971.

Milton, John. Areopagetica and Of Education . N.Y.1 Appleton- Century­ Crofts, Inc • , 1951 .

Pearce �. Roy Harvey � Hawthorne Centenary Essays . Ohio State University Press, 1964.

Pearson, Norman Holmes. The Novels and Tales of Nathaniel Hawthorne . N.Y.s Random House . 1937 ,

Roubiczek, Paul . The Misinterpretation of Mans Studies in Europe an Though t of the Nineteenth Century . Port Washington, N.Y. 1 Kennikat Press, 1947 .

Steinmetz, Lee. Analyzing Literary Works1 A Guide for College Students . Evan ston, Ill.1 Row, Peterson, & Co ., 1962 .

Stewart , Randall . and Christian Doctrine . Baton Rouge s Louisiana State University Press, 1958. Waggoner , Hyatt H. Hawthorne s A Critical Study . Cambridge , Mass .a The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 196).

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Willey, Basil More Nineteenth Century Studiess A Group of Honest Doubters . N.Y. 1 Columbia University Press, 1956.