Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 24 (5): 1679-1683, 2016 ISSN 1990-9233 © IDOSI Publications, 2016 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2016.24.05.23485

Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Thirumanur Block, District, Tamilnadu,

12G. Vijayakumar and G. Baskar

1Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, Ariyalur-637215. , India 2Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode-638 316, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract: Ground water is the essential resource of water supply in Thirumanur Block. The Latest industrial development and poor agricultural practices have led to pollute the ground water sources. The present experimental work deals with the assessment of ground water quality at different areas of Thirumanur Block, Tamil Nadu, India. Ground Water samples were sampled from 15 bore wells and examined for various important water quality characteristics like pH, Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Turbidity,Total hardness, Magnesium, Potassium, Iron, Nitrate, Calcium, Sodium, Chloride, Fluoride, Total Alkalinity and Sulphate.These parameters test results compare to the standards to evaluate their suitability for human drinking and agricultural usages. The test results confirm that the ground water has a higher amount of Hardness, potassium and Alkalinity in some locations. So these locations water unfit for drinking usage.

Key words: Ground Water Physical Parameters Chemical Parameter BIS and WHO Standards

INTRODUCTION patterns. The average annual rainfall of the study area is 1231.95 mm. This Block is received more than 70% of the Ground water is the essential natural resource for rainfall from the northeast monsoon during October to drinking, domestic, industrial etc throughout the world. November. Today industries and other kind of activities pollute the ground water sources. Underground water is the Experimental Section: Groundwater samples were taken important resource in the global water consumption. The in plastic bottles of 2 Litre capacities from 15 bore wells in world water distribution only 2.5% is the available fresh Thirumanur Block. Before water sample collection the water; remaining 97.5% is the salt water. The over plastic bottles were thoroughly cleaned by distilled and extraction and improper management has contaminated sample water. After sampling, the samples are transferred the groundwater. The primary objective of this study is to to water testing laboratory for analyze various important evaluate the ground water quality at Thirumanur block, physical and chemical water quality parameters like pH, Tamil Nadu, India. Electrical conductivity, Total dissolved solids, Turbidity,Total hardness, Magnesium, Potassium, Iron, Study Area: Thirumanur block is located in the Ariyalur Nitrate, Calcium, Sodium, Chloride, Fluoride, Total District of Tamil Nadu, India. It lies in between the Alkalinity and Sulphate using standard methods longitude of 78° 55’11.60” ’° Eto 79 15’34.36”E and latitude of (APHA, 1989). 10°52’” 9.59 N to 11 ° 14’54.89”N covers an area of 349.65 square kilometers. Phsiographically, this area is flat RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS with a gentle slope towards the eastern direction. Geomorphologically, the area has a flat terrain with The analyzed Physical and Chemical parameters test moderately high drainage density. This area constitutes values of water samples are given in Table 2 and 3. The dentritic, trellis and combination of these two drainage ground water samples analysed report were compared to

Corresponding Author: G. Vijayakumar, Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering, Ariyalur-637215. Tamil Nadu, India 1679 Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 24 (5): 1679-1683, 2016

WHO and BIS norms are given in Table 4 and 5.The test The laboratory test results confirm that 46.6% of samples result value of pH in the water samples are between 6.8 to having a high amount of alkalinity concentration. The 7.8 an average of 7.28.These test Characteristic values are Table 4 confirmed that the analysed samples alkalinity within the standard norms prescribed by WHO and BIS. values vary from 142 mg/l to 354 mg/l an average of Excess amount of pH concentration should affect the soil 234.4 mg/l. quality characteristics. The Table 4, shows that the value The TH value of samples in Thirumanur block vary of EC parameter of samples are varied from 844 to 3122 from 84mg/l to 460 mg/l. an average of 207.20 mg/l. Based ìs/cm. it confirms that the observed EC Parameter values on hardness concentration water is classified as soft type are within the standard norms, except one location. water (0 mg/L to 70 mg/L), moderately hard type water The higher amount of EC value affects the soil quality (75 mg/L to 150 mg/L), hard type water (150 mg/L to and permeability characteristics [1, 2]. In this type 300 mg/L) and very hard type water (above 300mg/L) water is unfit for agricultural practice and drinking [8, 10]. The study area concludes that the 20 % percent usage [3].. The Permissible limit of Total dissolved ground water samples are more than the standards as per solids (TDS) as per quality standard is 500 mg/l. The WHO and BIS norms. This result indicates that 20% the laboratory analysis results confirm that 93% of samples ground water is not suitable for human drinking and are having a high amount of TDS. In the Experimental test agricultural usage purposes. results, we find out the TDS values of water samples Calcium parameter is the most important parameter in values varied from 468 mg/l to 1642 mg/l. The average test the water [12]. The Standard limit of calcium for drinking value of TDS is 904.40 mg/l. This test results confirmed water is 75 mg/l. Excess amount calcium concentration will that the most of the locations water are not fit for drinking create heart problems for human [14, 15]. From test results, and agricultural activities. The more concentration value we know that the minimum and maximum value of calcium of TDS in the ground water will affect the soil content in the sampling locations was 18 mg/l and 84 mg/l characteristics [5- 7]. respectively. The average value of calcium concentration The Total alkalinity value of water samples depends for above said locations is 41.06 mg/l. The test results on Carbonate and bicarbonate salts. [8-11]. The standard noticed that six percentage of sampling locations water norm of alkalinity concentration as per BIS is 200 mg/l. samples are higher than the standards.

Fig. 1: Thirumanur Block Location Map

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Table 2: Physical Parameter values of Groundwater samples Physical Parameter ------Sample No Appearance Color Odour EC TDS S1 Clear Colorless Odourless 934 524 S2 Clear Colorless Odourless 1232 724 S3 Clear Colorless Odourless 1324 832 S4 Clear Colorless Odourless 1788 1232 S5 Clear Colorless Odourless 844 468 S6 Clear Colorless Odourless 1924 1124 S7 Clear Colorless Odourless 1232 764 S8 Clear Colorless Odourless 3122 1432 S9 Clear Colorless Odourless 1856 754 S10 Clear Colorless Odourless 1788 932 S11 Clear Colorless Odourless 1942 938 S12 Clear Colorless Odourless 2212 1642 S13 Clear Colorless Odourless 1744 964 S14 Clear Colorless Odourless 1232 724 S15 Clear Colorless Odourless 1322 512

Table 3: Chemical Parameter values of Groundwater samples Chemical Parameter ------2+ 2+ - 2- - + + Sample No pH TA TH Ca Mg Cl SO43 NO Fe F K Na S1 6.8 182 144 28 22 64 6 4 0 0.25 78 46 S2 7.0 182 152 18 18 68 5 4 0 0.2 56 48 S3 7.4 178 202 42 28 92 12 2.5 0 0.3 52 74 S4 7.2 354 348 58 44 184 20 6 0 0.2 58 128 S5 7.7 128 128 24 28 38 4 3 0 0.25 58 32 S6 7.1 324 302 44 38 152 10 5 0 0.2 56 96 S7 7.6 224 198 32 28 92 8 2 0 0.25 58 58 S8 7.3 324 402 84 76 292 86 3 0 0.2 58 156 S9 7.5 192 232 42 38 156 8 4 0 0.25 48 84 S10 7.0 324 272 44 34 82 20 4 0 0.25 68 84 S11 7.1 188 224 48 36 158 22 6 0 0.2 42 88 S12 7.4 342 252 52 38 292 9 3 0 0.3 48 132 S13 6.9 244 244 44 42 108 30 4 0 0.2 32 84 S14 7.5 188 152 32 28 76 12 3 0 0.25 68 62 S15 7.8 142 128 24 22 42 9 5 0 0.2 48 66

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Table 4: Comparison Results for Physical Parameter values of ground water samples with standards Concentration ------Average Value of % of water samples Physical Parameter Minimum Value Maximum Value parameters BIS Standards WHO Standards more than permissible limit Appearance Clear Clear Clear Clear Nil Color Colorless Colorless Colorless Colorless Nil Odour Odourless Odourless Odourless Odourless Nil EC (ìs/cm) 844 3122 1633 750-2250 1000-2000 6.6 TDS(mg/l) 468 1642 904.40 500 500 93.3

Table 5: Comparison Results for Chemical Parameters values of ground water samples with standards Concentration ------Average Value % of water samples more Chemical Parameter MinimumValue Maximum Value parameters BIS Standards WHO Standards than permissible limit pH* 6.8 7.8 7.28 6.5-8.5 7-8.5 Nil Total alkalinity 142 354 234.4 200 100 46.6 Total hardness 128 402 225.33 300 300 20 Calcium 18 84 41.06 75 75 6 Magnesium 18 76 34.60 50 50 6 Chloride 38 292 126.40 250 200 13 Sulphate 4 86 17.4 200 200 Nil Nitrate 2.5 6 3.9 100 100 Nil Iron 0 0 0 0.321 - Nil Fluoride 0.2 0.3 0.23 1 1 Nil Potassium 32 78 55.20 12 12 100 Sodium 46 132 82.53 200 200 Nil *Except pH, all other chemical parameter values are given in mg/l

The magnesium parameter value observed in the The acceptable limit of nitrate as per standards is 100 locations varies from 18mg/l to 76 mg/l with the average of mg/l. From the Table 4 we observed 2.5 mg/l as the lowest 34.60 mg/l. The magnesium concentration acceptable limit value and 6.00 mg/l is the highest value with an average based on BIS and WHO Standard limit is 50 mg/l.The of 3.90 mg/l.Based on the comparison we confirm that all Table 4 proves that 6 percentages of samples having more samples are within the standards.. Iron content is the concentration compare to standards. The excess important parameter for all living organisms [14]. The more concentration value will affect the human health condition amount of iron concentration will create toxicity problems [13]. [16]. The Table 4 confirmed that zero iron concentration in The chloride content acceptable limit value as per BIS all sampling locations. So all location samples are within and WHO norm is 250 mg/l and 200 mg/l respectively. In the standard limit value. our sampling locations, the concentration of chloride The Fluoride concentration of water sample as per values varies from 39 mg/l to 292 mg/l. The average norms is 1 mg/l.From the table 4 we know that 0.20 mg/l is chloride concentration value of study area is 126.40 mg/l. the minimum value fluoride concentration and 0.30 mg/l is The analysed results concluded that 13 percentage water the maximum value of fluoride concentration. The average samples are having more concentration than the limit fluoride content for all the sampling water locations is 0.23 value. This will create the kidney problems in the human mg/l. The analyzed test results confirmed in the study area body [16]. The standard norm for sulphate is 200mg/l. The all locations water samples are within the standard norms. Table 4 result that the minimum sulphate content value If fluoride concentration more than the standard limit will observed in the sampling locations is 4 mg/l and the creates the dental problems in the human. [14, 17]. Sodium maximum value is 86 mg/l.The average sulphate content is the important parameter in the water. More amount of value in the above said locations is 17.40 mg/l.The sodium parameter concentration will affect the soil analyzed results concluded that all the locations are structures. The test results indicate that the minimum and within the limits. The excess concentration of sulphate is maximum values of sodium concentration are 46 mg/l and responsible for increase in hardness and EC value [17]. 132 mg/l respectively. The sodium concentration

1682 Middle-East J. Sci. Res., 24 (5): 1679-1683, 2016 acceptable limit based on WHO and BIS is 200 mg/l. The 6. Senthilkumar, S. and T. Meenambal, 2007. Study of Table 4 proves that all locations samples are within the Groundwater Quality near Sipcot Industrial Estate of limit value. The potassium ion concentration values of Perundurai of Erode District, Tamilnadu, Nature sampling locations are ranged from 32 mg/l to 78 mg/l. The Environment and Pollution Technology, 6(4): 741-744. standard limit of potassium concentration as per quality 7. Bhagavathi Perumal, S.and P. Thamarai, 2007. Ground norms is 12mg/l. From the test results we concluded that water quality after Tsunami in coastal area of all locations samples are within the permissible limit value. Kanyakumari, South Tamil Nadu, India, Int J Environ Sci, 2(2): 99-118. CONCLUSION 8. Garg, N.K. and Q. Hassan, 2007. Alarming scarcity of water in India, Current Sci., 93: 932-941. In this study, we observed that many locations 9. Yammani, S., 2007. Groundwater quality suitable ground water samples are having the excess amount of zonesidentification: application of GIS, Chittoor area Chloride, Potassium, Total hardness, TDS and TA. The andhra Pradesh, India,Environ. Geol., 53(1): 201-210. higher amount of TDS was observed from 93.3% of the 10. Kotaiah, B. and N. Kumarswamy, 1994. Environmental samples. This result concluded that location water Engineering Laboratory Manual,Charitor Publishing samples are not suitable for drinking usage and House, India. agricultural activities. Proper techniques of water 11. WHO, 1997. Regional publication, South East Asia treatment methods and agricultural management should Series No: 14, WHO, New Delhi. be implemented for above said areas. 12. Todd, D.K., 1980. Ground Water Hydrology. 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 535. REFERENCES 13. Ramesh, N., T. Meenambal and K. Murugan, 2009. Quantification, Characterization and Leachated 1. APHA., 1995. Standard methods for Examination of Analysis of the Municipal Solid Waste From Erode Water & Wastewater 19th Edition, Washington, D.C. municipality,Tamilnadu, India, Nature Environment 2. Freeda Grana Rani, D., K. Arunkumar and and Pollution Technology, 8(1): 21-28. T. Valarmathy, 2006. Potability of drinking water 14. IS: 10500-1983. Manual of Specifications for Drinking sources of eleven villages in perambalur District, Water for groundwater IS: 10500-1983, New Delhi. Tamilnadu. Pollution Research, 25(1): 171-174. 15. Murugesan., A., A. Ramu and N. Kannan, 2006. 3. Freeze, R.A and J.A Cherry, 1979. Ground Water, Water quality assessment from Uthamapalayam Prentice Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Municipality in Theni District, Tamilnadu, India. USA, 604. Pollution Research, 25(1): 163-166. 4. Rajkumar, N. and S. Gowri, 2005. Status of drinking 16. WHO, 1996. Guidelines for drinking water quality, water quality in schools in Erode district of Geneva, 1: 53-73. Tamilnadu, Nature Environment and pollution 17. Sreedevi, P.D., 2004. Groundwater quality of Pageru Technology, 4(3): 467-468. river basin, Cuddapah district,Andhra Pradesh, 5. Kesavan, K.G. and R. Parameswari, 2005. Evaluation Journal of Geological Society of India, 64: 619-636. of groundwater quality in Kancheepuram, Indian J. Environ. Prot., 25(3): 235-239.