Chapter 16 (Lessons 2 & 3)

Chapter 16 (Lessons 2 & 3)

Growth and Development

Male Reproductive System

-  external and internal organs that, with the help of______, allow physically ______ males to produce children

-  2 main functions: produce and store ______ (male gametes or reproductive cells) and ______ of sperm to female’s body during sexual intercourse

-  usually reaches maturity (puberty) between ages ___ and ___

-  hormones in pituitary gland stimulate production of ______ – male sex hormone

-  testosterone causes physical changes:

o  broadening of ______

o  development of ______

______and body ______

o  deepening of voice

o  production of sperm (after puberty, a male can produce sperm for the rest of his______)

External Reproductive Organs

·  ______(testicles)

-  two small glands that secrete ______and produce ______

-  located in the scrotum

·  ______

-  an external skin sac

·  penis

-  tube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of the body just above the testes

-  composed of spongy tissue that contains many blood vessels

-  erection

§  penis becomes enlarged and erect when blood flow ______

§  normal body function

§  occur easily and more frequently during puberty

§  can occur for no reason

§  ______ (thick fluid containing sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system) can be ejected from body when erection occurs

§  ______

-  a series of muscular contractions that occur at the height of sexual arousal

-  if it occurs during ______it may result in ______

§  ______ – thin, loose skin that covers the tip of the penis at birth

§  ______ – surgical removal of the foreskin (often chosen for cultural or ______reasons)

-  sperm cannot live in temperatures higher than _____ degrees (normal body temp.)

-  scrotum ______sperm by keeping testes slightly below normal body temperature

o  body temperature ______→ muscles attached to scrotum relax, causing testes to lower away from body

o  body temperature ______→ muscles tighten, moving testes closer to body for warmth

o  ______clothing may interfere with sperm ______

-  ______

o  an ejaculation that occurs when sperm are released during ______

o  a ______occurrence to relieve buildup of ______as sperm begin to produce during ______

-  sperm is produced in the ______and mature and are stored in the ______→ then travels through the ______(tubes that extend from each epididymis to the urethra) combining with secretions produced by the prostate and Cowper’s glands to form ______→ they also pass through the seminal vesicle combining with fluid that ______the sperm and make them more ______→ semen then exits the body through the ______

Maintaining Reproductive Health

·  bathe regularly (wash under ______if uncircumcised)

·  wear protective equipment during physical activities

·  ______

·  perform regular ______(follow guidelines on page 450 for a testicular self-exam)

·  get regular checkups

Male Reproductive System Problems

·  ______

-  part of the intestines push through a tear in the ______wall

-  may be caused by straining abdominal muscles or lifting heavy objects

-  symptoms: lump in groin near thigh, pain in groin or blockage of the intestine

-  surgery may be needed to repair

·  Sterility

-  inability to ______

-  result of ______sperm or sperm of ______quality

-  causes: exposure to ______ or other radiation, toxic chemicals and lead, ______imbalances, mumps contracted during adulthood, using certain medications or drugs like ______ and STDs

·  Testicular cancer

-  occurs most often between ages of _____and _____, but can occur at any age

-  with early detection, most testicular cancer is ______ with surgery, radiation or ______

·  Prostate problems and prostate cancer

-  gland becomes enlarged as a result of ______, tumor or ______

-  ______ of prostate cancer increases survival rates

Female Reproductive System

·  functions: ______ female sex hormones, storing ______ (female gametes – ova), prepares a place for possible ______

·  ______

-  store ova (egg) and produce female sex hormones (estrogen)

-  located on each side of the ______ (hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ that nourishes and protects a fertilized ovum until birth)

-  females have more than ______immature ova at ______

-  at ______, pituitary gland produces hormones that cause ova to mature

-  ______ – process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month

·  fallopian tubes

-  pair of tubes with ______

-  mature ovum is released into one of two fallopian tubes from ______

-  lined with tiny hair like structures called ______that help move the ovum with the help of muscular contractions

-  if ______ are present, sperm cell and ovum may unite resulting in ______

-  fertilized egg is a ______

·  uterus

-  zygote enters the uterus after leaving the ______

-  zygote attaches itself to ______ wall

-  uterine wall thickens with blood to ______ zygote as it grows

-  fetus remains here until ______

·  ______

-  muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body

-  place sperm enter the female reproductive system


·  the shedding of the uterine lining

·  after ______, uterus prepares each month for possible pregnancy

·  if pregnancy ______ occur, the thickened lining of the uterus (endometrium) breaks down into blood, tissue, and fluids

·  tissues pass through ______(opening to the uterus) and into vagina

·  females wear sanitary pads or tampons to absorb blood flow

·  most females begin first menstrual cycle between ages of ____ and ____

·  cycle may be ______ at first (not every month or the same length)

·  usually becomes more predictable as female matures

·  controlled by endocrine ______

·  also influenced by poor ______, stress, excessive exercise, ______ body weight and illness

·  occurs from puberty until ______ (end of reproductive years, usually between ages 45-55)

Maintaining Reproductive Health

·  bathe regularly

-  change tampons/pads every few hours during menstrual period

·  have ______ medical exams – may include (depending on age):

-  Pap smear (tests for cancerous cells on the cervix)

-  ______(tests for breast cancer)

·  practice ______

-  helps to avoid unplanned pregnancy and ______

·  practice breast self-exams

-  examine once a ______, right ______ menstrual period

-  ______detection is critical for successful treatment of breast cancer

Female Reproductive System Problems

·  menstrual cramps

-  sometimes occur at ______ of menstrual period

-  light ______and applying ______ to abdomen may help relieve

-  OTC or prescription meds may sometimes be prescribed

·  premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

-  disorder caused by ______ changes

-  symptoms: anxiety, irritability, bloating, weight gain, depression, mood swings and fatigue

-  regular ______and good ______ may reduce severity of symptoms

·  toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

-  rare but serious ______ infection that affects immune system and liver

-  can be ______

-  to reduce risk, use tampons with ______ absorbency and change them ______

-  symptoms: fever, ______, diarrhea, rash, red eyes, dizziness, and muscle aches…see a doctor

Infertility and Other Disorders

*can have several causes

·  endometriosis

-  ______ tissue grows in ovaries, fallopian tubes or lining of ______cavity

·  sexually transmitted diseases

-  spread during sexual contact

-  gonorrhea and chlamydia, when left untreated, are associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which causes infertility

-  ______ from sexual activity until marriage is the ______way to avoid STDS

·  ______

-  discharge, odor, pain, itching or burning

-  two common forms: Candida (yeast infection) and bacterial vaginosis

·  ovarian cysts

-  ______ sacs on the ovary

-  small, ______ cysts may disappear on their own

-  larger cysts may have to be removed ______

·  cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancers

-  early sexual activity and ______ (like human papillomavirus- HPV) ______ the risk of cervical cancer

-  regular exams are important for early detection and treatment

-  approved ______can be given in ______ to prevent infection from four strains of the HPV virus

Chapter 17 (Lessons 1 ONLY)

Prenatal Care and Development

The Very Beginning

·  human body begins as one microscopic cell formed through ______– union of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell (also known as conception)

·  cell that results is called a ______

·  zygote ______ many times as it travels through the fallopian tube forming a cluster of ______ by the time it reaches the ______

·  ______– process by which the zygote attaches to the uterine wall

·  after about ____weeks, zygote becomes an ______ – cluster of cells that develops between the ______and ______ week of pregnancy

·  referred to as a ______after about eight weeks

The Growing Embryo

·  two important structures form outside the embryo

-  ______ – thick fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and ______ the developing embryo

-  ______ – ropelike structure that connects fetus with mother’s ______ (thick, blood-rich tissue that lines the walls of the uterus during pregnancy and nourishes

the embryo

§  embryo gets ______, ______and disposes of its ______ through the umbilical cord

·  cells of embryo continue to divide until _____ layers of tissue are formed

-  one layer becomes ______ and digestive systems

-  second layer develops into muscles, ______, blood vessels and ______

-  third layer forms ______system, sense organs and ______

·  blood supply of mother and embryo kept ______

·  embryo’s waste is passed to mother’s ______ and excreted from the mother’s body along with her own body wastes

·  substances that are ______ to the embryo, like tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, can also pass through the ______

·  time from ______to ______usually takes about ______ days, or nine months

·  divided into _____ trimesters

-  major changes during first trimester:

§  spinal cord grows, brain, ears, and arms begin to form, heart begins to ______

§  develops human profile, sex organs, eyelids, fingernails, and toe nails develop

§  by week _____ can make crying motions and may suck thumb

-  major changes during second trimester:

§  can blink and becomes more active

§  eyebrows and eyelashes develop

§  can ______conversations, has a regular cycle of waking and sleeping

§  weight increases ______…about 12 inches long and weighs a little more than ______

§  may survive if born after ______ weeks with specialized care

-  major changes during third trimester:

§  uses all 5 ______

§  begins to pass water from ______

§  weighs approximately ______ pounds when ready to be born

Multiple Births

·  multiple embryos are formed

·  identical twins

o  ______zygote splits into two ______ embryos

o  identical traits, ______ gender

-  ______ twins

o  two eggs are released and fertilized by two ______sperm

o  can be ______genders

A Healthy Pregnancy

-  ______ – steps that a pregnant female can take to provide for her own health and the health of her baby

-  a woman should seek prenatal care as soon as ______and then ______throughout the pregnancy

·  eat healthy

-  pregnant females are encouraged to take prenatal ______ to provide a balance of nutrients such as:

o  calcium

o  protein

o  iron

o  vitamin A

-  to achieve a healthy weight gain during pregnancy most females need to consume only an additional ______calories per day

-  average healthy weight gain is ______ pounds

-  gaining too ______ → can result in a small, undeveloped baby

-  gaining too much → can result in ______ delivery, risk of high blood pressure, ______ and varicose veins

·  keep fit

-  can help a female maintain a healthy weight during pregnancy

-  before starting any exercise program an expectant mother should check with their ______

·  avoid tobacco use

-  smoking accounts for up to ______ of low-birth-weight babies, 14 percent of premature births, and 10 percent of all infant ______

-  can affect growth, mental development and behavior

-  exposure to repeated ______ increases the risk of having a low-birth-weight baby

·  avoid alcohol use

-  a fetus breaks down alcohol more ______than the mother → alcohol level in the fetus’s blood is ______ and it remains in bloodstream ______

-  can lead to ______ (FAS): a group of alcohol-related birth defects that includes both physical and mental problems

-  infants born with FAS may have ______, memory, and ______ problems, visual and hearing impairments

·  avoid ______

-  prescription and over-the-counter medications should be used only with the ______ of a doctor or health care professional

-  illegal drugs pose a health risk to both the mother and fetus

-  infants may have growth problems, respiratory or cardiovascular problems, mental impairments or birth defects

-  can lead to ______ birth, miscarriage or the baby may also be born with an addiction to the drug

·  avoid hazards in the ______

-  lead

§  can be found in paint of houses built before ______ and in some glassware or dinnerware

-  mercury

§  pregnant females should avoid eating certain types of ______with higher levels of ______: shark, swordfish, king mackerel

-  smog

§  greatest risk is in 2nd ______of pregnancy because ______ are


-  radiation

§  found in X-rays

-  use ______ when using household chemicals and cleaning-products

Complications of Pregnancy

-  most pregnancies result in the birth of a ______ baby

-  70 percent of births occur through ______ delivery

-  complications can result in a ______ delivery made through an incision in the mother’s abdomen

-  ______ birth → takes place at least three weeks before the due date

-  miscarriage → spontaneous expulsion of a fetus occurring before the ______week of pregnancy

-  ______ → delivery of a fetus that has died after the twentieth week of pregnancy

-  complications can be caused by a ______reason or ______ use

-  ______hypertension → high blood pressure during pregnancy usually occurs after the twentieth week of pregnancy

-  ______ → high blood pressure, swelling, and large amounts of protein in urine

o  can prevent placenta from getting enough ______ to nourish fetus