Knowledge of Subject Matter

Knowledge of Subject Matter


  1. Most muscles in the body work in pairs in what is known as the “agonist-antagonist relationship”. Provide three examples of muscle pairs that clearly display the agonist antagonist relationship.

______& ______

______& ______

______& ______

  1. The following diagram shows a sacromere, which is the basic unit of all muscles. Clearly label the: I-band; A-band; H-zone; Actin filaments; Myosin filaments and Myosin cross-bridges.

  1. What are some differences between “anaerobic glycolysis” and “aerobic glycolysis”?
  1. Complete the following table by providing three examples of sporting activities that predominantly use fast twitch and slow twitch fibres:

Fibre Type
/ Sporting Examples
Fast twitch / 1.
Slow Twitch / 1.
  1. What is the anaerobic threshold and at what stage is it reached?
  1. What are some symptoms that lactic acid has built up in our muscles?

7. List three foods that are sources of protein: 1. ______2. ______3. ______

Outline what major function they have in our bodies (other than energy supply).


Graph One

Graph 2

Explain the type of exercise that could be exhibited in Graph One and Two. Justify your reasoning.

9. During exercise, the tissue of muscles can go into oxygen debt. Cramping occurs due to a build up of lactic acid. The build up of lactic acid occurs because there is not enough oxygen to facilitate the entire process of cellular respiration. As a result, glycolysis only occurs. The following graph records changes in the blood composition of various substances of a subject during and after exercise.

Account for the shape of each graph, with respect to before, during and post exercise levels.



  1. Enzymes are protein substances that act as catalysts. What does a catalyst do?


  1. What is an enzyme?


  1. What are substrates?


  1. What are active sites?


  1. How are enzymes named?


  1. Identify the enzymes in the following table

Substrate / Enzyme
  1. What impact does heat have on enzymes?


8. The rate of a reaction can be increased by increasing the temperature of the reaction mixture.

A catalyst is a substance which can increase the rate of a reaction but is not used up during the reaction. Some catalysts are simple chemicals. Others such as enzymes are complex proteins. Enzymes cannot function as catalysts at high temperatures. Most enzymes are unusable (denatured) above 50°C.

The same chemical reaction was set up in four beakers. The type of catalyst and the temperature are shown in the table. In this case the catalyst increased the rate of reaction.

A) In which beaker would the fastest reaction occur?

B) Justify your answer.


9. Label the digestive system pictured below and outline the function of these organs.

Digestive System to label


A healthy woman drank 100 cm3 of a glucose solution at time t.

Which graph shows the likely changes in her blood glucose level?



1. Label 7 bones from the Skeleton diagram below

2. A newborn baby has 305 bones. By age 25, the average adult skeleton has 206 bones. What term explains this process?



Explain how both of these joint systems operate.

Include information about their possible location in the body; their range of movement; their advantages and disadvantages.

3b. The diagram below shows a model of a movable joint:

Key :direction of possible movements

Which of the following description about the joint is right?

Type of joint represented
by the model / Example
A. / hinge joint / elbow joint
B. / hinge joint / hip joint
C. / ball and socket joint / shoulder joint
D. / ball and socket joint / knee joint

Directions :Questions 4 to 6 refer to the diagram below which shows some of the bones, muscles and tendons of the human arm :

4. Tendon R is attached to bone S at position 3 rather than at position 4. This arrangement has the advantage that

A. less energy would be required for raising a load.
B. the forearm can move faster when muscle Q contracts.
C. the joint would not be dislocated easily.
D. muscle Q works antagonistically with muscle P.

5. What will happen when muscle P contracts?

A. Muscle P becomes thinner.
B. Muscle Q becomes shorter.
C. Bone S is raised up.
D. The elbow joint is extended.

6. Cartilage is present at

A. position 1.
B. position 2.
C. position 3.
D. position 4.

7. Which of the following statements about skeletal muscles are correct ?

(1) They are connected to bones by ligaments.
(2) Their actions can be controlled by will.
(3) They can carry out aerobic and anaerobic respiration at the same time.

A. (1) and (2) only
B. (1) and (3) only
C. (2) and (3) only
D. (1), (2) and (3)



Outline the 12 steps of muscular contraction.

2. There are 3 classes of levers. Draw a diagram to clearly show the three different placements of the force/effort; axis/fulcrum and resistance/load in each class of lever.

1st Class Lever

2nd Class Lever

3rd Class lever

3. (i) What is elasticity?

(ii) Why will a tennis ball bounce more on a “rebound ace” surface such as that found at Rod Laver Arena (Melbourne) compared to a ball bounced on the grass courts of Wimbledon?

5. The diagram below shows a man swimming in water :

What are the conditions of his arm muscles at this posture ?

Left arm / Right arm
Biceps / Triceps / Biceps / Triceps
A. / contracted / relaxed / relaxed / contracted
B. / relaxed / contracted / contracted / relaxed
C. / contracted / relaxed / contracted / relaxed
D. / relaxed / contracted / relaxed / contracted

Directions : Questions 6 and 7 refer to the model below which illustrates the movement at the elbow joint:

Key : P and Q are rubber bands
R and S are wooden planks

6. What will happen when Q is shortened ?

P / S
A. / shortened / raised
B. / shortened / lowered
C. / stretched / raised
D. / stretched / lowered

7. This model is designed to demonstrate

A. the movement of the forearm.
B. the movement of the elbow joint.
C. the effect of muscular contraction.
D. the action of antagonistic muscles.



Label the Neuron

Read the definitions, then label the neuron diagram below.

axon- the long extension of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the body of the cell.
axon terminals - the hair-like ends of the axon
cell body - the cell body of the neuron; it contains the nucleus (also called the soma)
dendrites - the branching structure of a neuron that receives messages (attached to the cell body) / myelin sheath - the fatty substance that surrounds and protects some nerve fibers
node of Ranvier - one of the many gaps in the myelin sheath - this is where the action potential occurs during saltatory conduction along the axon
nucleus - the organelle in the cell body of the neuron that contains the genetic material of the cell
Schwann's cells - cells that produce myelin - they are located within the myelin sheath.

2. The myelin sheath along the axon serves an important function in the transmission of messages through-out the nervous system. Describe the problems that could occur if the sheath were to break-down (denature) over time.


Draw a labelled diagram to explain nerve-muscle junction.