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of

Ermine Oak Beech

Red Gray Squirrel

Chipmunk Little Brown

Fisher

Opossum

Porcupine

Raccoon

Mink

Woodchuck American

Skunk

Beaver

Muskrat

Otter Cottontail

Bobcat Snowshoe

Red

Canada

Mountain (extirpated)

Coyote

Wolf (extirpated)

Black Drawings by Carol H. Kutz© 2001

Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and 284 State Street, SHS 41 Augusta, Maine 04333

Moose www.mefi shwildlife.com White-tailed White Oak Mammals of Maine Beech 8 grow in a often found growing in variety of Gray Squirrel pure stands in moist, rich statewide found statewide common in Maine‛s central & southern soils at the top of the feeds heavily on pine habitats beechnuts are important wildlife list ‘middens‛ or piles of shredded found strictly around mast () fall food for , squir- are favorites of cones on tree stumps or the fl oor producing trees rels, & gamebirds deer, bear, , also eats fungi, & can have 2 litters a year if the beech mast turkeys, woodducks & important prey for fi sher, marten & er- smells its way to the nuts it buries; fails for a season, many spe- small mines even in winter under a foot of snow cies of wildlife goes hungry

Ermine Flying Squirrel also called the long-tailed active during the day found statewide but seldom seen win- the only that can fl y changes pelage from summer brown to ter in hollow trees & bird houses wingspan of 8-9” eats nuts, berries, mushrooms & even winter white baby & eggs visits bird feeders at night may catch up to 600 moths & must eat 2/3 of its body weight each likes open woodlands, backyards does not ‘fl y‛ but glides from tree to thousands of mosquitoes a night day to maintain its metabolic needs will climb trees tree on large fl aps that open up colonizes & roosts in groups in feeds on mice, squirrels, , insects from its sides buildings, attics, caves & tree cavities spends most time foraging on the ground found statewide in open woods, strictly nocturnal hibernates or migrates south underground during winter where meadows, suburban areas food is cached eats acorns, nuts, seeds; even bird very susceptible to uses previously excavated or does not hibernate eggs & young large brushpiles for denning one of the few predators of lives throughout Maine name comes from Native American the only (pouched) on ; also feeds on prefers hardwood/hemlock word arakunem the N. American continent & squirrels cannot throw its 20,000+ quills but habitats include woods, suburbs, has 50 teeth, more than any other N.A. arboreal - often found in trees swats attackers with a strong and agricultural fi elds, land mammal; an , it eats , found in coniferous & mixed forests embeds quills into their bodies omnivorous; eats anything edible worms, insects, eggs, & anything edible dens in hollow trees, logs, or ground gives to one pup annually does not hibernate but during periods recently expanded its range northward holes under large boulders craves salt & may gnaw on wooden tool of very cold weather may den up & sleep to include Maine; been reported to north active throughout winter handles suseptible to canine distemper & rabies central part of the state breeds in March; delayed implantation uses its keen of touch to feel when cornered, falls into a deathlike produces 1-6 kits 1 year later for food in streams, under logs, etc. state (playing ‘possum)

Mink Woodchuck Striped lives statewide in habitats a true hibernator; body temperature the only animal that can alter habitats; found throughout Maine in suburbs, open along streams, ponds & rivers drops from 97 to less than 40 degrees (by damming rivers & streams) woodlands & agricultural fi elds eats fi sh, frogs, ducks, mice, for up to 6 months eats bark, twigs, buds, inner cambium an omnivore, eat insects, berries, freshwater mussels & insects digs burrows up to 5‛ wide and 30‛ long builds ‘lodges‛ of sticks & mud in which fruits, birds‛ eggs, nuts, corn and more mainly nocturnal eats , dandelions, fruits, garden families spend the winter months skunk musk is composed of butylmer- look for the characteristic white chin & vegetables may build homes in river or lake banks captan, a sulfur-alcohol compound secre- slim dark brown body active mornings & late afternoon important furbearer in Maine; but ated by the anal glands in a mist or droplet active year-round abandoned burrows provide denning becoming a nuisance animal when its dam stream an important furbearer in Maine sites for , raccoons, & work fl oods woodlots, roads & fi elds bold stripes advertise ‘do not disturb‛ skunks historically & economically important as a routine prey item for great horned gives a sharp whistle as an alarm call early trappers explored Maine Snowshoe Hare commonly called the ‘pine marten‛ found statewide in wetlands with dense lives in open woodlands with dense at the northern limit of its range in found in a variety of mixed forest emergent vegetation shrubby cover statewide southern Maine; uncommon to rare here habitats in northern Maine eats cattails, reeds, rushes & pond- eats clover, grasses, twigs, buds & bark lives in brushy, scrubby like eats , moles, red squirrels, birds weeds; some mussels, insects, crayfi sh changes pelage from summer brown to abandoned farmland which is becoming & fruits, nuts, berries builds small lodges out of aquatic plants winter white quite rare in southern Maine important Maine furbearer active year-round most important prey for lynx eats clover, grasses, twigs, buds, & bark prefers to den in tree cavities important furbearer in Maine very large feet allow it to move freely distinguished from breeds late June-Sept. with 7-8 stays under water for up to 15 minutes on top of snow by shorter ears with a black line on the months of delayed implantation; young creates a ‘V‛ shaped wave as it swims can leap up to 12 feet in a single bound edges, smaller body, & a black spot born mid March-April & reach speeds of up to 30mph between ears

Otter Lynx Mountain Lion the most aquatic member of the long an uncommon in northern likes brushy, rocky woodlands considered extirpated in Maine although weasel ; lives in/along rivers, & western Maine interspersed with old roads & clearings hundreds of sightings have been reported streams, ponds & lakes prominent ear tufts, longer legs, larger takes , squirrels, birds & deer some tracks here have been verifi ed eats fi sh, frogs, crayfi sh, mussels, tur- & tawny-grey distinguish it from for food no known breeding population tles & even young a bobcat can swim well but would rather not called catamount, , , painter highly mobile ‘circut riders‛; maintain a principle food is snowshoe hare nocturnal; but in winter active during preys on beaver, deer, , small circular travel route over 20 miles Maine, & only daytime, too mammals; caches larger prey otter ‘slides‛ on grass, mud or snow are states in lower 48 with lynx populations a limited annual & preferred habitats are wooded swamps, signatures of its fun-loving listed as a federally threatened species season riparian areas, mountain forests an important Maine furbearer protected from hunting/trapping an important Maine furbearer protected by state/federal law

Red Fox Black Bear found statewide roams statewide in habitats from deep extirpated from Maine since the early one of our most important likes open woods & lands but has woods to city streets 1900s; recent occurrences here in 1993 & lives in forest landscapes interspersed with adapted to city , too will eat anything edible 1996; completely protected by law clearings, wetlands & regenerating stands may avoid areas with established keeps its tail down as it runs nearest wolf population in only are not true hibernators, but go through coyote populations at dawn & dusk barks, yelps, yaps and 75 miles from the Maine state border ‘carnivorean lethargy‛; den up for up to 6 eats fruits, berries, small mammals, howls IFW conducts winter wolf snow track months/yr but can easily be awakened birds & carrion stalks prey by freezing its position & surveys; & has conducted howling surveys classifi ed as , yet larger part may use abandoned woodchuck burrows then pouncing with limited response from only of diet is insects, fruits, grasses, to den responds to hunting pressure by having runs with its tail horizontal to its body beechnuts, acorns & hazelnuts an important Maine furbearer larger litters of pups long legs also distinguish from coyotes 1-3 cubs born Jan.-Feb. every other year

White Pine Moose White-tailed Deer Black Spruce is the Maine state tree & fl ower largest North American land mammal a Maine population of over 300,000; prefers wet soils & bogs found statewide found throughout Maine; expanding its about 10-15% harvested each year are found statewide valuable for wildlife cover, range south our deer herd has increased since the cones, needles & twigs provide nesting & roosting found near water in summer foraging on 1960s by protecting important wintering food for spruce , squirrels, cones/seeds provide food for aquatic plants; vegetation in regenerating areas & implementing a variety of hunting , deer & rabbits squirrels, crossbills, , clearcuts & wet meadows opportunities nesting, roosting & winter cov- porcupines & more in response to the increased moose adaptable to many habitats from deep er for many birds preferred tree of the population, the hunting season has woods & farmland to suburbs & backyards dense stands may provide lengthened & number of permits increased most plentiful game animal in eastern winter cover for deer & moose