75YEARS Game Changers

From 1945-1965, with the end of the war, the advent of , location shooting, and a new realism, the job really did change for directors. Here are some of the most prominent fi lmmakers of the era dealing with those challenges on the set.

DRAMA QUEEN: (opposite) , getting ready for her close-up as watches, turned a cynical, more modern on old-fashioned glamour in Sunset Blvd. (1950). The opening shot of Holden’s dead body was done by placing a mirror on the bottom of the pool. (above) The optimism of the postwar years climaxed in ’s (1962) with (right) and . The re- creation of her hometown on a Universal back lot was declared “perfect” by author .

72 dga quarterly PHOTOS: (LEFT) AMPAS; (RIGHT) KOBAL COLLECTION dga quarterly 73 BIG COUNTRY: said used an “around the clock” shooting style on Giant (1956) SWORD AND SANDALS: shot Ben-Hur (1959) in ’s Cinecittà Studios for nine because he would fi lm a scene from as many different angles as possible. Stevens chose not to shoot in the months. The sets for the climactic chariot race were the largest ever built at that time. Wyler had previous new format because he believed the height of his images was more important than the width. experience with Ben-Hur, having served as an assistant director on the original silent version in 1925.

JUNGLE PARTY: shot much of The African Queen (1951) in Uganda MARKED DECK: ’s The Manchurian Candidate (1962) UNION DUES: brought a new, realistic acting style to American A BUMPY NIGHT: Joseph L. Mankiewicz won his second DGA Award as well and the Congo, a diffi cult process with bulky . Huston, refl ected the paranoia of the era. Frank (right) preferred to movies such as (1954) with , fi lmed in 36 days as directing and writing Oscars for the backstage drama (1950). relaxing with and , built a for the do as few takes as possible and Frankenheimer always liked the freshness on locations in Hoboken, N.J. Kazan insisted on fi nal cut and said he made the ’ hoarse voice in the fi lm was due to fi ghting with her soon to be cast and crew that included a bar, restaurant, and several one-room bungalows. of a fi rst take, so nearly all of the key scenes featuring Sinatra are fi rst tries. fi lm in exactly the way he had hoped for since the beginning of his career. ex-husband. Mankiewicz liked the husky quality and decided not to change it. PHOTOS: (TOP) WARNER BROS./EVERETT; (BOTTOM LEFT) EVERETT; RIGHT) MGM PHOTOS: (TOP) WARNER BROS./EVERETT; (BOTTOM LEFT) BFI; RIGHT) PHOTOFEST

74 dga quarterly dga quarterly 75 DRIVING FORCE: (behind the ) broke new ground not only as the lone female director working in Hollywood in the ’50s but in her choice of controversial subject matter. Outrage (1950), with and Tod Andrews, was just the second post-Production Code fi lm to deal with the issue of rape.

DERRING-DO: ’s The Adventures of Robin Hood WARMING UP: Like most (1938), with , was artistic fi lms of the time the fi rst Warner Bros. fi lm shot (and all adaptations), Cat on a Hot Tin in the three-strip Technicolor Roof (1958) was scheduled to BEACHED: To Catch aprocess. Thief (1955), It used starring all 11 of be shot in and until on the FrenchTechnicolor’s Riviera, was cumbersome sexually insisted on charged for its time, butcameras the fi lm and eluded a lot ofthe extra shooting in to showcase Production Code with ,double-entendre but produced dialogue a richness the of his stars, Elizabeth

and ’sof breezy color thatdirection. modern fi lms can’t Photos: xxxxx Taylor and . approach. PHOTOS: (OPPOSITE) AMPAS; (TOP) EVERETT; (BOTTOM) WARNER BROS./EVERETT

76 dga quarterly dga quarterly 77 BOOT CAMP: insisted on fi lming (1953), co-starring STREETWISE: ’s (right) The Naked City (1948) pioneered the use of real locations in New York (bottom), in black and white. He believed color would make it look trivial. He also declined to use popular new and a documentary style of shooting. He fi lmed people on the street using a camera hidden in the back of a formats. It was Zinnemann’s last-minute inspiration to stage the famous love scene in the waves. moving van. Occasionally, he set up a fake newsstand with a hidden camera inside to secretly fi lm a scene.

MAN-TO-MAN: ’s (1955) anticipated FORBIDDEN LOVE: A veiled critique of conformity, ’s All NIGHT MOVES: (seated center) shot Crossfi re (1947), a BRONX BOY: With (1955), became one of the fi rst directors the rise of teenagers as a cultural force and the subject of movies. Ray held That Heaven Allows (1955), with and , and his other postwar crime story about anti-Semitism, with Robert Young, , to a TV show as a feature. Originally broadcast in 1953, the TV show was rehearsals with James Dean in his bungalow living room and designed the were dismissed because of their big emotions and fl orid style— and , in 20 days using noir-style to keep things fast and recast for fi lm with at the suggestion of . Mann

character’s home to look like that because the actor felt comfortable there. elements that were later copied by other directors and celebrated by critics. PHOTOS: (TOP) BFI; (BOTTOM LEFT) WARNER BROS./PHOTOFEST; RIGHT) AMPAS PHOTOS: (TOP) EVERETT; (BOTTOM LEFT) WARNER BROS./AMPAS; RIGHT) MGM cheap. It was the fi rst B fi lm to receive an Oscar nomination for best picture. won a DGA Award and was the fi rst to win an Oscar for his debut feature.

78 dga quarterly dga quarterly 79 CONTINENTAL: directs a tracking shot for Gigi (1958), the last great musical made by the unit at MGM. Most of the fi lm was shot on location in . The problem of shooting the mirrored walls of Maxim’s restaurant was resolved by putting suction cups on the photofl ood lights.

GUILTY: argues his case with George C. Scott ME JANE: Founding member W.S. in the courtroom drama “Woody” Van Dyke (in dark hat) Anatomy of a Murder (1959), directs the Ape Man (1932), one of the fi rst mainstream with Maureen O’Sullivan and fi lms to address rape in graphic BURIED ALIVE: era. It was one of the terms. As such, it signaled the Johnny Weissmuller, the fi rst in a most acclaimed fi lms in the burgeoning beginning of the end for the long series of Tarzan movies. Van sci-fi of the ’50s. Hays Code. The jazz score by Dyke, a personal favorite of Louis was another sign B. Mayer’s, was known as “one-

of its . Photos: xxxxx take Woody” for his profi ciency with all types of fi lms. PHOTOS: (OPPOSITE) EVERETT; (TOP) WARNER BROS./AMPAS; (BOTTOM) PHOTOFEST

80 dga quarterly dga quarterly 81