 Orthodox & Unity until 1054 AD  Protestant is born in 1517 AD – a reaction to Catholic distortions

Orthodox = Catholic = Protestant = Ortho – right, correct, true Catholic is defined and In 1517, lead – glorification used as being a “universal” a of the Roman •Correct / Right Church. and ended in 1648.

In the : “Catholic” is In “protest” against the defined as “wholeness, Church complete as having everything” included -, simony (buying & selling “Kaqolikh from Kaq olou means, first of all, the inner wholeness and church positions), integrity of the Church’s life…. The , first when using the words ‘Catholic Church” never meant world-wide Church. This word rather gave prominence to the of the Church, to the truth of the “”…it was the idea of integrity and purity that was expressed.” (Florovsky)

What is the Church?– Ekklesia – to be called out, assembly "The Church is 's work on earth; it is the image and abode of His blessed Presence in the world. . .The descended on the Church . . .He lives and abides ceaselessly in the Church." (Florovsky, "The of the Church." Sobornost: London , 1934)

Outside the Church there is no "Outside the Church there is no salvation, because salvation is the Church. For salvation is the of the way for everyone who in Christ's name. This revelation is only to be found in the Church. In the Church, as in the . . .the head completes the body and the body is completed by the Head." (Florovsky, p. 38) “Does it therefore follow that anyone who is not visibly within the Church is necessarily damned? Of course not; still less does it follow that everyone who is visibly within the Church is necessarily saved. As Augustine wisely remarked: "How many sheep there are outside (the Church), how many wolves within!" ( on John, 45, 12) While there is no division between a "visible" and an "invisible Church", yet there may be members of the Church who are not visibly such, but whose membership is known to alone. If anyone is saved, he in some sense be a member of the Church; in what sense, we cannot always say (Kallistos Ware, The Orthodox Chruch).”  For 300 years, the Church with a definite structure (i.e., , and ) existed without a "" as we know it today. The New Testament came about as a witness to the "Truth" as it was being revealed in the Church through its members united in Christ.

 "It is the traditional teaching of the Orthodox Church that the is the scripture of the Church, that it has its meaning only within the life and experience of the , that it is not a thing-in-itself which can be isolated from its organic context within the Church community, in which and for which and from which it exists." (Hopko)  THE HISTORY OF HOLY SCRIPTURE I. THE ORAL PERIOD - 33 AD-50 AD II. THE WRITTEN PERIOD - 50 AD-100 AD A.) The of St. Paul III. THE A.) Mark: 70 AD Matthew and Luke & John: The end of the first century  THE BIBLE IN ORTHODOXY "There emerges in Orthodox tradition the position that the Bible is the record of truth not the truth itself, according to the the Truth itself is God alone." Fr. Ted Stylianopoulos Orthodox Catholic Protestant 27 books- NT 27 books - NT 27 Books -NT 49 46 OT Books 39 OT Books 39 OT books in common Catholic Old Testaments with RC & Protestants include 1st and 2nd , Baruch, Tobit, Judith, The Protestants reject the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach deuterocanonicals as not The additional books are (Ecclesiasticus), additions to known as Esther, and the stories of being inspired scripture Deuterocanonical i.e. a and and term them as which are included in Daniel. second of scripture

Orthodox Old Testament The Orthodox Church also includes these plus 1st and 2nd has “Apocryphal” books , of Manasseh, from the NT era which are and 3rd Maccabees. regarded as useful for edification but not ie. of James

ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

At the time the Christian In 382. A.D. The Old Testament material Bible was being formed, a Damascus I, had St. according to official canon Greek (300-100 translate the Bible of rather than the BC) of Jewish Scripture, into – the Vulgate . called the Septuagint (the (common translation). work of 70 Jewish The books that were Scholars) , was in common He translated from removed supported such use and Christians adopted Septuagint Greek into Latin things as it as the Old Testament of but later translated the • for the dead (Tobit the Christian Bible. Most entire OT from the Hebrew. 12:12; 12:39- New Testament quotes from 45) the Old Testament are • Purgatory (Wisdom 3:1-7) based upon the Septuagint. • of in (2 Maccabees 15:14) • Intercession of angels (Tobit 12:12-15)

ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant "We can say that Scripture is a God- Sacred Scripture and – scripture inspired image of Truth, but not Truth itself. . . If we declare (i.e. alone teachings handed down Scripture to be self-sufficient, we only expose it to subjective, from Christ and the apostles arbitrary interpretation, thus cutting to the present) both are to Scripture alone is the it away from its sacred source. Scripture is given to us in Tradition. be considered sources of only infallible guide and The Church, as the body of Christ, divine revelation. the final authority on stands mystically first and is fuller than scripture." (Florovsky) matters of Christian There is one source of Tradition and scripture are and practice - One of the divine revelation – Tradition interpreted by the foundational principles of is “the life of the Holy Spirit magisterium (bishops) or . in the Church (Lossky).” teaching authority of the Scripture forms the oral church. part, and the writings of saints, decisions of ecumenical councils, , etc., are also part of it. ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

Hierarchal with the highest authority Hierarchal with the highest There is a wide variety of resting in a of bishops. The authority resting in the Pope. understanding of the provides the model of church priesthood. order.

Christ is the “High ” Most believe in the “Royal Bishops = “over-seers” Bishops, and deacons Priesthood” of all believers but Priest = The presiding one not a continuation of the priesthood of Christ. = servants All are male and celibate

Bishops – celibacy required – No “hierarchy” but orders of exclusively male clergy are present for the good of church order. Priesthood – married, celibacy optional, must be married prior to , exclusively male

Deaconate – male and female but the female deaconate is not currently active. ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

Apostolic Succession teaches teaches This idea is by most that there is a tracing of that there is a tracing of rejected but they do back to one of the ordinations back to one of the emphasize continuity of original twelve disciples. The original twelve disciples. teaching with that of the Church of Constantinople apostles. claims, St. Andrew as the first The Church of . connected claims of primacy to an apostolic connection with St. Secondly, for the Church to be Peter – “You are Peter and on “apostolic” is also has to have this rock I will build my Church” the teachings, faith, doctrine, ecclesial order of the church through out the ages.

Metropolitan Gerasimos of the Metropolis of , , , , , 150,000 Members 67 Parishes

Archbishop Demetrios, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, New WWW.GOARCHORG 540 Parishes 800 Clergy 1.5 Million Members

The Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholemew – Constantinople, Istanbul, , Mt. Athos, Northern & Western , North & , Australia & New Zealand,

Other : Patriarch of - Africa – Syria, Lebanon, Iraq & Iran Patriarch of – Palestine, Jordan, Arabia, St. Sinai Patriarch of Moscow – Patriarch of – Patrairch of – Patriarch of Bulgaria

Autocephalous Churches Cyprus, , , , Czech Lands, Slokavia,

“Our teaching is in accordance with the , and the Eucharist, in turn, confirms our teaching (St. of Lyons).” ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

The invisible Christ is made present “Each community, each local A divorce between the visible through the visible unity of the community is but a part, a member church on earth and the and the people: the Head of a universal organism; and it invisible church in heaven. and the Body. participates in the Church only through its belonging to the “whole.” “…the abiding in They interpret the term every place: to the local church, to Consequently, the need for a “Catholic Church” to mean the the community led by a bishop and universal head becomes a reality. – general Church not Roman having, in communion with him, the Pope of Rome. Catholic some substitute the fullness of the Church.” word “Christian” for “Catholic” (Schmemann) The Pope is the “Vicar of Christ” he is the visible head of the church on Eucharistic – the earth, he has has universal power Each congregation is Eucharist manifests the whole over the Church and Councils i.e. and self-ruled. Church, her “catholicity.” In the he can speak infalable Eucharist the Church is realized as the Body of Christ. ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant is rejected. The The Pope is infallible when, through The only source of infallible is the Holy Spirit guides the Church in all the Holy Spirit, he defines a doctrine Bible. truth through ecumenical councils on faith and morals that is to be held whose Orthodoxy must be accepted by the whole church. is the historically by the people as Truth. traditional doctrinal position that in This is a and therefore a its original , the Bible is without An is a required belief within Catholicism. error. gathering of many bishops, priests and lay theologians who were called holds that the to defend the Truth in the face of Bible is inerrant on issues of faith . and practice but not history or were started by misguided . bishops or priest who taught a doctrine that was not “apostolic” Dogma: “The whole meaning of dogmatic definition consists in testifying to unchanging truth, truth which was revealed and has been preserved from the beginning. (Florovsky) do not develop they are of truth, universal and unchanging.

ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

Through the celebration of the Scholastic Interpretation Bread and are Eucharist the Church becomes The consecration becomes symbols do not change the manifestation of the effective through the “words of in substance. Kingdom of God as the institution” by the priest. salvation of the world. Interpretations of the Liturgy do not focus on the whole from the There are wide varieties The entire Eucharist is seen as beginning to the end as a a whole, a divine journey in the manifestation of the salvation of of understanding Holy Spirit which makes Christ the world. throughout Protestant present throughout. Churches. A personal means of receiving The Orthodox do not focus on the sanctifying grace. any particular moment of “change” occurring in the bread They term this change as and wine but understand by “” – outwardly faith that the bread and wine remain as bread and wine but a are the body and blood of change in substance occurs. Christ.

ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

Image denotes our potential to be teaches that the “God-like” and likeness is the extent conditions inherited from the to which ones’ potential is realized. fall are transmitted through the act of procreation. Each new It is the teaching that, as a Image denotes everything that born is an inheritor of the consequence of the Fall of separates us from animals. Ability to guilt of Adam and thus an Man, every born into reason, self-determination, creativity, our perception of right or object of God’s wrath and the world is enslaved to the wrong. judgment, deserving service of sin and apart punishment. from the grace of God, is THE FALL – REJECTING utterly unable to choose to RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD – this “Original sin is the privation of is the Ancestral sin. follow God or choose to sanctifying grace in accept salvation as it is consequence of the sin of freely offered. “MAN DOES NOT DRAW HIS LIFE Adam.” () FROM NOURISHMENT ITSELF BUT FROM NOURISHMENT AS A RELATIONSHIP AND COMMUNION WITH GOD.” (Yanaras)

ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

We do not inherit the Adam’s Historically: Total Depravity guilt but the consequences Augustine believed it was of his sin, corruption, passed on through mortality, weakened will. It is the teaching that, as a procreation. consequence of the Fall, Spiritual death results– God every person born into the responds by sending His Son Today: world is enslaved to the to reestablish our Catechism of the Catholic service of sin and, apart relationship with God- this is Church, includes "original from the grace of God, is salvation. A real loss of our sin does not have the utterly unable to choose to potential to realize our God- character of a personal fault follow God or choose to likeness. accept salvation as it is in any of Adam's descendants. It is a freely offered. A distortion of intelligence, creativity, our sense of God, deprivation of original our ability to discern holiness and justice, but between good and evil, an has not been inability to consistently do totally corrupted" (§405).” what is good and avoid evil.

ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

The Orthodox Church does 1854 Pope Pius IX . The They reject the Dogma of not hold the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is the Immaculate Conception Immaculate Conception. a dogma of the Catholic Church maintaining that Christ takes “flesh” from from the moment when Mary and nails in order to she was conceived in the save us from sin and death. womb, the Blessed She must have the same nature as the rest of Mary was kept free of humanity. original sin, so that she was from the start filled Her sinful condition must be with the sanctifying grace like ours in every way. She normally conferred in was “pure” but had . inherited all of the consequences of Adam’s sin.

ORTHODOX Catholic Protestant

The “” – the” The Roman Catholics They reject that Mary was bearer” of God or the emphasize her perpetual sinless and the Dogma of “Mother of God. ” We Virginity. the Immaculate Conception emphasize the “mother- hood” of Mary as that which Free from Original Sin makes Christ the “Son of Man.” Isolated from her role in the Incarnation. Ever Virginity – three stars

Devotions exclusively to Body was assumed into heaven after her death Mary.

Brothers and sisters of Body was assumed into Christ were cousins. heaven after her death

First among the Saints