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Ji Hoon Chun 2014 07 17

1 Tetration 1.1 Introduction and Knuth’s up-arrow notation For positive , the operations of and can be looked at as repeated and repeated multiplication respectively. It is possible to further this process and create an that corresponds to repeated exponentiation. These operations are called hyper operations. [GD] [GR] [WH] Hyper operation rank Name Operation Deﬁnition 1 Addition a + b a +1+ +1 ··· b 2 Multiplication a b a + + a · | ···{z } b 3 Exponentiation ab,ab a a " | ·····{z } b 4 Tetration ba, a b a (a ( (a a) )) "" " "|···{z "} ··· b occurrences of a 5 ba, a b a (a ( (a a) )) """ |"" "" ···{z "" ···} b occurrences of a 6 Hexation ab,a b a (a ( (a a) )) """" |""" """ ···{z """ ···} b occurrences of a ...... | {z. } The names of “tetration,” “pentation,” etc. are from Goodstein (1947). The arrows are part of Knuth’s up-arrow notation, created by in 1976 [WK] [KD], which is deﬁned as in the table. The general rule for this notation is that each operator is deﬁned by the one below it by the following :

a b = a a a a . "···" "···"0 "···"0···0 "···" 1 ···11 n n 1 n 1 n 1 @ @ @ A AA | {z } | {z } | {zb occurrences} of| a{z } The shorthand n is used to represent . In the expression a n b, a is called the , b is called the " | "···" {z " } n hyperexponent, and n is called the rank [WH]. Note that by deﬁnition, x n 1=1for all n N (also true n n 1 | {z } " 2 for multiplication) and 2 2=2 2= =4for all n N (also true for addition and multiplication). " " ··· 2 Also, like exponentiation, tetration is not commutative. An immediate consequence of the deﬁnition of b tetration is that b+1a = a( a) for b 1. 2 Example 1.1. 32=22 = 16 = 27 = 33 = 23. 6 As one might expect from comparing addition, multiplication, and exponentiation, tetration of even small can result in very . Here are two tables of values formed by hyper operations displayed using notation no “higher” than exponentiation (and braces) to give an idea of their sizes. Graphs of y = x +2, y = x 2, y = x2,andy = 2x are given in Figure 1. ·

1 n 2 n 2 n 2 n 2 n 2 rank n Name 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 10 2 " " " " " 0 Successor 3 3 3 3 3 1 Addition 4 5 6 7 12 2 Multiplication 4 6 8 10 20 3 Exponentiation 4 9 16 25 100 4 Tetration 4 27 64 3125 1010 .4 .5 .10 3 . 256 . 53125 . 5 Pentation 22 =4 33 7.63 1012 4. =44 5. =55 10. ⇡ · 4 5 10 3 4 5 10 10 ...... 6 Hexation 22 =4 3. |{z}4. |{z} 5. 10. , 9 occurrences| {z } of 10.

33 4 5 3 . . . . . 4. 5. . |{z} |{z} |{z} | {z } 4 5 .10 ...... 4. 5. 10 |{z} |{z} | {z } 4 5 10 . . 5. |{z} |{z} | {z } 5

n 2 n 2 n 2 n 2 n 2 rank n Name 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 |{z5} 2 10 " " " " " 0 Successor 3 4 5 6 11 1 Addition 4 5 6 7 12 2 Multiplication 4 6 8 10 20 3 Exponentiation 4 8 16 32 1.27 1030 2 2 ⇡2 · 65536 . . . 22 2 . . . 22 4 Tetration 22 =4 22 = 16 2. = 65536 2. =265536 2. =22 4 5 10 2 2 2 2 2 ...... 5 Pentation 22 =4 65536 = 2. |{z}2. |{z}2. 2. ,|8{zoccurrences} of 2. 4 2 2 . . . . . 2. 2. . |{z} |{z} |{z} |{z} 4 2 .2 . . . . 2. 2 |{z} |{z} |{z} 4 4 2 . . 6 Hexation 22 =4 2. * Exercise|{z} |{z} Bonus Exercise

2 . . 2. |{z} 4 10 Remark 1.2. 2 written using only addition| is{z} 2 (2 ( (2 2) )) =2(2 (2 (2 (2 (2 (2 (2 (2 2)))))))) · · ··· · ··· · · · · · · · · · 10 | {z } =2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2+ +2 · 0 · 0 · 0 · 0 · 0 · 0 · 0 ··· 1111111 4 =2+@ +2@ , 8@occurrences@ @ of@2+@ +2. AAAAAAA ··· ···| {z } . . | {z } 2+ +2 ··· | {z4 } Many other notations exist that denote| both{z tetration} and other hyper operators. One other will be presented below.

2 1.2 Conway’s chained arrow notation This notation was created by John Conway [WC]. This notation can be used to write numbers that are too large to concisely write using Knuth’s up-arrow notation. Deﬁnition 1.3. [WC] A Conway chain is an expression of the form a a a , where the a ’s 1 ! 2 !···! n i are positive integers. The length of the chain is the of numbers in the chain. This chain behaves according to four rules. Let represent a Conway chain.

1. The Conway chain a is the number a. 2. a b := ab. ! 3. C a 1=C a. ! ! ! 4. C a (b + 1) = C ( (C (C (C) b) b) ) b, where the expression on the right ! ! ! ··· ! ! ! ! ··· ! has a copies of C. Each of these rules evaluates a chain in terms of operations no “higher” than exponentiation, reduces the length of the chain, or reduces the ﬁnal element of the chain. It follows that a Conway chain can always be evaluated to result in an , even though it may be quite large. Example 1.4. Conway’s notation can be considered as a kind of superset of Knuth’s notation, as a chain of length 3 is equivalent to an expression in Knuth’s notation. a b n = a n b. • ! ! " 4 4 3 2=4 (4 4 1) 1=4 (4 4) = 4 44 =44 1.34 10154. • ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ⇡ · 3 2 2 2=3 2 (3 2) 1=3 2 (3 2) = 3 2 9=3 9 2. • ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! " 3 4 3 2 2=4 3 (4 3) 1=4 3 43 =4 4 3. • ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! " As a further illustration, we will express Graham’s number using these notations. [MG] Deﬁnition 1.5. Consider a hypercube of dimension n and color each edge of the hypercube one of two colors. Let N be the smallest n such that no matter what the coloring, a graph K4 consisting of one color and with coplanar vertices is formed. Graham’s number is an upper bound for N found by Graham and Rothschild (1971), which is deﬁned as g64 where

g =3 3 and g =3 3. 1 """" n "···" gn 1 This number satisﬁes | {z } 3 3 64 2

n We denote a by pbs or pbs if n =2.

n Deﬁnition 1.7. The super-logarithm slog is deﬁned such that slogab = n if a = b. 2 While x = pas satisﬁes x = a,onecansolvethisequationintermsofmorefamiliarfunctions,speciﬁcally ones that were not designed to solve precisely this equation.

3 Deﬁnition 1.8. [CGHJK] The is the (multivalued) of f (z)=zez (z C). 2 Avalueofthefunctionatz is denoted by W (z) (that is, W (z) satisﬁes z = W (z) eW (z)). Various branches of W ,eachanormalfunction,aredenotedbysubscriptssuchasW0 and W 1 [CGHJK]. This function has numerous applications in mathematics, and one of them is to solve of the form xx = a. Any solution satisﬁes the following equations:

x log x = log a (log x) elog x = log a log x = W (log a) x = eW (log a).

One question about numbers of the form nx is whether or not there exist irrational numbers a such that na n is rational. Note that pn 2 =2so the statement is true for numbers of the form an.

1 1 e 1 2 3 Theorem 1.9. [AT] Every e , either belongs to the 1 , 2 , 3 ,... or is a 2 1 of the form a for an irrational a. ⇣ ⌘ 1 x 1 1 e Proof. Let f (x)=x .Sincef is increasing on , and limx f (x)= ,foreachr , e 1 !1 1 2 e 1 there is a unique a R such that r = aa.Supposethata is rational, and write a = b and r = ⇣s in lowest⌘ 2 c t terms. Then

b b c s = c t ✓ ◆ b b c s b = c c t b b b c t = sc c bbtc = sccb.

Since (b, c)=(s, t)=1,aprimep divides tc iﬀ p divides cb,andthenp cannot divide bb or sc.Similarly,a b c c b b c c b e1 em f1 fn prime q divides b iﬀ q divides s ,andthenq cannot divide t or c . Then b t = s c = p1 pm q1 qn c b b c c b ··· ··· where p1,...,pm divide only t and c and q1,...,qn divide only b and s ,sot = c .Supposethatc>1. There exists a prime p,positiveintegersi, , k,andl where k and l are relatively prime to q,sothatt = pik c b and c = pjl. Then since pik = pjl ,wehave

jb = ic = ipjl, which implies that pj divides jb.Butsincep divides c and (b, c)=1, pj actually divides j,sopj j.But  we know that j j p 2 >j for j N, 2 which is a contradiction. Thus c =1. The method of proof for the 3x case uses an application of the Gelfond-Schneider Theorem [AT].

Theorem 1.10. (Gelfond-Schneider) If a =0, 1 is an and b is an irrational algebraic 6 number, then ab is transcendental.

1 2 3 Corollary 1.11. [AT] Every rational number r (0, ) either belongs to the set 11 , 22 , 33 ,... or is of a 2 1 the form aa for an irrational a. n o

4 x Proof. Let f (x)=xx .Firstwenotethat

x lim + x x x 0 lim f (x)= lim xx = lim x ! =01 =0 x 0+ x 0+ x 0+ ! ! ✓ ! ◆ xx x 1 xx x 1 and f 0 (x)=x x (1 + x (log x) (1 + log x)). x and x are positive on (0, ), 1 1 1+x (log x) (1 + log x) 10 1 + (log x) (1 + log x)= log x + 2 + 4 > 0 e 1.Then is a root of the p (x)=cbxc bb. By Theorem 1.9, is c irrational. So by the Gelfond-Schneider Theorem, r = 3a = ↵ is transcendental, thus irrational. So a must be an integer if it is rational.

1 n 1 Note that in contrast, 2 = 2n is rational. Remark 1.12. The proof appears to still hold if “rational number” in the statement of the corollary is replaced with “algebraic.” According to [AT] the question for na, n 4,isopen.However,theyconjecturearesultsimilartothe cases n =2and n =3. Conjecture 1.13. For n 4, every rational number r (0, ) either belongs to the set n1, n2, n3,... or 2 1 { } is of the form na for an irrational a.

1.4 Extensions n Tetration can be extended to bases that are not positive integers. Following the pattern limx 0 x = ! 1 n even (evidence for this assertion is in the next section), one can deﬁne n0=1.Forthecomplex (0 n odd number i,wehave ia+bi = e(a+bi)logi 1 ⇡i(a+bi) = e 2 b ⇡ a a = e 2 cos ⇡ + i sin ⇡ , 2 2

b b ⇣ ⌘ n n+1 2 ⇡ a 2 ⇡ a so if i = a + bi then i = e cos 2 ⇡ + ie sin 2 ⇡. This method works similarly for a general [WT]. Tetration can also be extended, in a limited way, to hyperexponents that are not positive n+1 (nx) n+1 n integers. Let x>0 and a, b N.Since x = x for n 1,wehavelogx x = x for n 1. 2 0 1 Then one can extend this rule to n =0to deﬁne x as logx x = logx x =1. Continuing this process gives 1 0 2 1 n x := logx x = logx 1=0and x := logx x = logx 0, which is undeﬁned. Thus x cannot be extended in this way to integers 2 or smaller [B]. When x is multiplied by or raised to the power of a rational number, a ax a b b p a the rules of x b = b and x = x , which involve inverse functions, hold. So for tetration, one may · a b a attempt to deﬁne b x to be p xs [B]. In the rules involving multiplication and exponentiation, the result does not change if a and b are multiplied by the same , but that property does not hold in 2 4 the proposed deﬁnition for tetration. Let y = 3 x and y¯ = 6 x,then

3 2 y = p xs 3y = 2x and

6 4 y¯ = p xs 6y¯ = 4x

5 but y and y¯ are not necessarily equal, see Figure 2.Sincethedeﬁnitionofx n contains x x = xx, """ "" the deﬁnition of pentation for noninteger x if n 2 requires that xx be well-deﬁned.

. . . x 1.5 The inﬁnite power tower h (x)=xx

Proposition 1.14. Let f be continuous and suppose that the (an) deﬁned by

a1 = x, a2 = f (x) ,a3 = f (f (x)) ,a4 = f (f (f (x))) ,... converges to l. Then f (l)=l.

x xx For x>0,considerthesequence(bn) where b1 = x, b2 = x , b3 = x , and so on. The

. . . x xx

b refers to the of (bn) if it exists [SM] [KA]. Let b be this limit, then by the proposition, x = b.Note . . . 1 xx 1 that this equation implies x = b b ,soh (x)=x is the inverse function of g (x):=x x whenever both are well-deﬁned and on a domain where g is injective.

. . . xx e 1 Theorem 1.15. The function h (x)=x (x>0) converges for e x e e and diverges elsewhere.   Proof. (Overview of the proof, [KA]) The sequence (bn) follows one of four cases depending on the value of x. 1. If 1 x,thenb b b .  1  2  3 ··· 1 (a) If 1 x e e ,then(b ) is also bounded above by e,thusitconverges.   n 1 b 1 1 (b) If e e

2. If 0 b >b > .Since0

e (a) If e x<1,then(b2n 1) and (b2n) converge to the same value.  e (b) If 0

Agraphoff (x)=bn (x), n =1,...,16,isgiveninFigure 3. The above domain of convergence 1 e 1 corresponds to the domain e x e of the inverse function g with range e g (x) e e .Convergence     also holds for certain complex numbers, once h is extended to C.Sincezw = ew log z,oneneedstochoosea branch of log z to use; Thron uses the [T]. Theorem 1.16. [T] h (z) converges if log z 1 . For such z, log h (z) 1. | | e | | . . . z z 3 (In fact, Thron proves a more general result, where w = z 2 converges if log z 1 for all k,andthen 1 | k| e log w 1.) Shell provides a number of regions which h (z) converges within, and one of them is formulated | | below.

⇠ Theorem 1.17. [SD] h (z) converges if z = e⇠e for some ⇠ log 2. | | While larger than Thron’s region, Shell’s region does not completely contain Thron’s region. In the other direction, Carlsson provides a region outside of which h (z) does not converge [KA].

6 ⇠ Theorem 1.18. [KA] If h (z) converges, then z = e⇠e for some ⇠ 1. | | Figure 4 illustrates these regions. Observe that the region of Carlsson is larger than the of Thron’s and Shell’s regions, and this statement is still true if the rest of Shell’s regions are included [KA]. An open question is to ﬁnd the of C such that h (z) converges inside it and diverges outside it. The Lambert . . . z W function can also write h (z)=zz in a closed form expression [CGHJK]. For values of z such that . . . z h (z)=zz converges, the equation h (z)=zh(z) holds and it can be solved in terms of the W function to get W ( log z) h (z)= . log z 1.6 The z = xx spindle In this section we will let log x be the multi-valued , and Log x be the single-valued principal branch of log x.Recallthedeﬁnitionofxx in terms of , xx = ex log x.Whilex is restricted to be real, log x and z = xx are allowed to be complex, so the complex logarithm is involved. Let x>0.Supposethaty = Log x,theney+2i⇡n = ey = x for all n N,so Log x + i⇡n is the set of 2 { | | }n even values of the complex logarithm of x.Letx0 < 0.Fory0 = Log x0 ,wesimilarlyhave Log x0 + i⇡n n odd | | { | | x } as the set of values of the complex logarithm of x0. The resulting family of functions representing x is

x(Log x +i⇡n) tn (x):=e | | , where tn has a domain of (0, ) if n is even and a domain of ( , 0) if n is odd. Each tn is called a thread 1 x 1 and the graph of all threads is called the x spindle [MM]. A graph of tn (x) for n =0,...,10 is given in Figure 5.1. In Figure 5.2 only the n =3and n =4threads are displayed. Let z = u + vi. If we restrict ourselves to real values of xx (the xu-plane), then each thread t (n =0)takesrealvalues(intersectsthe n 6 plane) whenever 2⇡nx is a multiple of 2⇡,thatis,forx = k .(t takes entirely real values for 0 p odd < q ⇣ ⌘ x 1 :> so x is deﬁned for multiples of q [MM]. Now consider the set of z for a given x.Foraﬁxedx Q, write p p p 2 p q Log q +in⇡ q x = q in lowest terms. Then tn (x)=e | | takes one of 2q distinct values evenly spaced around p p x the circle z = e q Log q = x corresponding to n =0,...,2q 1.Butsincen is always even or always odd | | | | | | depending on the sign of x,onlyq distinct values evenly spaced actually occur for any given x.Foraﬁxed x/Q,distinctm and n result in tm (x) = tn (x) on the circle. Let ">0,thenbythepigeonholeprinciple, 2 6 given enough distinct values of n, there will exist two threads tn0 and tn00 that satisfy the condition that the distance between tn (x) and tn (x) along the circle is less than ". Then for k N, tn +(n n )k (x) is a 0 00 2 0 00 0 set of points that wrap around the entire circle such that any two consecutive elements have distance less than " [MM]. Remark 1.19. If one uses this approach to the (complex) root function represented by z = px = 1 (Log x +i⇡n) e 2 | | , where n is even for x>0 and odd for x<0,thenonegetsonlytwodistinctbranchesfor each half ( x : x>0 and x : x<0 )asexpected. { } { }

7 2 References

[AT] Ash, J. Marshall and Tan, Yiren. “A rational number of the form aa with a irrational.” Mathe- matical Gazette 96, March 2012, pp. 106-109.

[B] Bromer, Nick. “Superexponentiation.” Mathematics Magazine 60, No. 3 (June 1987), pp. 169- 174. [CGHJK] Corless, R. M., Gonnet, G.H., Hare, .E.G., Jeﬀrey, D.J., and Knuth, D.E. “On the Lambert W function.” Advances in Computational Mathematics,1996,pp.329-359.

[GD] Glasscock, Daniel G. “Exponentials Replicatas.” https://people.math.osu.edu/glasscock.4/eulerexponent.pdf. Accessed 15 July 2014. [GR] Goodstein, R. L., “Transﬁnite Ordinals in Recursive .” The Journal of Symbolic Logic,Vol.12,No.4(December1947),pp.123-129. [KA] Knoebel, R. Arthur. “Exponentials Reiterated.” The American Mathematical Monthly 88, 1981, pp. 235-252. [KD] Knuth, D. E. “Mathematics and Science: Coping with Finiteness. Advances in Our Ability to Compute are Bringing Us Substantially Closer to Ultimate Limitations.” Science 194, 1976, pp. 1235-1242.

[MG] Weisstein, Eric W. "Graham’s Number." From MathWorld–A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram .com/GrahamsNumber.html. Accessed 17 July 2014. [MM] Meyerson, Mark D. “The xx Spindle.” Mathematics Magazine 69 (3), 1996 pp. 198–206. [SM] Spivak, Michael. Calculus, 4th edition.PublishorPerish,2008,p.467.

[SD] Shell, Donald L. “On the convergence of inﬁnite exponentials.” Proceedings of the American Math. Society 13 (1962), pp. 678-681. [T] Thron, W. J. “Convergence of inﬁnite exponentials with complex elements.” Proceedings of the American Math. Society 8(1957),pp.1040-1043. [WC] “Conway chained arrow notation.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway_chained_arrow_notation. Accessed 13 July 2014. [WH] “.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperoperation. Accessed 14 July 2014. [WK] “Knuth’s up-arrow notation.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knuth’s_up-arrow_notation. Accessed 13 July 2014. [WT] “Tetration.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetration. Accessed 13 July 2014.

8 Ji Hoon Chun

3 List of Figures

Figure 1 Figure 2

6 2

5 1.5

4

1 3

2 0.5

1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

y = x + 2, y = x·2, y = x2, and y = 2x. The blue curve is 3y = 2x and the red curve is 6y = 4x.

Figure 3 Figure 4 3.5

1.6 3

2.5 0.8

2

-2.4 -1.6 -0.8 0 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4

1.5

-0.8

1

-1.6 0.5

-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 The red3 line is the3.5 convergence4 for real z, the green curve is the boundary of Thron’s region, The vertical lines are, from left to right, x = e–e, the purple curve is the boundary of the Shell’s x = 1, and x = e1/e. Yellow to red curves are y = b2n region mentioned in the handout, and the blue and green to blue curves are y = b2n – 1. curve is the boundary of Carlsson’s region.

1 Ji Hoon Chun

Figures 5.1 (top) and 5.2 (bottom)

The graph of z = ex·log|x| + inπx. x is along the axis in the same direction as the spindle, and z = u + vi is the plane perpendicular to that axis, where the vertical axis represents u. The frame limits are [–3, 2] × [–2.5, 2.5]2. The thick black curve is n = 0. [Top] The blue curves are n = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and the reddish curves are n = 1, 3, 5, 7, 9. [Bottom] The blue curve is n = 4 and the red curve is n = 3.

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