# The Very Basics of Groups, Rings, and Fields

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• Algebra I (Math 200)
Algebra I (Math 200) UCSC, Fall 2009 Robert Boltje Contents 1 Semigroups and Monoids 1 2 Groups 4 3 Normal Subgroups and Factor Groups 11 4 Normal and Subnormal Series 17 5 Group Actions 22 6 Symmetric and Alternating Groups 29 7 Direct and Semidirect Products 33 8 Free Groups and Presentations 35 9 Rings, Basic Deﬁnitions and Properties 40 10 Homomorphisms, Ideals and Factor Rings 45 11 Divisibility in Integral Domains 55 12 Unique Factorization Domains (UFD), Principal Ideal Do- mains (PID) and Euclidean Domains 60 13 Localization 65 14 Polynomial Rings 69 Chapter I: Groups 1 Semigroups and Monoids 1.1 Deﬁnition Let S be a set. (a) A binary operation on S is a map b : S × S ! S. Usually, b(x; y) is abbreviated by xy, x · y, x ∗ y, x • y, x ◦ y, x + y, etc. (b) Let (x; y) 7! x ∗ y be a binary operation on S. (i) ∗ is called associative, if (x ∗ y) ∗ z = x ∗ (y ∗ z) for all x; y; z 2 S. (ii) ∗ is called commutative, if x ∗ y = y ∗ x for all x; y 2 S. (iii) An element e 2 S is called a left (resp. right) identity, if e ∗ x = x (resp. x ∗ e = x) for all x 2 S. It is called an identity element if it is a left and right identity. (c) S together with a binary operation ∗ is called a semigroup, if ∗ is as- sociative. A semigroup (S; ∗) is called a monoid if it has an identity element. 1.2 Examples (a) Addition (resp.
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• Arithmetic Equivalence and Isospectrality
ARITHMETIC EQUIVALENCE AND ISOSPECTRALITY ANDREW V.SUTHERLAND ABSTRACT. In these lecture notes we give an introduction to the theory of arithmetic equivalence, a notion originally introduced in a number theoretic setting to refer to number ﬁelds with the same zeta function. Gassmann established a direct relationship between arithmetic equivalence and a purely group theoretic notion of equivalence that has since been exploited in several other areas of mathematics, most notably in the spectral theory of Riemannian manifolds by Sunada. We will explicate these results and discuss some applications and generalizations. 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO ARITHMETIC EQUIVALENCE AND ISOSPECTRALITY Let K be a number ﬁeld (a ﬁnite extension of Q), and let OK be its ring of integers (the integral closure of Z in K). The Dedekind zeta function of K is deﬁned by the Dirichlet series X s Y s 1 ζK (s) := N(I)− = (1 N(p)− )− I OK p − ⊆ where the sum ranges over nonzero OK -ideals, the product ranges over nonzero prime ideals, and N(I) := [OK : I] is the absolute norm. For K = Q the Dedekind zeta function ζQ(s) is simply the : P s Riemann zeta function ζ(s) = n 1 n− . As with the Riemann zeta function, the Dirichlet series (and corresponding Euler product) deﬁning≥ the Dedekind zeta function converges absolutely and uniformly to a nonzero holomorphic function on Re(s) > 1, and ζK (s) extends to a meromorphic function on C and satisﬁes a functional equation, as shown by Hecke [25]. The Dedekind zeta function encodes many features of the number ﬁeld K: it has a simple pole at s = 1 whose residue is intimately related to several invariants of K, including its class number, and as with the Riemann zeta function, the zeros of ζK (s) are intimately related to the distribution of prime ideals in OK .
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• Classification of Finite Abelian Groups
Math 317 C1 John Sullivan Spring 2003 Classiﬁcation of Finite Abelian Groups (Notes based on an article by Navarro in the Amer. Math. Monthly, February 2003.) The fundamental theorem of ﬁnite abelian groups expresses any such group as a product of cyclic groups: Theorem. Suppose G is a ﬁnite abelian group. Then G is (in a unique way) a direct product of cyclic groups of order pk with p prime. Our ﬁrst step will be a special case of Cauchy’s Theorem, which we will prove later for arbitrary groups: whenever p |G| then G has an element of order p. Theorem (Cauchy). If G is a ﬁnite group, and p |G| is a prime, then G has an element of order p (or, equivalently, a subgroup of order p). ∼ Proof when G is abelian. First note that if |G| is prime, then G = Zp and we are done. In general, we work by induction. If G has no nontrivial proper subgroups, it must be a prime cyclic group, the case we’ve already handled. So we can suppose there is a nontrivial subgroup H smaller than G. Either p |H| or p |G/H|. In the ﬁrst case, by induction, H has an element of order p which is also order p in G so we’re done. In the second case, if ∼ g + H has order p in G/H then |g + H| |g|, so hgi = Zkp for some k, and then kg ∈ G has order p. Note that we write our abelian groups additively. Deﬁnition. Given a prime p, a p-group is a group in which every element has order pk for some k.
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• Mathematics 310 Examination 1 Answers 1. (10 Points) Let G Be A
Mathematics 310 Examination 1 Answers 1. (10 points) Let G be a group, and let x be an element of G. Finish the following deﬁnition: The order of x is ... Answer: . the smallest positive integer n so that xn = e. 2. (10 points) State Lagrange’s Theorem. Answer: If G is a ﬁnite group, and H is a subgroup of G, then o(H)|o(G). 3. (10 points) Let ( a 0! ) H = : a, b ∈ Z, ab 6= 0 . 0 b Is H a group with the binary operation of matrix multiplication? Be sure to explain your answer fully. 2 0! 1/2 0 ! Answer: This is not a group. The inverse of the matrix is , which is not 0 2 0 1/2 in H. 4. (20 points) Suppose that G1 and G2 are groups, and φ : G1 → G2 is a homomorphism. (a) Recall that we deﬁned φ(G1) = {φ(g1): g1 ∈ G1}. Show that φ(G1) is a subgroup of G2. −1 (b) Suppose that H2 is a subgroup of G2. Recall that we deﬁned φ (H2) = {g1 ∈ G1 : −1 φ(g1) ∈ H2}. Prove that φ (H2) is a subgroup of G1. Answer:(a) Pick x, y ∈ φ(G1). Then we can write x = φ(a) and y = φ(b), with a, b ∈ G1. Because G1 is closed under the group operation, we know that ab ∈ G1. Because φ is a homomorphism, we know that xy = φ(a)φ(b) = φ(ab), and therefore xy ∈ φ(G1). That shows that φ(G1) is closed under the group operation.
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• Boolean and Abstract Algebra Winter 2019
Queen's University School of Computing CISC 203: Discrete Mathematics for Computing II Lecture 7: Boolean and Abstract Algebra Winter 2019 1 Boolean Algebras Recall from your study of set theory in CISC 102 that a set is a collection of items that are related in some way by a common property or rule. There are a number of operations that can be applied to sets, like [, \, and C. Combining these operations in a certain way allows us to develop a number of identities or laws relating to sets, and this is known as the algebra of sets. In a classical logic course, the ﬁrst thing you typically learn about is propositional calculus, which is the branch of logic that studies propositions and connectives between propositions. For instance, \all men are mortal" and \Socrates is a man" are propositions, and using propositional calculus, we may conclude that \Socrates is mortal". In a sense, propositional calculus is very closely related to set theory, in that propo- sitional calculus is the study of the set of propositions together with connective operations on propositions. Moreover, we can use combinations of connective operations to develop the laws of propositional calculus as well as a collection of rules of inference, which gives us even more power to manipulate propositions. Before we continue, it is worth noting that the operations mentioned previously|and indeed, most of the operations we have been using throughout these notes|have a special name. Operations like [ and \ apply to pairs of sets in the same way that + and × apply to pairs of numbers.
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• The General Linear Group
18.704 Gabe Cunningham 2/18/05 [email protected] The General Linear Group Deﬁnition: Let F be a ﬁeld. Then the general linear group GLn(F ) is the group of invert- ible n × n matrices with entries in F under matrix multiplication. It is easy to see that GLn(F ) is, in fact, a group: matrix multiplication is associative; the identity element is In, the n × n matrix with 1’s along the main diagonal and 0’s everywhere else; and the matrices are invertible by choice. It’s not immediately clear whether GLn(F ) has inﬁnitely many elements when F does. However, such is the case. Let a ∈ F , a 6= 0. −1 Then a · In is an invertible n × n matrix with inverse a · In. In fact, the set of all such × matrices forms a subgroup of GLn(F ) that is isomorphic to F = F \{0}. It is clear that if F is a ﬁnite ﬁeld, then GLn(F ) has only ﬁnitely many elements. An interesting question to ask is how many elements it has. Before addressing that question fully, let’s look at some examples. ∼ × Example 1: Let n = 1. Then GLn(Fq) = Fq , which has q − 1 elements. a b Example 2: Let n = 2; let M = ( c d ). Then for M to be invertible, it is necessary and suﬃcient that ad 6= bc. If a, b, c, and d are all nonzero, then we can ﬁx a, b, and c arbitrarily, and d can be anything but a−1bc. This gives us (q − 1)3(q − 2) matrices.
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• 7.2 Binary Operators Closure
last edited April 19, 2016 7.2 Binary Operators A precise discussion of symmetry beneﬁts from the development of what math- ematicians call a group, which is a special kind of set we have not yet explicitly considered. However, before we deﬁne a group and explore its properties, we reconsider several familiar sets and some of their most basic features. Over the last several sections, we have considered many di↵erent kinds of sets. We have considered sets of integers (natural numbers, even numbers, odd numbers), sets of rational numbers, sets of vertices, edges, colors, polyhedra and many others. In many of these examples – though certainly not in all of them – we are familiar with rules that tell us how to combine two elements to form another element. For example, if we are dealing with the natural numbers, we might considered the rules of addition, or the rules of multiplication, both of which tell us how to take two elements of N and combine them to give us a (possibly distinct) third element. This motivates the following deﬁnition. Deﬁnition 26. Given a set S,abinary operator ? is a rule that takes two elements a, b S and manipulates them to give us a third, not necessarily distinct, element2 a?b. Although the term binary operator might be new to us, we are already familiar with many examples. As hinted to earlier, the rule for adding two numbers to give us a third number is a binary operator on the set of integers, or on the set of rational numbers, or on the set of real numbers.
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• 3. Closed Sets, Closures, and Density
3. Closed sets, closures, and density 1 Motivation Up to this point, all we have done is deﬁne what topologies are, deﬁne a way of comparing two topologies, deﬁne a method for more easily specifying a topology (as a collection of sets generated by a basis), and investigated some simple properties of bases. At this point, we will start introducing some more interesting deﬁnitions and phenomena one might encounter in a topological space, starting with the notions of closed sets and closures. Thinking back to some of the motivational concepts from the ﬁrst lecture, this section will start us on the road to exploring what it means for two sets to be \close" to one another, or what it means for a point to be \close" to a set. We will draw heavily on our intuition about n convergent sequences in R when discussing the basic deﬁnitions in this section, and so we begin by recalling that deﬁnition from calculus/analysis. 1 n Deﬁnition 1.1. A sequence fxngn=1 is said to converge to a point x 2 R if for every > 0 there is a number N 2 N such that xn 2 B(x) for all n > N. 1 Remark 1.2. It is common to refer to the portion of a sequence fxngn=1 after some index 1 N|that is, the sequence fxngn=N+1|as a tail of the sequence. In this language, one would phrase the above deﬁnition as \for every > 0 there is a tail of the sequence inside B(x)." n Given what we have established about the topological space Rusual and its standard basis of -balls, we can see that this is equivalent to saying that there is a tail of the sequence inside any open set containing x; this is because the collection of -balls forms a basis for the usual topology, and thus given any open set U containing x there is an such that x 2 B(x) ⊆ U.
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• Unitary Group - Wikipedia
Unitary group - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitary_group Unitary group In mathematics, the unitary group of degree n, denoted U( n), is the group of n × n unitary matrices, with the group operation of matrix multiplication. The unitary group is a subgroup of the general linear group GL( n, C). Hyperorthogonal group is an archaic name for the unitary group, especially over finite fields. For the group of unitary matrices with determinant 1, see Special unitary group. In the simple case n = 1, the group U(1) corresponds to the circle group, consisting of all complex numbers with absolute value 1 under multiplication. All the unitary groups contain copies of this group. The unitary group U( n) is a real Lie group of dimension n2. The Lie algebra of U( n) consists of n × n skew-Hermitian matrices, with the Lie bracket given by the commutator. The general unitary group (also called the group of unitary similitudes ) consists of all matrices A such that A∗A is a nonzero multiple of the identity matrix, and is just the product of the unitary group with the group of all positive multiples of the identity matrix. Contents Properties Topology Related groups 2-out-of-3 property Special unitary and projective unitary groups G-structure: almost Hermitian Generalizations Indefinite forms Finite fields Degree-2 separable algebras Algebraic groups Unitary group of a quadratic module Polynomial invariants Classifying space See also Notes References Properties Since the determinant of a unitary matrix is a complex number with norm 1, the determinant gives a group 1 of 7 2/23/2018, 10:13 AM Unitary group - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitary_group homomorphism The kernel of this homomorphism is the set of unitary matrices with determinant 1.
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• On Some Generation Methods of Finite Simple Groups
Introduction Preliminaries Special Kind of Generation of Finite Simple Groups The Bibliography On Some Generation Methods of Finite Simple Groups Ayoub B. M. Basheer Department of Mathematical Sciences, North-West University (Maﬁkeng), P Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa Groups St Andrews 2017 in Birmingham, School of Mathematics, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom 11th of August 2017 Ayoub Basheer, North-West University, South Africa Groups St Andrews 2017 Talk in Birmingham Introduction Preliminaries Special Kind of Generation of Finite Simple Groups The Bibliography Abstract In this talk we consider some methods of generating ﬁnite simple groups with the focus on ranks of classes, (p; q; r)-generation and spread (exact) of ﬁnite simple groups. We show some examples of results that were established by the author and his supervisor, Professor J. Moori on generations of some ﬁnite simple groups. Ayoub Basheer, North-West University, South Africa Groups St Andrews 2017 Talk in Birmingham Introduction Preliminaries Special Kind of Generation of Finite Simple Groups The Bibliography Introduction Generation of ﬁnite groups by suitable subsets is of great interest and has many applications to groups and their representations. For example, Di Martino and et al. [39] established a useful connection between generation of groups by conjugate elements and the existence of elements representable by almost cyclic matrices. Their motivation was to study irreducible projective representations of the sporadic simple groups. In view of applications, it is often important to exhibit generating pairs of some special kind, such as generators carrying a geometric meaning, generators of some prescribed order, generators that oﬀer an economical presentation of the group.
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• On Field Γ-Semiring and Complemented Γ-Semiring with Identity
BULLETIN OF THE INTERNATIONAL MATHEMATICAL VIRTUAL INSTITUTE ISSN (p) 2303-4874, ISSN (o) 2303-4955 www.imvibl.org /JOURNALS / BULLETIN Vol. 8(2018), 189-202 DOI: 10.7251/BIMVI1801189RA Former BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF MATHEMATICIANS BANJA LUKA ISSN 0354-5792 (o), ISSN 1986-521X (p) ON FIELD Γ-SEMIRING AND COMPLEMENTED Γ-SEMIRING WITH IDENTITY Marapureddy Murali Krishna Rao Abstract. In this paper we study the properties of structures of the semi- group (M; +) and the Γ−semigroup M of ﬁeld Γ−semiring M, totally ordered Γ−semiring M and totally ordered ﬁeld Γ−semiring M satisfying the identity a + aαb = a for all a; b 2 M; α 2 Γand we also introduce the notion of com- plemented Γ−semiring and totally ordered complemented Γ−semiring. We prove that, if semigroup (M; +) is positively ordered of totally ordered ﬁeld Γ−semiring satisfying the identity a + aαb = a for all a; b 2 M; α 2 Γ, then Γ-semigroup M is positively ordered and study their properties. 1. Introduction In 1995, Murali Krishna Rao [5, 6, 7] introduced the notion of a Γ-semiring as a generalization of Γ-ring, ring, ternary semiring and semiring. The set of all negative integers Z− is not a semiring with respect to usual addition and multiplication but Z− forms a Γ-semiring where Γ = Z: Historically semirings ﬁrst appear implicitly in Dedekind and later in Macaulay, Neither and Lorenzen in connection with the study of a ring. However semirings ﬁrst appear explicitly in Vandiver, also in connection with the axiomatization of Arithmetic of natural numbers.
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• Formal Power Series - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia
Formal power series - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formal_power_series Formal power series From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In mathematics, formal power series are a generalization of polynomials as formal objects, where the number of terms is allowed to be infinite; this implies giving up the possibility to substitute arbitrary values for indeterminates. This perspective contrasts with that of power series, whose variables designate numerical values, and which series therefore only have a definite value if convergence can be established. Formal power series are often used merely to represent the whole collection of their coefficients. In combinatorics, they provide representations of numerical sequences and of multisets, and for instance allow giving concise expressions for recursively defined sequences regardless of whether the recursion can be explicitly solved; this is known as the method of generating functions. Contents 1 Introduction 2 The ring of formal power series 2.1 Definition of the formal power series ring 2.1.1 Ring structure 2.1.2 Topological structure 2.1.3 Alternative topologies 2.2 Universal property 3 Operations on formal power series 3.1 Multiplying series 3.2 Power series raised to powers 3.3 Inverting series 3.4 Dividing series 3.5 Extracting coefficients 3.6 Composition of series 3.6.1 Example 3.7 Composition inverse 3.8 Formal differentiation of series 4 Properties 4.1 Algebraic properties of the formal power series ring 4.2 Topological properties of the formal power series
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