1920s African American Culture

CHAPTER 10, SECTION 5 The Renaissance

 Big Ideas:  The relative freedom discovered by who moved to the North from the South, brought about a new sense of liberty that was reflected in black urban communities such as Harlem.  The sparked new trends in literature, music, and art. The Harlem Renaissance

 During the 1920s, thousands of African Americans joined the Great Migration out of the South and into cities in the North.  In the North, they found new freedoms and economic opportunities that helped them create a better life for themselves and their families. The Harlem Renaissance

 Many African Americans traveled to New York City and settled in the borough of Harlem. In Harlem artistic expression, racial pride, and political organization thrived in an era known as the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance

 In Harlem, African American writers, such as , Claude McKay, and , were free to express their defiance of racism. The Harlem Renaissance

 African Americans also contributed to the city’s night-life with a new type of music, .  The Cotton Club was the premier nightclub in Harlem that featured many famous black entertainers such as . However, the club only served white customers. African Americans & 1920s Politics

 Big Ideas:  The NAACP pursued racial equality through the courts while black nationalists supported independence and separation from white society. African Americans & 1920s Politics

 The Black Vote in the North:  As African Americans began to settle in northern cities where they were free to vote, they became a powerful voting bloc that could sway election results. Voting gave them a voice, and politicians had to start listening. African Americans & 1920s Politics

 The NAACP lobbied and protested against lynching and were successful in getting anti-lynching laws passed in 1922.  The NAACP was also successful in defeating the nomination to the Supreme Court of a southern judge who was believed to be racist. African Americans & 1920s Politics

 Black Nationalism &  Marcus Garvey captured the imagination of the black community with his idea of “Negro Nationalism,” which glorified black culture and traditions. African Americans & 1920s Politics

 Garvey’s central message was that African Americans could only gain political and economic freedom through education.  He also advocated separating from white America by creating a new society in Africa. African Americans & 1920s Politics

 Garvey’s message was seen as too radical by many middle-class African Americans.  The FBI was worried that Garvey’s group, the UNIA, was stirring up trouble, arrested Garvey and supporters on charges of mail fraud.  The charges were politically motivated and President Coolidge commuted Statue of Garvey in Jamaica Garvey’s sentence and had him deported to Jamaica.