Publication of The Journal of History is underwritten by a major grant from the Quest for Truth Foundation, established by the late James G. Scripps. Additional support is provided by “The Journal of San Diego Fund” of the San Diego Foundation and private donors.

The San Diego History Center is a museum, education center, and research library founded as the San Diego Historical Society in 1928. Its activities are supported by: the City of San Diego’s Commission for Arts and Culture; the County of San Diego; individuals; foundations; corporations; fundraising events; membership dues; admissions; shop sales; and rights and reproduction fees.

Articles appearing in The Journal of San Diego History are abstracted and indexed in Historical Abstracts and America: History and Life.

The paper in the publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Science-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.

Front Cover: The Baynard children—Theron (Sonny), Norma Jean, Arnold and Truelene. ©SDHC #91:18476-1746. Back Cover: Elijah Gentry poses for a photo next to his automobile in 1948. ©SDHC #91:18476-1746. Cover Design: Allen Wynar

The Journal of San Diego History




Published since 1955 by the SAN DIEGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY 1649 El Prado, , San Diego, 92101 ISSN 0022-4383 The Journal of San Diego History


Editorial Consultants Published quarterly by the San Diego History Center at 1649 El Prado, Balboa MATTHEW BOKOVOY Park, San Diego, California 92101. University of Nebraska Press A $60.00 annual membership in the DONALD C. CUTTER San Diego History Center includes Albuquerque, subscription to The Journal of San Diego WILLIAM DEVERELL History and the SDHC Times. Back issues University of Southern California; are available at Director, Huntington-USC Institute Articles and book reviews for of California and the West publication consideration, as well as VICTOR GERACI editorial correspondence, should be University of California, Berkeley addressed to the Editors, The Journal of San Diego History, Department of J. MICHAEL KELLY History, , 5998 Committee of 100 Balboa Park Alcalá Park, San Diego, CA 92110 PHOEBE KROPP All article submissons should be University of Pennsylvania computer generated and double-spaced ROGER W. LOTCHIN with endnotes, and follow the Chicago University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Manual of Style. Authors should submit three copies of their manuscript, plus NEIL MORGAN an electronic copy, in MS Word or in rich Journalist text format (RTF). JOHN PUTMAN The San Diego History Center assumes San Diego State University no responsibility for the statements or ANDREW ROLLE opinions of the authors or reviewers. The Huntington Library ©2011 by the San Diego History Center ROGER SHOWLEY ISSN 0022-4383 The San Diego Union-Tribune Periodicals postage paid at San Diego, CA Publication No. 331-870 ABE SHRAGGE (619) 232-6203 University of California, San Diego RAYMOND STARR San Diego State University, emeritus Note: For a change of address, please call (619) 232-6203 ext. 102 or email [email protected]





The Norman Baynard Photograph Collection: Three Perspectives by Chris Travers, Arnold Baynard, and Nicholas Vega 117

Remarkable Healers on the Pacific Coast: A History of San Diego’s Black Medical Community by Robert Fikes, Jr. 135

The Day the San Diego River Was Saved: The History of Floods and Floodplain Planning in Mission Valley by Philip R. Pryde, Ph.D. 154

Placing the Past in the Present: The Creation of Old Town San Diego State Historic Park by Matthew G. Schiff 185


iii The Journal of San Diego History

210 211 The Journal of San Diego History

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR STAFF David Kahn Tammie Bennett, Interim Registrar Elizabeth A. Burress, Visitor Services Assistant BOARD OF TRUSTEES Kristen Cairns, Administrative Assistant Andrea Chung, History Store Associate OFFICERS Therese Chung, Project Manager/Cataloger Hal Sadler, President Coralle Cowan, Visitor Services Assistant Robert F. Adelizzi, Past President Michael Daligdig, Visitor Services & Education Assistant James R. Dawe, Vice President Alexandra Faubel, Visitor Services Assistant Thompson Fetter, Vice President Natalie Fiocre, Image Technician Woody Ledford, Treasurer Nyabthok Goldet, Museum Custodian Helen Kinnaird, Secretary Joe Gregore, Special Events Coordinator Madison Johnston, Imaging Technician BOARD MEMBERS Jane Kenealy, Archivist Thomas L. Goodman Jessica LaFave, Development & Donor Relations Associate Ann Hill Chantal Lane, Museum Store Associate Lucy C. Jackson Sarah Matteson, Visitors Services Assistant Donna Long Knierim Stephanie Mirkin, Project Archivist William Lawrence Carol Myers, Photo Archivist Robert McNeely Heather Poirier, School Programs Coordinator Michael P. Morgan Terri Rochon, Visitors Services Assistant Virginia Morrison Matthew Schiff, Multimedia Communications Associate Ann Navarra Gabe Selak, Public Programs Manager Sandy Perlatti Marinta Skupin, Director of Education John Sinnott Christine Travers, Director of the Photograph Collection Marc Tarasuck Nicholas Vega, Director of Exhibitions Nell Waltz Oscar Urrutia, Facilities Manager Margie Warner Karen Wallace, History Store Manager Allan Wasserman Aurora Zabish, Business Manager Roger Zucchet San Diego History Center gratefully acknowledges the ADVISORY COMMITTEE generous support of the Director’s Circle and above. Malin Burnham Automobile Club of Southern California Kim Fletcher Diane and David Canedo Fran Golden Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Carter Yvonne Larsen Mr. David C. Copley David Malcolm Mr. and Mrs. James Dawe Jack Monger Mrs. Martha Gafford Mary Walshok Mrs. Audrey Geisel Stephen B. Williams Heritage Architecture & Planning Donna and Louis Knierim CREDITS Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. LaDow Design and Layout Mr. and Mrs. Woody Ledford Allen Wynar Mrs. Polly Liew and Mr. Fah Seong Liew Mrs. Lois Marriott Printing Mrs. Peggy Matthews Crest Offset Printing Mr. and Mrs. Dan McKinnon The Corky McMillin Companies EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS Mr. Robert A. McNeely Travis Degheri Mr. and Mrs. James S. Milch Cynthia van Stralen Mrs. Virginia Napierskie Joey Seymour Ms. Ann Navarra Ms. Sandra Perlatti STUDENT PROCESSORS Mrs. Donna Sefton Sean Flores Mrs. Janet Sutter Jennifer Ho Mr. and Mrs. John Thornton Katrina White Mr. and Mrs. Allan Wasserman Mrs. Emma Zuckerman Price Charities

212 PRESERVE A SAN DIEGO TREASURE Your $100 contribution will help to create an endowment for The Journal of San Diego History

Please make your check payable to The San Diego Foundation. Indicate on the bottom of your check that your donation is for The Journal of San Diego History Fund. The San Diego Foundation accepts contributions of $100 and up. Your contribution is tax-deductible.

The San Diego Foundation 2508 Historic Decatur Road, Suite 200 San Diego, CA 92106

(619) 235-2300 or (858) 385-1595 [email protected]