Leaf Key for Common Broadleaf in

By: Madeline Koenig & Kerry Wixted January 2016 Guide Key I. alternate A. Leaves simple 1. Margins entire ...... Pg. 1 a. Leaves oval to elliptic ...... Pg. 1 b. Leaves not oval or elliptic ...... Pg. 2 i. Leaves lobed ...... Pg. 2 ii. Leaves not lobed ...... Pg. 5 2. Margins toothed ...... Pg. 6 a. bases uneven ...... Pg. 6 b. Leaf bases even ...... Pg. 7 i. Leaves lobed ...... Pg. 7 ii. Leaves not lobed ...... Pg. 7 B. Leaves compound ...... Pg. 10 II. Leaves opposite A. Leaves simple 1. Margins entire ...... Pg. 13 a. Leaves lobed ...... Pg. 13 b. Leaves not lobed ...... Pg. 13 2. Margins toothed ...... Pg. 14 a. Leaves lobed ...... Pg. 14 b. Leaves not lobed ...... Pg. 14 B. Leaves compound ...... Pg. 15

i How to Use this Guide

This guide was created as an easy-to-use reference for beginner tree identification. It is not a comprehensive guide. Trees represented in the guide include those that are native to Maryland, those that are introduced (exotic), and those that are exotic and create ecological problems (invasive).

To use this guide, begin with the key on the previous page. Terms used in the key are illustrated on pages x - xii.

Please note that leaves can be highly variable in shape, size, appearance, and color. Leaves selected for this guide are intended to represent commonly found phenotypes. Leaves represented are not shown to scale.

Common Name Under each leaf, the following (Scientific name) Native, Exotic or Invasive information will be listed: •Distinguishing characteristics

Common Identification Terms: Simple Versus Compound

Simple and compound refer to whether or not a leaf the leaf is divided. Simple leaves have a single blade attached to a stem known as a . Compound leaves have multiple blades known as leaflets. To make sure you are looking at a leaf and not a , look for the lateral where the petiole meets the twig. All leaves have this trait, but leaflets do not.

This is a lateral bud.

SIMPLE COMPOUND ii Alternate Versus Opposite Leaves

Alternate and opposite refer to the arrangement of leaves along the twig. Do the leaves appear to zig-zag along the twig, or are they directly across from one another?


Entire Versus Toothed Leaf Margins

Entire and toothed refer to the edge of the leaf. The edge of a leaf is also known as a margin. Do the leaf edges seem to zig-zag, or are they smooth?


iii Even Versus Uneven Leaf Bases

Even and uneven refer to the shape of the base of the leaf. Do both sides of the base of the leaf line up with one another; or are they uneven?


Lobed Versus Not Lobed Leaves

Lobed and not lobed refer to the shape of the leaf. Does the leaf have sections that jut out, or does it have a consistent leaf edge?

This is a lobe.

LOBED NOT LOBED iv Alternate, Simple, Entire, Oval - Elliptic

Southern () Exotic •Underside and hairy • Umbrella Magnolia Common Pawpaw () ( triloba) Native Native •Leaves 10-24” • Leaves 6-12” • Edible

Sweetbay Magnolia () Common Native ( virginiana) •Underside white Native • broken in small squares •Edible fruit Pg. 1 Alternate, Simple, Entire, Oval – Elliptic; Cont’d

Bradford Spicebush () ( benzoin) Invasive sp. Native •White with unpleasant smell (Rhododendron sp.) • in spring Native/Exotic •Aromatic when crushed •Small, round fruit in fall •Variable leaf shape • in fall •Evergreen

Sassafras ( albidum) Native Black Gum •Hairy leaves () •Variable leaf shape (see pg. 4) Native •Aromatic when crushed •Dark, shiny leaves •Underside lighter •Blocky bark Pg. 2 Alternate, Simple, Entire, Not Oval, Lobed All leaves on this page have bristle-tips.

Scarlet Southern Red Oak Blackjack Oak () () () Native Native Native •Twigs reddish-brown •Top lobe elongated •Leaf lobes broad • hairy, pointed •Leaf base rounded •Leaf is triangular •Tufts of hair on underside •Inner-bark orangish-pink

Pin Oak Northern Red Oak Black Oak () (Quercus rubra) () Native Native Native •Deep lopes •Variable leaf shape •Hairy near veins on underside •Twigs shiny •Leaves never hairy •Twigs brown •Buds light brown, hairless •Twigs reddish-brown •Buds tan, oval-shaped, hairy •Inner bark pink •Buds hairy, pointed •Inner bark orange or •Inner bark pink Pg. 3 Alternate, Simple, Entire, Not Oval, Lobed; Cont’d All leaves on this page do not have bristle-tips.

Chestnut Oak Post Oak White Oak (Quercus ) () (Quercus alba) Native Native Native •Shallow lobes •Big lobes •Deeply lobed •Leaf is cross-shaped •Leaf shape variable . •Grayish- on top

Sassafras Poplar () ( tulipfera) Native Native •Hairy leaves •Has 4 lobes •Leaf shape variable (see pg. 2) •Flowers resemble •Aromatic when crushed Pg. 4 Alternate, Simple, Entire, Not Oval, Not Lobed

Ginkgo ( biloba) Exotic •Fan-shaped •Commonly planted

Eastern Redbud ( canadensis) Native •Heart-shaped •Flowers pink-purple, present before leaves •Has -like pods in fall

Willow Oak () Native •Narrow with bristle-tip

Pg. 5 Alternate, Simple, Toothed, Leaf Bases Uneven

American Basswood American Siberian Elm ( americana) () (Ulmus pumila) Native Native Invasive •Smooth to touch •Mostly smooth to touch; Slippery •Leaves narrow •Finely toothed Elm sandpapery with hairy •Leaves up to 3” in length •Small with leafy “wings” underside •Fruit round, winged in fall •Tree is vase-shaped •Commonly planted

Mulberry sp. Witch- ( sp.) () Native/Invasive Native •Leaf shape variable (see pg. 7,9) •Yellow flowers in fall •Fruit resembles blackberries •Milky Pg. 6 Alternate, Simple, Toothed, Leaf Bases Even, Lobed

American Sycamore Sweetgum Mulberry sp. ( occidentalis) ( styraciflua) (Morus sp.) Native Native Native/Invasive •Leaves large, broad •Leaves star-shaped; •Leaf shape variable (see pg. 6,9) •Bark gray, white, pale green •Tree produces spiky, ball-shaped •Fruit resembles blackberries pods in fall •Milky sap

Alternate, Simple, Toothed, Leaf Bases Even, Not Lobed

American River Hophornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) () ( virginiana) Native Native Native •Buds square •Bark peeling, bright •Buds round •Leaf veins never forked orange or reddish-brown •Leaf veins sometimes forked •Fruit winged •Fruit round, winged •Bark smooth, gray •“Ironwood” •“Musclewood” Pg. 7 Alternate, Simple, Toothed, Leaf Bases Even, Not Lobed; Cont’d

American Chinese Chestnut American (Castanea dentata) () () Native Exotic Native •Leaves long, narrow •Leaves oval •Bark smooth, gray •Leaf base tapers •Leaf base rounded •Buds slender, golden, •Feels thin, papery •Feels thick, waxy pointed

Black Cherry Japanese Flowering Crabapple ( serotina) ( floribunda) Native Exotic •Underside has hair along the main leaf vein • small, white or pink in spring •Two small glands located near leaf base •Fruit round, red or yellow in fall

Pg. 8 Alternate, Simple, Toothed, Leaf Bases Even, Not Lobed Cont.

Hawthorn sp. American Mulberry sp. ( sp.) () (Morus sp.) Native Native Native/Invasive •Flowers small, white with •Leaves dark, shiny, prickly •Leaf shape variable (see pg. 7) unpleasant smell in spring •Evergreen •Fruit resembles blackberries •Fruit reddish in fall •Persistent red berries in winter •Milky sap •Wild varieties have thorns

Eastern Serviceberry Crape Myrtle ( canadensis) (Lagerstroemia indica) Native Exotic sp. •White flowers in spring •Bark peeling, smooth Salix sp. •Underside lighter •Flower color variable Native/Exotic •Leaves narrow, elongated

Pg. 9 Alternate, Compound

Black Tree of Heaven ( nigra) ( altissima) Native Invasive •7-23 leaflets •Leaflets mostly smooth, few teeth •Nuts round with green husk, woody near base shell • have papery wings •Bark deeply furrowed

Smooth Staghorn Sumac Winged Sumac () () (Rhus copallina) Native Native Native •Leaflets toothed •Leaflets are toothed •Leaflets not toothed •Twigs flat-sided, not hairy •Twigs hairy •Twigs hairy •Reddish berries in upright •Reddish berries in upright •Leafstalks winged cluster in winter cluster in winter • Reddish berries in upright cluster in winter

Pg. 10 Alternate, Compound Continued

Bitternut Mockernut Hickory () () Native Native •7-11 leaflets •7-9 leaflets •Twigs somewhat hairy •Twigs reddish brown, hairy •Buds yellow, powdery •End buds more than ½” long • husk thick

Shagbark Hickory Pignut Hickory () () Native Native •5-7 leaflets •5-7 leaflets •Twigs reddish-brown, smooth •Twigs smooth •End buds more than ½” long •Buds silky •Bark shaggy •Nut husk thin •Nut husk thick Pg. 11 Alternate, Compound Continued

Honey Locust Black Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) () Native Native •Twigs, , and have •Twigs, branches, and trunk thorns up to 3” long have thorns up to ½” long

Mimosa/Silk Tree Golden Rain-tree ( julibrissin) ( paniculata) Invasive Invasive •Leaves doubly compound •7-17 leaflets •Flowers lacy, pink in spring and •Yellow flowers in summer summer •Seeds enclosed in lantern-like Pg. 12 Opposite, Simple, Entire, Lobed

Sugar Norway Maple () () Native Invasive •5 lobes •Lobes broad •Twigs and buds brownish •Twigs and buds grayish-brown •Flower pale yellow •Flowers and fruit green •Wings of fruit at right angles •Milky sap when broken

Opposite, Simple, Entire, Not Lobed

Princess Tree Catalpa sp. Flowering Dogwood ( tomentosa) (Catalpa sp.) ( ) Invasive Exotic Native •Leaves heart-shaped •Leaf veins curve to follow edge of •Leaves hairy, heart-shaped •Flowers white with yellow purple, leaf •Flowers pale purple, blue in spring before leaves pink markings in spring •Flowers with 4 white •Long seed pods through winter •Red berries in fall

Pg. 13 Opposite, Simple, Toothed, Lobed

Red Maple () Native •Twigs, buds, leafstalks reddish Maple •Flowers and fruit pink/red (Acer saccharinium) Native •Twigs and buds brownish •Flowers green •Underside silvery-white Japanese Maple () Invasive Maple-leaved •5-9 lobes •Leaves red to purple in fall (Viburnum acerfolium) Native •3 lobes •Leaves coarsely-toothed

Opposite, Simple, Toothed, Not Lobed

Cherry-leaved Viburnum () Native •Leaves resemble cherry leaves •Buds brown, not hairy

Arrowwood Viburnum (Viburnum dentata) Native •Leaves coarsely-toothed Pg. 14 Opposite, Compound

Buckeye sp. Box Elder ( sp.) () Native/Exotic Native •5 leaflets arranged in a whorled pattern •3-5 leaflets •Horse () •Papery fruit with wings have 7-9 leaflets •Twigs green

White Ash Green Ash ( americana) () Native Native •5-9 leaflets •7-9 leaflets •Leaf scar is “U” shaped •Leaf scar is semi-circular •Leaflet stalks have narrow wings Pg. 15 Index

American Sycamore (Plantanus occidentalis) . . Pg. 7 Oak Ash Black (Quercus velutina) ...... Pg. 3 Green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) ...... Pg. 15 Blackjack (Quercus marilandica) ...... Pg. 3 White (Fraxinus americana) ...... Pg. 15 Chestnut () ...... Pg. 4 Basswood, American () ...... Pg. 6 Northern Red (Quercus rubra) ...... Pg. 3 Beech, American (Fagus grandifolia) ...... Pg. 8 Pin (Quercus palustris) ...... Pg. 3 Birch, River (Betula nigra) ...... Pg. 7 Post (Quercus stellata) ...... Pg. 4 Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) ...... Pg. 8 Scarlet (Quercus coccinea) ...... Pg. 3 Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) ...... Pg. 2 Southern Red (Quercus falcata) ...... Pg. 3 Black Walnut () ...... Pg. 10 . White (Quercus alba) ...... Pg. 4 Box Elder (Acer negundo) ...... Pg. 15 Willow (Quercus phellos) ...... Pg. 5 Buckeye sp. (Aesculus sp.) ...... Pg. 15 . Pawpaw, Common () ...... Pg. 1 Catalpa sp. (Catalpa sp.) ...... Pg. 13 Pear, Bradford (Pyrus calleryana) ...... Pg. 2 Chestnut Persimmon, Common (Diospyros virginiana) Pg. 1 American (Castanea dentata) ...... Pg. 8 Princess Tree (Paulownia tomentosa) ...... Pg. 13 Chinese (Castanea mollissima) ...... Pg. 8 Rhododendron sp. (Rhododendron sp.) ...... Pg. 2 Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) ...... Pg. 9 Sassafras (Sassafras albidum) ...... Pgs.2,4 Eastern Redbud () ...... Pg. 5 Spicebush () ...... Pg. 2 Eastern Serviceberry () Pg. 9 Sumac Elm Smooth (Rhus glabra) ...... Pg. 10 American (Ulmus americana) ...... Pg. 6 Staghorn (Rhus typhina) ...... Pg. 10 Siberian (Ulmus pumila) ...... Pg. 6 Winged (Rhus copallina) ...... Pg. 10 Flowering Dogwood () ...... Pg. 13 Sweetgum () ...... Pg. 7 Ginkgo () ...... Pg. 5 Tree of Heaven () ...... Pg. 10 Golden Rain-tree () . . . Pg. 12 Tulip Poplar (Liriodendron tulipfera) ...... Pg. 4 Hawthorn sp. (Crataegus sp.) ...... Pg. 9 Viburnum Hickory Arrowwood (Viburnum dentata) ...... Pg. 14 Bitternut (Carya cordiformis) ...... Pg. 11 Cherry-leaved (Viburnum acerifolium) . . . Pg. 14 Mockernut (Carya tomentosa) ...... Pg. 11 Maple-leaved (Viburbum prunifolium) . . . Pg. 14 Pignut (Carya glabra) ...... Pg. 11 Willow sp. (Salix sp.) ...... Pg. 9 Shagbark (Carya ovata) ...... Pg. 11 Witch-hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) ...... Pg. 6 Holly, American (Ilex opaca) ...... Pg. 9 Hophornbeam () ...... Pg. 7 Hornbeam, American (Carpinus caroliniana) . . Pg. 7 Japanese Flow. Crabapple (Malus floribunda) Pg. 8 Locust Black (Robinia pseudoacacia) ...... Pg. 12 Honey (Gleditsia triacanthos) ...... Pg. 12 Magnolia Southern (Magnolia grandiflora) ...... Pg. 1 Sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana) ...... Pg. 1 Umbrella (Magnolia tripetala) ...... Pg. 1 Maple Japanese (Acer palmatum) ...... Pg. 14 Norway (Acer platanoides) ...... Pg. 13 Red (Acer rubrum) ...... Pg. 14 Silver (Acer saccharinium) ...... Pg. 14 (Acer saccharum) ...... Pg. 13 Mimosa () ...... Pg. 12 Mulberry sp. (Morus sp.) ...... Pgs. 6,7,9 Credits and Resources

Images: American Basswood and Post Oak Images: Earl “Bud” Reaves.

Blackjack Oak Image: The original uploader was Ed Uebel at English Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by- sa/3.0/)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Hophornbeam Image: Matthew Sarver.

Pignut and Shagbark Hickory Images: David Mow, https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/with/11802696515/

Scarlet Oak Images: Evelyn Fitzgerald https://www.flickr.com/people/evelynfitzgerald/

Smooth Sumac Image: Micah Hahn, http://www.bio.brandeis.edu/fieldbio/Survival/Pages/about.html

All images other taken by Kerry Wixted and Madeline Koenig.

Resources: Kundt, J.F. & Baker, R.L. (1983). Leaf Key to Common Trees of Maryland (Extension Bulletin 238). College Park, MD: Cooperative Extension Service, University of Maryland.

Maryland Atlas webpage. http:// www.marylandplantatlas.org/index.php

Petrides, G.A. & Wehr, Janet (1998). Peterson Field Guides: Eastern Trees. , NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Sibley, D.A. (2009). The Sibley Guide to Trees. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf.

Stein, J., Binion, D. & Acciavatta, R. (2003). Field Guide to Native Oak of Eastern (USDA, USFS, Publication No. FHTET-2003-01). , DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Virginia Tech webpage. http://www.dendro.cnre.vt.edu/dendrology/main.htm

Wojtech, M. (2011). Bark: A Field Guide to Trees of the Northeast. Lebanon, NH: University Press of .

Larry Hogan, Governor Jeannie Haddaway-Riccio, Secretary dnr.maryland.gov/wildlife