acquired immense prestige and authority and paved the way for to acquire political authority. The emergence of the four traditions of Buddhism stabilized and made the centre of learning for High and the Himalayan . The Tradition

Nyingma is ’s oldest school. According to the late in his introduction to the Nyingma tradition, published in Graham Coleman’s A Handbook of , “The Nyingma tradition has three main streams of transmission: the distant canonical , ; the close lineage of spiritual treasures, ; and the profound pure visions, dagnang.” Nyingma tradition traces its lineage to the primordial Buddha, , through ( Rinpoche) and other great masters.

One of the important features of the Nyingma tradition is the terma, hidden spiritual treasures. These were hidden by Guru Rinpoche and he predicted his disciples would reincarnate to reveal these treasures for the beneit of all beings. The Tibetan Book of the Dead is credited as one such treasure concealed by Guru Rinpoche. Those who ind these treasures are called tertons, or treasure masters.

This school produced many great spiritual luminaries, including Gyalwa Longchen Rabjampa (1308-1363) who compiled the teachings of , or the great completion, the ultimate teachings of the on the of mind and phenomenon. The Tradition

The Kagyu school traces its lineage to , who taught , who in turn taught Marpa, the great Tibetan translator. Marpa taught , the poet- of Tibet, and he passed on the entire Kagyu teachings to , (1079-1153), his principal disciple. Gampopa passed these teachings to his many disciples and the Kagyu tradition eventually grew into four major and eight minor lineages.