Extirpated and Rare of State (Red Deer: Cervus elaphus • Historically low densities in NYS • 1893 – 1906: 332 Rocky Mtn. elk were introduced to • 1953: extirpated (, poaching and roundworm  worm; loss of lg. predators, increase in deer, spread of brain worm) • Matriarchal and social (males keep harems) • Considered pests by farmers • 6 tined antlers • Noisiest deer species : gulo Historically present - last known in NYS in1840 : large expanses of forests and other isolated, boreal ecosystems. Reproduction: Breed in summer; 30-50 day gestation; birth in Spring? (~ 250 days later) Induced ovulation and Delayed implantation Now described as “The Rarest in ” Causes of decline: • Require large, undeveloped areas • Increased human access (hunting, ) • decline of large and their carcasses (which fed on) : Lynx canadensis 15 kg; ~ twice as large as (L. rufus) Historically present in ADKs and northern forests of NYS 1890: last confirmed specimen in NYS

Causes for Extirpation: Deforestation, over-hunting and trapping Require large, intact wilderness, snowshoe ()

Reintroduction: 1988 – 1990 • 83 released (from a Canadian populations); hard release (instead of in stages) in Adirondacks by ESF and DEC researchers • mortalities on roads, etc. • One dispersed to NJ • Unsuccessful: Lack of funding, inadequate follow-up and no report or data made available for improved plan : lupus and C. rufus Historically present in NYS (Grey in north; Red in south) • One of its largest native predators; maintained population levels of prey, including deer (prevented over-grazing, …) • 1890: Last confirmed population Causes for Extirpation: •Persecution – hunting, trapping and bounties •Fragmentation •Loss of large expansive of undisturbed, undeveloped lands •Reintroductions successful in Yellowstone, … •Others expanding south into Great Lakes Region on their own prey

Grey wolf: Canis lupus : Canis rufus Mountain : concolor Historically present: one of largest predators since the ice age • 1908: Last specimen in NYS • Causes for decline:  Persecution Yellow – historic range  Fragmentation  Decline in Prey (elk, …) Allegheny woodrat: Neotoma magister • Historically present in southern NYS • 1987: Last specimen • Causes for decline: , chestnut blight Parasite – “” roundworm Vector: raccoon Packrats – collect material to their /middens, including of  spread the roundworms

~ 350 g Long-tailed Short-tailed (80 g) Least (50 g) Least : 300g (males), Mustela nivalis • Smallest in North America • Consumes ½ weight, ~ 2-3 mice, per day • Generally widespread and abundant where it occurs, but now rare in NYS M o l ar, , 2 premolars • Factors for decline:  Competition with other weasel species  (it is a northern species) Adults ~ 1 kg New cottontail: Sylvilagus transitionalis

• Range declined by 75% since 1960: IUCN Vulnerable Smaller than Easter CT, with • Occasionally present in extreme eastern NYS black on head and ears • Often misidentified/confused with • Distribution limited to parts of , and is declining • Habitat – early successional woodlands and thickets with tangled vegetation (provides food and cover from predators) • Causes for decline • Forest maturation • Introduction of non-native (multiflora rose, honeysuckle bush and autumn olive) replace preferred plants • Competition with S. floridanus (whose range is expanding)

We didn’t kill them all! Successful “management” actions (often involves stopping mis-management = over-harvesting, habitat loss, …)

• Closed hunting/trapping seasons and • Habitat restoration, • Reintroductions

 recovery of some species in NYS Odocoileus virginianus

Perhaps too successful! Overabundance  over-browsing, decline in habitat for other species (passerine ); spread disease, round worm ( brain worm in Elk) habitat management for this mid-successional (edge habitat) species  decline of late-successional (mature forest) species. Castor canadensis

Decline: overharvesting - trapped for their and for castor (used in “perfumes”) Recovery: controlled trapping Now, considered a nuisance at times depending on where dams are built (along highways): provide critical habitat for many , and other aquatic organisms or species depending on wet soils canadensis

Decline: overharvesting - trapped for their fur and for castor (used in “perfumes”) Recovery: controlled trapping and reintroductions Martes americana ()

• Declined substantially the late 1800s and early 1900s, primarily due to habitat loss caused by intensive logging, and overharvesting by trappers. • In 1936, New York closed the marten trapping season. Over the next 42 , re-occupied much of their former Adirondack range. Martes pennanti ()

• Declined substantially the late 1800s and early 1900s, primarily due to habitat loss (prefer mature coniferous forests) caused by intensive logging, and over-trappers. • Populations rebounded after trapping season was closed, and while forest succession continued toward more mature stands of coniferous forests. Extirpated, Rare Species, and Recovering Mammals of New York State