Viona br Sembiring1 Universitas Prima Indonesia,Medan,Indonesia [email protected]

Ester Efita Sari Tamba2 Universitas Prima Indonesia,Medan,Indonesia [email protected]

Gustia Hapsah3 Universitas Prima Indonesia,Medan,Indonesia [email protected]

Putra Buulolo4 Universitas Prima Indonesia,Medan,Indonesia [email protected]

Perius Gulo5 Universitas Prima Indonesia,Medan,Indonesia [email protected]

Abstract Figurative language is one way of conveying words other than the normal way. This helps song writers compose and produce beautiful songs. Figurative language is part of semantics. Semantic is the study of meaning that is used to understand human expression through language. With semantic we can know the true or actual meaning in a song. This study aims to find student’s ability in identifying kinds of figurative language and their meanings in lyrics of Mariah carey selected song. Descriptive qualitative method is the method used in this study. The instrument for collecting the data was test questions which consisted of 12 questions. In this research, the subject was 11th grade class of SMA Swasta GKPI Padang Bulan which consisted of 28 students. The result of data analysis shows that the students mean score is 76,7 the highest score is 92, while the lowest score is 50. There were 4 student, (14,3%), belonged to the very good level and 21 students (75 %), belonged to the good level and there were 3 students, (10,7%), belonged to sufficient level.Kind of figurative language was found in Mariah Carey songs lyric are simile, metaphor, hyperbole, and personification. The dominant types of figurative language found in Mariah Carey song lyrics is metaphor.From an analysis ,the researcher concluded that most of the students of the second grade class of SMA Swasta GKPI Padang Bulan Medan got dificulties to different between metaphors and personifications in identifying figurative language in mariah carey’s songs lyrics.

Keywords: Analysis; Figurative Language; song lyrics

1. INTRODUCTION Our system of communication before anything else is language.

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Humans cannot survive without language, song lyrics. As we know figurative because language has a very important language is very useful for making song role into all aspects of human condition, lyric of a song more beautiful and give for instance economics, technology, energy to a lyric that we are using in the politics, education, art, sciences, and so song. Many song writers create the song on. Every day, humans use language to which is inspired from poetry. This is communicate, argue, learn, negotiate, and because in creating a beautiful song, a legislate, elaborate, etc. Furthermore, in song writer tends to use figurative order to make the communication language to cover or convey the literal goes well, there must be a good meaning by using different way. For understanding between the two speakers everyone, listening to a song is very fun in catching the meaning that existed activity, but listeners cannot get pleasure behind the utterances uttered by these if they do not understand the figurative speakers by using their own language. language that commonly found in song. We must understand the intended Due to interest in the study of meaning first in order to receive figurative language, the writer will be information correctly. In fact, people do choosing Mariah Cary’s songs to be not only face difficulty in interpreting the analyzed. From many singers, Mariah meaning, but also in expressing their Carey is chosen because we found most thought, in which it makes of her lyrics contain figurative language, miscommunication occurs in a they are meaningful, simple and romantic. conversation. Those conditions then make Mariah Carey is an American and literature born. Literature is a medium of also song writer, she was born on March human being to express their ideas, 27, 1970. She is one of the most feelings, and emotions. Poem, drama, successful artists in the world, she was poetry, short story, and novel are formed selling over 200 million records product of literature work which most of worldwide. She is noted for her vocal those used figure of speech. strength, miasmatic type ,five-octave, and In English, “it means being is signature use of the . composes exact and figurative sense”. There are some of study which have Literal language means exactly what it done by previous researchers. First, says. For example: “it’s hot in here.” The Listiani (2015) entitled “An Analysis of literal, denotation meaning is simply a Figurative Language Found on the Song comment on the temperature. Conversely, Lyric by ’s song “Speak figurative language means that the word Now” Album”. The second review related that used don’t have a literal meaning, but to this study is “Figurative Language instead are meant to be imaginative, Analysis in Five ’s Songs”, evocative and vivid. The example is "This which Arifah (2016), the student of weekend was a rollercoaster." The Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic weekend wasn't actually roller-coaster, University of Malang. but it felt as chaotic as a rollercoaster can The third review related to this make one feel. study is “An Analysis of Students Ability One way that can help students and Difficulties in Writing Descriptive understand figurative language through Texts” which has been researched by 102 | P a g e

Juanita Siahaan (2013), on the basis of students don't really understand figurative English Learning Study Program of language, how to categorize and explain Indonesia University of Education. The the denotative meaning of each figurative search showed that the students meaning. representing the middle and high Based on the reasons mentioned achievers had a good control about the above, the author decides to conduct schematic structure of descriptive text. research about figurative language, They also were able to use appropriate entitled : “Analysis of Student’s Ability linguistic features. On the other hand, it in identifying Figurative Language in was also revealed that the low achievers Mariah Carrey’s Songs”. The researcher were still confused in identifying the hopes that the problem can be easily schematic structure of descriptive text. identified by the existence of this The fourth review related to this research, so that this research has a good study is An Analysis of semiotic influence in teaching English. Riffaterre in Walt Whitman selected Poem. This has been researched by 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Sipahutar & Arianto (2019) on the 2.1. Semantic Journal Basis of English Department Knowing the meaning of each word Putera Batam University. The method is important for us. Semantic is the that used in this research was descriptive important branches of linguistics ,and qualitative method. That means the deals with interpretation and meaning of method of data collection by analyzing words, sentence structure and symbols. and interpreting also described to Semantic is the study of meaning that is understand the theories contained in the used to understand human expression poem. In this qualitative research, through language. researcher used the Semiotic theory by According to Griffiths (2006), Michael Riffaterre in his book Semiotic semantic is the study of the sentence of poetry as a basic concept and meaning coded in the overall sentence framework of thinking. Arianto (2018) in based on the elementary meaning of the analyzing Walt Whitman Poem by using sentence units. Pragmatics, in ordered romanticism approach also explained that side is about the interaction of semantic the representation of romantic ideas knowledge with our knowledge of the originating from Western Europe of the world, taking into account context of use. 18th century has penetrated into the 19th It is incorrect to say that semantic sees century America in that poem. meaning of a sentence without including In this study, the writer presents an the context, whereas pragmatics takes analysis of student’s ability in identifying context into consideration. figurative language in Mariah Carrey’s song lyrics. The writer focuses on 2.2. Figurative language denotative and connotative meaning of Figurative language is a word or figurative language in Mariah Carey phrase that departs from every literal songs because the song uses many language which is very difficult to be figurative languages that can be analyzed understood by people even students by the students. In actually, many because it has differentiation from its 103 | P a g e

context and reality in meaning, in order to spring board for integrated skills work know that figurative language formed and to stimulate reading, speaking, and based on comparison and similarity writing skills”. It also includes activities .Keraf (2009) in “Diksi dan Gaya which are designed to improve the Bahasa”. From the definition above , it students‟ overall language awareness and can be concluded that is to compare one to encourage them to use English more thing with other things, means try to confidently and imaginatively. The most discover the features which showed the important thing in using figurative comparison and similarity of both. It must language is that the students have an need fully understanding for people about essential aesthetic purpose to widening figurative language when translating the and deepening the range of perception content in its meaning that can be and response to the word of objects and found from communication or writing ideas to be discussed. In other words, products that conveyed by the people. figurative language serves to convey The aim of understanding the figurative thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that language in writing is human beings are cannot be adequately expressed in in able to cultivate and color the words literal language. It is declared also by beautifully in the content of writing. For Keraf (2009) that figure of speech communication, it has a function for has function to explain, strengthen, a live, avoiding bad assumption or stimulate, decorate an object. It gave misunderstanding in a conversation’s beneficial for the teachers and students content on what people said exactly. for focusing on figurative language in the Figurative language is language that classroom which provide a way of uses word or expressions with a meaning exposing students to use it in leaning that is different from the literal writing literary terms. interpretation (actual word used) ,often to described something by comparing it to 2.3. Types of Figurative Language something else or to create mental Keraf (2009) declared that pictures with words. This research will be “figurative language consists of 16 kinds, conduct to classify what kinds figurative they are : simile, metaphor, allegory, language used in Mariah Carey song. personification, allusion, , , Furthermore to interpret the meaning of , , antonomasia, figurative language in the song. hipflask, irony, satire, innuendo, Sharndama & Sulaiman (2013) antiphrasis, and paronomasia”. states that figurative language are Simile is a figure of speech that amployed in performing are art as a indirectly compares by employing the medium expressing thought, feelings and words “like”, “as”, or “than”. Example: idea implicitly later than acplicitly. Her heart is like gold. Metaphor is a Figurative language is used in any form phrase describing something as of communication, such as in daily something it is not un reality. Example: conversation, article in newspaper, Love is a battlefield. Allegory is a form advertisement, novel, poem and song. extended metaphor in which objects, Lazar (2003) declared that persons, and actions are made to represent “figurative language can provide a useful something outside the story itself. 104 | P a g e

Example: Personification is when about someone or something is insinuated someone gives human characteristics that rather than actually said. Example: I are not human. Example: He was late might say about someone who is always today because traffic was crawling due to late „oh, she is finally on time today an accident. An allusion is a figure of .What a surprise! ‟. Antiphrasis is used speech that makes a reference to people, for ironic, sarcastic and humoristic effect. place ,events ,or literary works directly or It usually makes fun of opposites by implying the. Example: He is a real .Example: A truly ugly painting, such a Romeo with the ladies. An eponym is a Jenny, or a very slow person Usain bolt. person, place, or thing which something Paronomasia is the humorous use of a takes its name. Example: Thomas word in more than one sense. Example: Addison-Addison’s disease. Epithet is a two silk worms had a race and ended in a descriptive adjective or phrase used to tie. characterize someone or something. Example : The ocean ,the wine dark sea . 2.4. Song Synecdoche is a type of figure of speech Almost everyone enjoys listening which is used very commonly in the the music. When people feel excited, bad, English language .It is most simply happy, or sad, music can be the most described as replacing a whole with a part effective way to express our felling. when referring to something such as an Songs are compositions of tone or sound item, situation or place, amongst other in the order, combination, and temporal things. Example: He is a grey beard. relationships (usually accompanied by Metonymy is a figure of speech in musical instruments) to produce musical which one word or phrase is substituted compositions that have unity and for another with which it closely continuity (contain rhythm). Song lyrics associated. Example: In Shakespeare’s are also an expression of someone about time, the crown was anti-Catholic. something that has been seen, heard, and Antonomasia is a figure of speech even in its nature. In expressing their wherein the name of a well-known experiences, play word and person, place or event is used represents language games to create the appeal and some qualities which it symbolizes. distinctiveness of the lyrics. Example: King of Pop for . Hipflask is a figure of speech 2.5. Biography of Mariah Carey where a specific word used to explain that Mariah Carey was born on March word that should be concerned with 27, 1970 in Huntington, . another word. Example: She is lying on a Mariah Carey is a singer, , anxiety pillow. Irony is when actually producer, and actor from the United happens is the opposite of what is States. Her mother Patricia Carey is Irish expected. Example: She has an extremely descent, and her father Alfred Roy Carey big dog named Tiny. Satire is a form of was of African & Venezuelan descent. literature that uses ridicule to make events Mariah Carey made her debut in June and people look foolish. Example: 1990 with "Mariah Carey" which entered Saturday night live. Innuendo is a form of at 73, but on August 4, 1990, it reached: suggestion in which something negative, According to the Recording Industry 105 | P a g e

Association of America, she is the third best-selling female singer with sales of 3.2. Location of Research more than 63 million albums in the This research will be conducted at . She is also ranked as the SMA Swasta GKPI Padang Bulan best-selling female singer from the US Medan. It is located at JL. Letjend Jamin Nielsen Sound Scan era. He has the most Ginting ,komplek Pamen, Padang Bulan, number one singles for solo singers in the Medan. There are two class of second United States (eighteen singles; the grade and every class consist of 28 second overall artist behind ). students.The reason the researcher Billboard named Mariah Carey the most chooses this school as research object successful artist of the in the because the researcher wanted to know United States, while the World Music how the students can analyze and Awards was awarded as the best-selling understand the contextual meaning of the recording artist in the 1990s. After parting figurative language in Mariah Carey‟s ways with Columbia in 2000, Mariah song lyrics. Carey signed a record contract worth $ 100 million with . 3.3. Data Source The Emancipation Mimi (2005) was the Source of data is used by the second best-selling album in the world in researcher to make the analysis not 2005 and produced " difficult. The researcher focuses on Together", which made it the only artist at analyzing the students ability in the top of the chart in identyfing figurative language in song two consecutive decades. In the art world, lyric of Mariah Carey. There are songs Mariah Carey has been awarded the that analized ,such as : Breakthrough Performance at the Palm Springs International Film Festival. Still Believe You look in my eyes and I get emotional inside 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY I know it's crazybut you still can touch 3.1. Research Design my heart (Metaphor) In this case, the researchers will And after all this time you'd think that I analyze the students ability in I wouldn't feel the same identifying figurative language in But time melts into nothing (Metaphor)

Mariah Carey‟s songs. In And nothing's changed descriptive analysis, it is described I still believe someday you and me what actually happened to the Will find ourselves in love again I had a procedure about the method that dream Someday you and me was useful in the study. In a Will find ourselves in love again

descriptive qualitative approach, it Each day of my life does not apply statistics that contain I'm filled with all the joy I could find You sentences or object descriptions or know that I‟m not the desperate type detailed arithmetic calculations If there's one spark of hope left in my grasp (Moleong, 2011). This method (Metaphor) I'll hold it with both hands (Metaphor) It's employs technique of seeking, worth the risk of burning To have a second collecting and analyzing data. 106 | P a g e

chance. 1. Our soldiers are as brave as lions (Simile) 2. That man is as tall as a house I am thinking of you (Hyperbole) In my sleepless solitude tonight 3. The stars in teh sky blinked (Personification) and winked (Personification) If it's wrong to love you Then my heart just won't let me be right 4. Her smile is rainbow in the Cause I've drowned in you (Metaphor) rain (Metaphor) And I won't pull through Without you by my side 3.5. Data collection Test is the instruments are attractive I'd give my all to have Just one more night to researchers because they tend to have with you (Hyperbole) I'd risk my life to feel (Hyperbole) established reliability and validity, and Your body next to mine cause I can't go on they eliminate the need to develop and Living in the memory of our song validate an instrument from scratch (Metaphor) (Geoffrey, David & Festinger, 2005). For I'd give my all for your love tonight collect the data, the writers will run (Metaphor) observation through these steps as follow:

Baby can you feel me 1. The researchers gave the Imagining I'm looking in your eyes written test, the tests have 12 (Metaphor) questions I can see you clearly vividly emblazoned 2. The students were asked to complete the 12 questions in my mind (Hyperbole) And yet you're 3. Students read the lyric of so far,Like a distant star (Simile) Mariah Carrey’s song I'm wishing on tonight 4. Students select the 3.4. Research Instrument figurative language. The source of the data is a song 5. Students write down the answer lyric by Mariah Carey. The instrument for 6. The researchers collected the worksheets test of students. collecting the data of research was the 7. The answer was analyzed by students answer about figurative language the researchers. of her song. It used to know the student’s ability in identifying figurative language 3.6. Data Analysis in Mariah Carrey’s song. Mariah Carrey’s There are some steps song content is very interesting, and were conducted in analyzing the unusual words of phrase. The researchers data as started below: decided that the data of this research were 1. Checking the student’s collected with a written test or by using a answer. test. The students will be given a test by 2. Scoring the student’s answer. researcher based from Mariah Carrey’s Scoring student’s answer by songs. Example of the research: using Arikunto (2013) said that if the “Determine the question which of the researcher just wants to know the following sentence simile, metaphor, outcome of the data analysis. It is used personification and hyperbole!” by researcher themself without using computer so, to calculate the 107 | P a g e

percentage of the student’s ability the 8 O.P.E. 9 75 researcher will be use formula: S 9 N.O.H 1 83 0 10 D.P.P 1 83 0 P = Percentage 11 D.A.M 9 75 F = Frequency total percentage 12 C.A.P 9 75 score 13 I.A.G. 9 75 H N = The number of students 14 N.E.S 9 75 100 = The high test possible score 15 S.M 9 75

16 Y.S 1 92 Tabel 3.1 The Describe of Ability 1 Quantitative Qualitative NO Ability Ability 17 A.A.S 6 50 1 86-100 Very Good 18 D.K.L 6 50 2 70-85 Good 19 A.T 9 75 3 50-69 Sufficien t 20 Y.T 1 83 4 35-49 Fair 0 5 0-34 Poor 21 L.F.S 1 83 0

22 A.S 9 75 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 23 D.P.T 1 83 4.1. The Data 0 The data of the research were all 24 I.L.M 1 83 0 the students score from a test .The test 25 E.A.T 1 92 was to identifying figurative language 1 used in Mariah Carrey’s Songs Lyrics. 26 P.H.S 9 75 Below is the list of the student’s score: 27 E.Z.H 9 75 28 J.N.S 6 50 Table 4.1 Distribution of Score Total 25 214

Total 8 9 NO Student Correct Converted

Initial Answer Score Based on the table above, the 1 H.A.S 1 92 writer had analysis all of students 1 answers in identifying figurative 2 N.I.S 1 83 language. The highest score is 92, the 0 medium score is 83, and the lowest 3 E.P 1 92 score is 50. 1 4 P.H.S 9 75 4.2. Data Analysis 5 D.L 9 75 After the test was conducted, the 6 A.S 9 75 writer classified the results of the test into 7 J.A.T 9 75 their classifications, there are: very good, 108 | P a g e

good, sufficient, fair and poor. They are hyperbole, metaphor, personification, simile. The dominant types of figurative Table 4.2 Rate Percentage of Students’ Ability language found in Mariah Carey in Identifying Clauses in Figurative Language song lyrics is metaphor. Frequ Percent No Range Grade ency age 5. CONCLUSION Based on the result of the data Very 1 86-100 4 14,3% analysis : Good 21 1. The students of the second grade 2 70-85 Good 75 % class of SMA Swasta GKPI Sufficie Padang Bulan Medan got 76,7 3 50-69 3 10,7 % nt mean score, the highest score of 4 35-49 Poor - - class is 92, and the lowest score is Very 50. There were 4 student, (14,3 5 0-34 - - Poor 2. %), belonged to the very good 28 TOTAL 100 % level and 21 students (75 %), belonged to the good level and there were 3 (10,7 %), belonged Table 4.2 The Mean Score of Student’s Ability to sufficient level classification. Total Total of Students Mean 3. Most of the students of the Respondent second grade class of SMA 28 2149 76,7 Swasta GKPI Padang Bulan Medan got difficulties to different 4.3. Finding between metaphors and From the data analysis above, the personifications in identifying results shown are: figurative language in Mariah 1. The students of the second Carrey’s song’s lyrics grade class of SMA Swasta 4. The dominant types of figurative GKPI Padang Bulan Medan got language found in Mariah Carey 76,7 mean score, the highest song lyrics are metaphor. score of class is 92, and the lowest score is 50. There were 4 student, (14,3 %), belonged to REFERENCES the very good level and 21 Arianto, T. (2018). National students (75 %), belonged to the Romanticism in Walt Whitman good level and there were 3 Poems. Lire Journal, 2(1), 14–20. (10,7%), belonged to sufficient level https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.3 classification. 3019/lire.v2i1.18

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