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HISTORY NEWSLETTER CENTER FOR HISTORY OF LIBRARY & ARCHIVES

Volume 48 (2016), Number 2

FLASH! NEW DESIGN AND EXPANDED CONTENT FOR TEACHING GUIDES ON WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN THE PHYSICAL By Greg Good, Director, Center for History of Physics

It is good sometimes to stop and mark an ac- That was in 2012. Over the next four years, intern Fiona Muir from and gradu- complishment. That is especially true when the staff of the Niels Bohr Library & Archives ate research assistant Emily Margolis (Johns a project has taken four years to mature and and the Center for History of Physics worked Hopkins University) built a list of books and be ready to share. The AIP “Teaching Guides with a series of teams of summer interns articles to explore the background on wom- on Women & Minorities” tell stories of wom- in the Society of Physics Students’ summer en and minorities in physical and en who have built accomplished careers in intern program, with the addition of grad- they mapped out some preliminary lesson science and ; of African Ameri- uate students in and li- plans. Their was so productive that in can experiences in the scientific community brary science, for a few intensive months 2014, the team grew to two SPS interns – during World War II and during the Civil Rights each year. I advised the students to select Simon Patané (from Vassar) and Jacob Zal- Movement in the 1960s; kind (from Shippensburg and of Latino scientists. Ex- University) – and two grad plore and engage with the research assistants – Serina fifty-one lesson plans and Hwang Jensen (then at the accompanying material University of Maryland) and that are on the Center for Sharina Haynes (then at the History of Physics website University of South Caro- at https://www.aip.org/his- lina). In 2015, the team in- tory-programs/physics-his- cluded SPS interns Connor tory/teaching-guides-wom- Day (Agnes Scott College) en-minorities. and Brean Fontain (Drexel), and grad research assistant This historical project was Joanna Behrman (Johns inspired by a contemporary Hopkins). And lastly, the challenge. Science educa- wrap-up 2016 team includ- tors, science policy special- ed SPS interns Victoria De- ists, and statistical research- Tomasso (CUNY Macaulay ers, all of whom care about The new teaching guides pages now includes advanced search features and filters. Honors College at Hunter women and minorities in the College) and Samantha physical sciences, know we need to attract their goals carefully so that the work would Spytek (Virginia Tech), and grad research and support a diverse and inclusive group of reach a clear stopping point by summer’s assistants Stephen Neal (University of Wis- young people in the sciences. My question end. In 2015, the student team produced consin-Madison) and Lance Burch (Florida was (and remains), what role can history of a proto-type site that was evaluated by a State University). science play? How can historians help? weeklong teachers’ workshop. The 2016 team worked with our web designer, Nathan The Center for History of Physics will con- The goal, I thought, was to get beyond the Cromer, to come up with a cleaner presenta- tinue improving and expanding this proj- few famous names – , Benjamin tion of the lessons. They also went through ect. In 2017 we will be gathering feedback Banneker – to a much more varied and tex- every lesson plan. They made improvements and suggestions, leading workshops on the tured set of stories. My goal was to provide in some, and sent a few back to the hopper use of the Teaching Guides, and working to a richer vocabulary for teachers and students for reconsideration by future teams. spread the word about this new teaching to explore the ways gender, race, and other resource. Please recommend other topics distinctions have affected lives and careers in In 2013, our first team began exploring what for future additions to the lesson plans. science. it would mean to produce lesson plans. SPS

AIP Member Societies: Acoustical Society of America • American Association of in • American Association of Physics Teachers • American Astronomical Society • American Crystallographic Association • American Meteorological Society • American Physical Society • AVS: Science and of Materials, Interfaces, and Processing • • The Society of IN THIS ISSUE...

Flash! New Design and Expanded Content for Teaching Guides on Women and Minorities in the Physical Sciences ...... 1

Historical Division, American Astronomical Society ...... 3

Forum on the History of Physics ...... 4

Report on the 2nd International Conference on The History of Physics, Pöllau, Austria ...... 5

AIP’s Early-Career History Conferences Bear Fruit ...... 6

Newton, Leibniz, and the Catholic Church: the Italian way to the Age of Enlightenment ...... 7

American Meteorological Society Awards History of Meteorology Doctoral Fellowship for 2016-2017 ...... 8

AIP Grant-in-Aid Recipient Receives National Dissertation Award in Brazil ...... 8

Niels Bohr Scientific Correspondence to be Digitized 9

Oral Histories of Distinguished Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and (STEM) 10

History Center Awarded Substantial NASA Grant ...... 11

Melanie Mueller Named New Director of the Niels Bohr Library & Archives 12

Changing Faces, Changing Titles 13

Help us Rename and Test Updates to ACAP! ...... 13

Back to School with the Emilio Segrè Visual Archives 14

The ‘Forman Collection’ in NBL&A ...... 16

AIP’s Oral Histories on the International Stage ...... 16

Lyne Starling Trimble Science Heritage Public Lectures now an AIP Tradition ...... 18

2015-2016 Additions to the NBL&A Archival Collections 19

Broadening the Community for History of Physical Science 19

Documentation Preserved 20

2 History Newsletter | 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs HISTORICAL ASTRONOMY DIVISION, AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY By Kenneth. S. Rumstay, HAD Secretary-Treasurer

The American Astronomical Society (AAS), Saturday) at the Gaylord Texan Resort and vance the field of the . founded in 1899, currently has over 7,000 Convention Center in Grapevine, Texas. This award is named in memory of Donald E. members and six specialized divisions. The The HAD meeting will be held that Tuesday Osterbrock, a long- and remarkably ac- Divisions for Planetary Sciences (formed in through Thursday. A typical HAD meeting tive member of HAD. In addition, each year 1968), Dynamical Astronomy (1969), High consists of two special sessions in which in- HAD invites graduate and undergraduate (1969), vited speakers present on a particular topic. students to apply for a Student Travel Award (1969), and Laboratory Astrophysics (2012) At last year’s meeting we had, not surprising- of $500, in support of travel to present a pa- draw their membership from the ranks of ly, an excellent session entitled A Celebration per at the January meeting. professional physicists, mathematicians, of the Centenary of Einstein’s General Relativ- For further information about the Histori- geologists, and engineers. The Historical ity. There are also one or two (or sometimes Astronomy Division was created in 1980 for more) regular sessions for contributed oral the purpose of advancing interest in topics presentations, and usually a poster session relating to the historical nature of astrono- (though the number of poster submissions my. Astronomy is, of course, one of the old- is usually very small). And, of course, there est of mankind’s intellectual pursuits! is a business meeting on the second day. In addition, there are often HAD sessions at spring meetings of the AAS, or in conjunc- tion with meetings of other divisions. A A HAD awards two prizes, in alternate years. The LeRoy E. Doggett Prize for Historical Astronomy is awarded in even-numbered S years to an individual who has significantly influenced the field of the history of astron- The HAD plaque, proudly displayed at every HAD omy by a career-long effort. The prize is a meeting. Painted in 1996 by member Ronald American Astronomical Society (AAS) logo memorial to LeRoy Doggett, who was an Schorn, the plaque is based upon Albrecht Durer’s expert in calendars, archaeoastronomy, and 1500 woodcut The Astronomer. Photo courtesy of At the time of writing, the Historical Astron- planetary theory. A highly regarded member Kenneth S. Rumstay. omy Division (HAD) has 298 members. Many of HAD, he was serving as its secretary-trea- are professional historians of science, but surer at the time of his passing in 1996. The cal Astronomy Division, please consult our most are astronomers with a deep interest Donald E. Osterbrock Book Prize is awarded website at https://had.aas.org/ or write to in the rich history of astronomy. Member- in odd-numbered years to the author or au- me at [email protected] We would love to ship dues are nominal: Regular Members thors of a book judged to significantly ad- have you join us! (who must be members of the AAS) pay just $15 per year. Members of other profession- al societies may become Affiliate Members for $20 per annum. Affiliate membership is restricted to members of professional orga- nizations actively concerned with historical astronomy (such as the History of Science Society, the Society for the History of Tech- nology, the American Historical Associa- tion, etc.). Affiliate Members enjoy the same rights and privileges as other members ex- cept that they are not eligible to hold elec- tive office within the division.

HAD meets each year in January, in conjunc- tion with a biannual meeting of the Amer- ican Astronomical Society (the other being in June). Typically the AAS meeting runs from Sunday evening (with an opening re- ception) through Thursday, though circum- Some of the speakers at the January 2015 HAD meeting in Seattle. Barbara Becker (second from left) had stances may require changes in schedule. As just accepted that years Donald E. Osterbrock Prize for her book Unraveling Starlight: William and Margaret an example, the January 2017 AAS meeting Huggins and the Rise of the New Astronomy. (Image courtesy of American Astronomical Society). Photo will be held January 3 to 7 (Tuesday through courtesy of Kenneth S. Rumstay. www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 3 FORUM ON THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS By Robert Crease, Stony Brook University

Activities of the Forum on the History of that Changed Our Understanding of Time, by in Reykjavik, Iceland, and is scheduled Physics (FHP) connect with the interests Jimena Canales, a historian at the University for Sunday evening, January 29, 2017, in of members across the entire spectrum of of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Washington, DC. American Physical Society (APS) divisions, forums, sections, and topical groups. These The FHP also sponsors the annual Abraham The FHP publishes a biannual newsletter include sessions of general interest at the Pais Prize, which recognizes outstanding (www.aps.org/units/fhp/newsletters). The annual meetings, prizes for outstanding achievements in the history of physics. core of the newsletter consists of session achievements in the history of physics, Recent recipients include Mary Jo Nye, Allan reports from the March (Spring issue) and plays, a newsletter, nomination of members Franklin, Spencer Weart, David Cassidy, April (Fall issue) meetings, a list of sessions for APS fellowship, and other activities. The Roger Stuewer, and Lillian Hoddeson. These planned for the March and April meetings FHP’s projects therefore help to knit together recipients either speak at one of the annual (Fall issue), various news stories, plus other the APS membership itself. meetings or have a session devoted to a contributions and book reviews. topic of their choice. The FHP, which began life as the DHP or Since 2013, the FHP has put on staged Division of History of Physics, is celebrating readings of science-related plays at each of its 35th birthday. The story of its origins the APS March and April meetings. These can be found in its first newsletter: www. were introduced by City University of New aps.org/units/fhp/newsletters/upload/Vol- York (CUNY) professor Brian Schwartz when I-1-Aug1982.pdf. Its inaugural session was he became chair of the Forum on the History held in April 1981 at the Spring meeting of of Physics in 2013. Schwartz had been the APS in Baltimore, and its first Executive operating a Science and the Performing Arts Committee meeting was in April of 1982 in program at The Graduate Center of the City Washington, DC. Volume 1, Number 1 of the University of , which in turn had History of Physics Newsletter appeared in American Physical Society (APS) logo its roots in APS public outreach programs August 1982, and it has appeared generally he had developed in association with the biannually ever since; the latest issue Recent FHP-sponsored sessions have ad- science, history, and theatrics related to can be found at www.aps.org/units/fhp/ dressed topics as diverse as peer review, the play “Copenhagen.” Since 2013, staged newsletters/spring2016/upload/spring16. , perspectives on the Su- readings of eight plays have been produced, pdf. Its smaller and more informal articles percollider, the history of electrical science, four on the Wednesday evening of the March complement other journals that publish and the New Big Science. Last year, too, the meeting and another four on the Sunday articles about the history of physics, such as FHP started an “Author in Dialogue” series evening of the April meeting. A local theater Physics Today, Physics in Perspective, and the in which the author of an important recent company in the conference city is engaged to American Journal of Physics. book speaks at the March meeting, followed perform the staged reading, and the Forum by several respondents. pays the modest cost for the performance. The FHP offers a limited number of Some of the play topics have included the travel grants of up to $600 to encourage Well over 500 people attended last year’s captured German nuclear scientists after the undergraduate and graduate student “Author in Dialogue” series, devoted to end of the war in Europe, the interactions of participation at APS meetings. Grant Nobel laureate ’s book To and Otto Hahn on the splitting recipients must present an oral presentation Explain the World. The standing-room-only of the uranium nucleus, and the trials and on the history of physics at an FHP session at the Baltimore Convention Center’s tribulation of Copernicus on his proposal contributed-papers session at either the ballroom raised issues of genuine historical of a -centered . These readings March or April meeting, and must be a substance. Weinberg’s book was particularly are open to meeting attendees and free member of the society and must register for interesting not only because it raised issues of charge to the general public, and have the meeting. Further information is available about the history of physics, but also about brought a cultural aspect to the APS scientific at http://www.aps.org/units/fhp/awards/ how the history of science should be done. meetings. After each play performance there student/index.cfm. FHP announcements Weinberg spoke first, then commented is an audience talk-back session with the appear on Twitter from @APSHistory. briefly after each respondent. Weinberg’s playwright (if in attendance), the director, concise, forceful, and blunt remarks kicked the actors, and some scientists. The program up a Twitterstorm from historians in the is continuing (with the assistance of Gregory audience. Mack of the APS Washington, DC office) with You can follow the a scheduled staged reading of the new play American Physical Society The FHP Author in Dialogue series at “Reykjavik,” written by the Pulitzer Prize– this coming APS March meeting in New winning author Richard Rhodes. The play on twitter at @APSphysics Orleans is devoted to The and the deals with the 1987 arms control meeting of Philosopher: Einstein, Bergson, and the Debate President Reagan and Chairman Gorbachev

4 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs REPORT ON THE 2ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS, PÖLLAU, AUSTRIA By Karin Pelte MA, Institut für Philosophie, Literatur-, Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte, Technische Universität

The 2nd International Conference on the History of Physics was held in Pöllau, Austria, from September 5 to 7, 2016. Or- ganized by the European Physics Society (EPS), Echophysics – the European Centre for the History of Physics, the American In- stitute of Physics (AIP), the Deutsche Physik Gesellschaft (DPG), the (IOP), the Österreichische Physikalische Ge- sellschaft (ÖPG), and further partners and sponsors, the conference drew participants from a broad variety of backgrounds from all around the globe. For three days, historians of science, physicists, science museum staff, lecturers, and teachers investigated the pos- sibilities, challenges, and the excitement of working toward the conference’s declared goal, namely, to put the history of physics “in its rightful place in physics education The lecture hall for the 2nd International Conference on the History of Physics which was held in Pöllau, and research.” Austria. Photo courtesy of Matteo Valleriani.

Speakers and participants came from al- tia), and (Symmetrion Institute and ar and reactor physics could grow out of a most 20 different countries. Institutions the University of Technology and Econom- Stalinist science policy, which in this case, represented at the conference included, for ics, ). fared surprisingly well in combining applied the UK: the Universities of Cambridge and and basic science. Finally, the talk on the Bath and The Science Museum, ; for The six sessions comprised 36 talks, 10 of 21st-century German “Energiewende” point- Ireland: the Waterford Institute of Technol- them invited, three of them plenary, plus a ed out the technical challenges to the politi- ogy as well as Trinity College; for Italy: the poster session, all spun more or less loose- cal objectives of reducing greenhouse gases INFN Frascati National Laboratories and the ly around the conference’s main topic, “In- while meeting energy demands. University of Trento; for Germany: Univer- vention, application, and exploitation in sities of Frankfurt, Jena, Tübingen, Berlin, the history of physics.” Scholars took up the As one of the invited speakers, Gábor Palló, and Cologne, the Max-Planck-Institutes for epistemology of physics, e.g., the impor- remarked, the conference offered the rare Physics, Greifswald, as well as for tance of accident and chance in the prac- chance for two types of history of science the History of Science, Berlin, the DPG, the tice of science as it was seen by Ernst Mach. to meet which normally are separated by Europe University, Flensburg, and the Duale Instruments were discussed in the context journals, books, and conferences: histo- Hochschule Gera-Eisenach; for : the of 18th-century (cy- ry for physicists and history for historians. National University of Athens, the Hellenic anometer), of 20th-century physics Some fruitful exchanges resulted from this Open University, Patras, the Institute for His- (bubble chambers), and in the context of in- meeting. Unfortunately, not many voices torical Research, and the National Hellenic dustrial production (electronic microscope). of women were heard. According to Heinz Research Foundation, both based in Ath- Here, the challenges—epistemological as Krenn, a member of the Steering Commit- ens; for the : the Universities well as social—posed by the introduction of tee, a number of women had to cancel their of Missouri-Columbia and Notre Dame and physics research attitudes, characterized by presentations. On the whole, the talks and the Joint Institute for ; time-consuming and highly creative basic discussions, inside and outside of the con- for Austria: the Research Institute, research, into the industrial realm were high- ference hall, conveyed a genuine engage- the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, the lighted. Moreover, the historical of ment with physics, its history, and stories, Universities of Wien and Innsbruck, and the whole fields—i.e., strands of (cosmic so much so that the unexpected one min- Auer von Welsbach Museum. Denmark was ray research), formal notations (Maxwell’s ute of silence for called represented by the Niels Bohr Institute, Co- equations), as well as of epistemic objects for in the middle of a session by one of the penhagen. Speakers also came from Swit- (ether)—were discussed, focusing either on main organizers and chair of the EPS History zerland (Science History Museum, Geneva), internal developments or, as in the last case, Group, Peter Schuster, hardly seemed out of Norway (Academia Europaea Bergen Knowl- on the exchange between eso- and exoter- place. The conference was marked by anoth- edge Hub), (The University of Tokyo), ic circles of science. Policies and of er festive moment when the first Physicses- Finland (University of Helsinki), Bulgaria (In- science and technology were discussed in toire Award was presented to Danish scholar stitute of Solid State Physics, Sofia), Spain historical as well as current settings. It was for his lifetime achievements in (University of the Basque Country, Donos- shown how in communist Hungary nucle- the history of science. (continued on page 6) www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 5 The setting of the conference was Pöllau, Kuwait, a young Finnish physics teacher, and AIP historians an excellent opportunity to Austria, home to a permanent exhibition, historians of science from Hungary and Ire- get to know each other. Hopefully, they Radiation and Mankind, as well as an im- land. It seems taverns still are excellent plac- will be able to grow even closer ties in the pressive collection of historical scientific es for the diffusion of knowledge! 3rd History of Physics Conference, which in instruments. The small size of the town fa- 2018, depending on the deliberation of the cilitated many interesting meetings. For in- Peter Schuster and his team, especially committee, might take place in yet another stance, I had the privilege to find myself lis- Serena Oldeboom, have to be thanked agreeable site, San Sebastian, Spain. I tening over lunch to discussions about the for the great efforts they invested in the sincerely thank AIP for the Grant in Aid role of taverns in the reception of Newton’s organization of this conference, which, last which made it possible for me to attend this Principia, held by a woman physicist from but not least, also granted European and important conference.

AIP’S EARLY-CAREER HISTORY CONFERENCES BEAR FRUIT By Joseph Martin, NSF Postdoctoral Fellow, Consortium for HSTM

The AIP Center for History of Physics has Although diverging and pursuing their own ten missed when we focus on the detailed now hosted three conferences for ear- disciplinary interests, physics and chemistry history of specific disciplines. By taking an ly-career historians of the physical scienc- were sometimes brought back into collision expansive view of the physical sciences, the es. These meetings have helped to build by phenomena that demanded the exper- AIP history conferences have helped build and maintain an international community, tise of both, as was the case with the study new ways of talking across these boundar- showcase emerging topics and scholars, and of molecular dissociation and . Final- ies, and exposing the connections between map out some of the big thematic questions ly, Josep Simon studies nineteenth-century fields that were often just as historically im- that occupy the field. Now, an issue of Histor- physics thorough its textbooks, showing portant, if not more so, than the barriers that ical Studies in the Natural Sciences (HSNS) is how the pedagogy of physics was crucial to kept them apart. dedicated to some of this work presented at establishing it as a distinct discipline. the First Early-Career Conference. Issue 46, The AIP conferences helped develop the pa- number 3 of HSNS is a special issue entitled As special issue editors, Amy Fisher and I pers showcased in the HSNS special issue, “Emerging Prospects for History of the Phys- found that one of the most powerful func- and they also brought them into conversa- ical Sciences,” which includes four papers tions of these papers was to map out the tion. The issue, like the conferences, assem- that were presented at the 2011 AIP meet- physical sciences as a unit of historical anal- bled an international group of contributors ing, organized around the theme “continuity ysis. Physics, chemistry, astronomy, meteo- and demonstrated the usefulness of talking and discontinuity in the physical sciences.” It rology, and other related fields all have their across national, temporal, and topical appears online at: http://hsns.ucpress.edu/ distinct histories, but they also developed boundaries. Those of us who have partici- content/46/3. alongside each other, sharing methods, pated in and benefited from these meetings techniques, theories, and personnel, often look forward to more such connections as The issue encompasses a wide range of fluidly. These sorts of connections are of- the conference series continues. topics and approaches, demonstrating the breadth of history of the physical sciences and showing how it can be of interest to physicists, policymakers, and historians of various stripes. Anna Carlsson-Hyslop ex- amines how mixed patronage guided British meteorology and storm surge science in the twentieth century. Her examination of how new methods for predicting storm surge patterns grew within a shifting landscape of financial support is a revealing look into the complexities of how and why different constituencies support scientific work, and how scientists navigate the interests of their patrons. Marta Jordi Taltavull traces a singu- lar model of how light interacts with across several major theoretical transitions, from classical to , and in so doing demonstrates how deeply rooted features of theories can survive even major conceptual changes. Axel Petit looks at the evolving relationship between physics and AIP’s Third Biennial Early Career Conference held in Annapolis, Maryland in April 2016. Photo courtesy of chemistry from the early to the late 1800s. Joseph Martin.

6 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs NEWTON, LEIBNIZ, AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH: THE ITALIAN WAY TO THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT By Daniele Macuglia, Ph.D. candidate,

The development of marked a affair and notwithstanding the general more advanced phases of their academic revolution in the prohibitions on Copernicanism, some major careers. Among the various conferences and natural philosophy. Both Gottfried contributions to the spread of calculus and I’ve attended in the United States and Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) and Sir Isaac Newtonianism in Enlightened Italy came abroad, the AIP Third Biennial Early-Career Newton (1642–1727) are credited with its from within the Church itself. Not only that, Conference has made a significant difference invention. They opened up a large series Newtonianism ended up reactivating Italian to me: it has been instrumental for making of new questions and horizons, some of intellectual life, giving it new energy after an international connections to a select group which ended up affecting cosmological and overall economic and cultural decline in the of young scholars who will become the optical studies and defining the conceptual second half of the 17th century. next generation of historians of the physical foundation of Newtonianism. Particularly sciences. For this reason, I want to thank insightful from this perspective is the case Joining the AIP Third Biennial Early- Dr. Greg Good and his team members for of the Italian Enlightenment, especially Career Conference for Historians of the having let me cross paths with inspiring because of the interaction with Galileo Physical Sciences has been an invaluable people while promoting an interdisciplinary Galilei’s (1564–1642) cultural heritage and opportunity for me, and I congratulate and very robust connection to the American the presence of the Catholic Church, which the AIP Center for History of Physics most Institute of Physics. I strongly encourage played a role in shaping the first stages of heartily on their excellent management of graduate students and young researchers to the development of Newtonianism in the the conference. In Annapolis, I met scholars apply to upcoming AIP Biennial Early-Career Italian peninsula. who share my interests, I learned about the Conferences and stay tuned for updates great resources offered by the American about programs and resources offered by This was the background of the talk I Institute of Physics at large, and I consulted the AIP Center for History of Physics and the delivered at the AIP Third Biennial Early- with faculty members and researchers in Niels Bohr Library & Archives. Career Conference for Historians of the Physical Sciences, held April 6–10, 2016, in Annapolis, MD. Involving the participation of scholars from all over the world, the international conference organized by the AIP Center for History of Physics provided a remarkable opportunity for doctoral students and young researchers to connect and gain new perspectives on topics of major concern in the history and philosophy of science.

By reconstructing the major steps through which Newtonianism found its way into Italian debates on mathematics and natural philosophy, my talk was focused on some specific case studies—mathematical and metaphysical research carried out by the Camaldolese monk Guido Grandi (1671– 1742) in Tuscany, the Roman experimenters operating around the Celestine monk Celestino Galiani (1681–1753) and Monsignor Francesco Bianchini (1662– 1729), and the history of mathematics and natural philosophy in Padua and Bologna. Not only did the mathematical methods and problems posed by Leibniz and Newton shape Italian history and forge a specific path through the scholarly community, but— once they began to resonate within Italian intellectual life—they were approached and developed in ways essentially different from elsewhere in Europe. Surprisingly, unlike what happened with the Galileo Daniele Macuglia, American Meteorological Society Fellow. Photo courtesy of Daniele Macuglia. www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 7 AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY AWARDS HISTORY OF METEOROLOGY DOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP FOR 2016-2017 By Greg Good, Director, Center for History of Physics

Angelo Cagliota has been awarded the AMS example of Italian colonial expansion as a AMS has been awarding this dissertation fel- Doctoral Fellowship for 2016-2017. He is a model for his dissertation on the topic. The lowship for over fifteen years in an effort to 5th year PhD candidate in the History Depart- research is aided by two extraordinary dis- encourage more work on the history of me- ment at the University of California, Berkeley. coveries he made in the Italian archives. teorology, climate change, and other topics His thesis is “that meteorology played a cru- of interest to the members of the society. cial role in supporting Western colonization Angelo Cagliota writes on his web site: “I am The previous fellows have gone on to publish of the tropics in the late 1800’s – early 1900’s broadly concerned with the production of a number of important books. An article on and in turn colonialism reshaped the way scientific expertise, its interaction with natu- this program will appear in the next news- the West came to conceive of the climate ral environments, and the analysis of intellec- letter. The deadline for applications for the as a global …” He is using the tual and social networks.” 2017-2018 fellowship is February 3, 2017.

The fellowship application may be found at:

https://www.ametsoc.org/ams/index.cfm/information-for/students/ ams-scholarships-and-fellowships/ams-graduate-fellowship-in-the- history-of-science/

AIP GRANT-IN-AID RECIPIENT RECEIVES NATIONAL DISSERTATION AWARD IN BRAZIL By Greg Good, Director, Center for History of Physics

Climério Paulo da Silva Neto, a young Bra- zilian historian of physics who has attend- ed three of AIP’s Early-Career Conferences, received the 2016 Doctoral Dissertation Award of the Brazilian Society of History of Science (SBHC). The dissertation “Red De- scendants of Apollo: The Making of Soviet Physics (1939–1961)” was defended in 2015 at the Universidade Federal da Bahia and was advised by Professors Olival Freire Jr. and Alexei Kojevnikov.

The prize honors one Brazilian doctoral dissertation and one master’s thesis in Climério Paulo da Silva Neto, with his PhD supervisor, Professor Olival Freire, receiving his award. Photo the history of science every two years. It courtesy of Climério Paulo da Silva Neto. is awarded at the National Seminar on the History of Science and Technology, hosted “Red Descendants of Apollo” is a prehistory the scientific cooperation and competition by the SBHC. Each graduate program may of the laser in the Soviet Union that discuss- across the Iron Curtain in the 1950s. nominate up to two PhD dissertations and es how masers and were invented two master’s theses to a prize committee of almost simultaneously in the Soviet Union During his graduate studies, Climério twice six referees. In 2016, the committee judged and the United States in the early Cold War. visited the Niels Bohr Library & Archives and a total of 18 dissertations and 28 theses. It analyzes the similarities and differences in received the American Institute of Physics’ The winners and their advisers received the the Soviet and American approaches to the Grant in Aid (https://www.aip.org/histo- awards at a ceremony during the National invention of those devices and addresses ry-programs/physics-history/grants) to use Seminar held in Florianópolis, Brazil, key themes of Cold War History, such as the sources of the Laser History Project and AIP’s November 16 to 18, 2016. impacts of the militarization of science and oral histories.

8 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs NIELS BOHR SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE TO BE DIGITIZED By Finn Aaserud, Director, Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen, Denmark

The Niels Bohr Archive (NBA) in Copenhagen repositories, which many researchers must already existing in NBA’s Archon database has received a grant from the Danish Lund- spend substantial time and money to visit. system and will be available to researchers beck Foundation to cover salary for a person Moreover, the microfilms are brittle, leading upon application. Moreover, the type-writ- to digitize the Niels Bohr Scientific Corre- to frustration when they are frequently bro- ten cards containing brief abstracts of the spondence (BSC) and make it available on ken. Finally, the material was filmed only in letters, which are part of the microfilmed NBA’s website, www.nbarchive.dk. black-and-white, which in some instances BSC, will be entered into Archon and, unlike can make it necessary for researchers to see the letters themselves, be searchable in the The BSC was microfilmed as part of the the original documents. database. Archive for the History of Quantum Phys- ics (AHQP) in the early 1960s (see https:// The original letters are securely kept at the The project has just been started by Håkon amphilsoc.org/guides/ahqp/). The AHQP Niels Bohr Archive in fireproof safes. The Bergset, who has prior knowledge of NBA’s project, sponsored by the American Philo- project supported by the Lundbeck Founda- collections and the necessary technical sophical Society and directed byo philoso- tion will involve, first, scanning of each origi- qualifications. It is expected to be complet- pher-historian Thomas S. Kuhn, was invited nal document as a TIFF file in high resolution, ed in May 2018. In the meantime, the let- by Niels Bohr to document the history of as was done with collections at NBA already ters will become available to researchers in quantum physics. It was conducted from digitized and available to researchers on Archon as soon as they have been scanned the Carlsberg Mansion in Copenhagen, NBA’s webpage—such as a supplement to and a link created. Letters requested by re- where Niels Bohr was still living at the time. the BSC, the Bohr Political Papers, the Bohr searchers during the project period will re- The project comprised the collecting and Private Correspondence, as well as collec- ceive particularly high priority. The research microfilming of physicists’ letters and man- tions of films and lectures. These files will potential of the BSC has certainly not been uscripts, as well as interviews with selected serve as an in-house digital backup of the exhausted, and we expect that its easy avail- physicists which were transcribed and mi- paper collection. The TIFF files will be used ability on the Niels Bohr Archive’s website crofilmed. to produce PDF files of lesser resolution, will encourage physics historians and scien- one file for each document. The PDF files tists to produce new research based on this Niels Bohr was central in the development will be linked to NBA’s list of the BSC letters rich collection. of quantum physics. His atomic model, pub- lished in 1913, was a crucial achievement, which Bohr developed further over the fol- lowing years. He received the for this work in 1922. The year before, the Insti- tute for was established for him at the University of Copenhagen. This institute immediately became a for young brilliant physicists from all over the world who wanted to work with Bohr and his group; they were to constitute the next generation of leading quantum phys- icists. A special “Copenhagen spirit” existed at Bohr’s institute, which was a mecca for the development of quantum physics. The BSC consists, for the most part, of Bohr’s corre- spondence with physicists who visited the institute for shorter or longer intervals.

Since the conclusion of the AHQP project, the BSC microfilms have served as a major source for historians of science and others seeking to understand the origins and de- velopment of some of the most significant events in the history of physics. Recently, for example, it has been a major resource for a large-scale project at the Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, “The History and Foundations of Quantum Physics.” Unfortunately, however, the mi- Niels Bohr at his desk. Credit: Max-Planck Institute fur Physik, courtesy AIP Emilio Segre Visual Archive, gift of crofilms exist only at a limited number of Max-Planck-Institute via David C. Cassidy. www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 9 ORAL HISTORIES OF DISTINGUISHED WOMEN IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS (STEM) By Kelsey Irvin, Liz Hiteshue, Hannah Bech, Samantha Swanson, Caroline Wochnick, Mary Lanzerotti, Derrick Langley, Michael Geselowitz, and Charles Cerny

The Oral Histories of Distinguished Women to enhance the IEEE’s oral history collection in Science, Technology, Engineering, and and ensure that women are appropriate- The benefits of this project for my person- Mathematics (STEM) involves the collec- ly represented in the collection while also al development were twofold. First, I was tion by undergraduate students of the oral carrying out IEEE’s broader mission to ex- able to witness firsthand the use of techni- histories of underrepresented populations cite and encourage the next generation of cal skills in a business environment, which who are key leaders in STEM fields. The lead- engineers, particularly among traditionally aligns with my long-term interests. Second, ers are selected because their careers align underrepresented populations. I gained valuable insight regarding how to with the desired career fields of underrepre- balance a family and a career as a profes- sented STEM students. In this project, Kelsey Our project sponsors include National Sci- sional woman. Irvin, Elizabeth Hiteshue, Hannah Bech, Sa- ence Foundation ADVANCE grant award no. mantha Swanson, and Caroline Wochnick 0810989 at the Air Institute of Tech- Hannah Bech corresponded with key STEM leaders, devel- nology (2013), the Air Force Research Labo- This past April I graduated summa cum oped personalized interview questions, and ratory Sensors Directorate (2014–2015), the laude from Augsburg College with a bache- conducted and transcribed the interviews. Augsburg College Undergraduate Research lor of arts in sociology. I am currently serving This allowed the students to be a part of and Graduate Opportunities Office, the IEEE as an AmeriCorps VISTA community engage- every aspect of the oral history collection Foundation (2016), the IEEE History Center ment specialist at the Venture Academy in process. To date, 10 oral histories have been (2013–present), and the AIP Center for the Minneapolis, a 6-9 charter school that focus- conducted. Leaders who have participated History of Physics (2015–present). es on entrepreneurial leadership skills and and contributed oral history interviews are values the unique abilities of many kinds of , Deborah Anderson, Student Testimonials: learners. As a VISTA member, I aim to build Jennie Hwang, Elisabeth Paté-Cornell, Hei- capacity and community connections for di Ries, Susan Coppersmith, and Li-Chyong Kelsey Irvin the Venture Academy, which is a young Chen. This project provides mentorship This spring I graduated cum laude from school just starting its fourth academic year. and motivation for the students, while also Washington University in St. Louis, and I am preserving the memories of scientists doc- currently studying at University of Missouri, The oral history project gave me the oppor- umenting key pieces of our history. We are Columbia in their clinical psychology PhD tunity to hear firsthand perspectives from grateful to the American Institute of Physics’ program with a life sciences fellowship. I powerful, impactful women who have been Center for the History of Physics for sup- will be in this program working on classes, trailblazers in STEM fields. This project has port to reach out to six new interviewees in clinical work, and research related to phys- motivated me to continue in academia with 2015–2016. Four of the six interviews were iological measures of emotion regulation in the goal of performing medical sociology conducted by Kelsey Irvin, and two will be youths for the next seven years. research related to health inequities, and I conducted by Amanda Kapetanakis, who is am currently preparing to take the GRE and joining the project. This project has provided me with unique apply to graduate school in this area. My insight into the career paths of successful experience with the oral history project has The IEEE History Center is a unit of IEEE, the women in STEM fields, and it has been a contributed to my confidence in my ability world’s largest professional technical soci- truly inspiring and motivating project to be to succeed in traditionally male-dominated ety, and is cosponsored by and located at a part of. As I continue my own education, fields. Stevens Institute of Technology. Founded in I will use the advice from these women to 1980, the mission of the IEEE History Center stay focused, original, and confident in my Samantha Swanson is to preserve and make known the history interests in STEM. As I begin my career, I will This fall I started pursing a mechanical engi- of engineering. Their collection of oral histo- certainly reference their guidance and en- neering degree at Minnesota State Universi- ry interviews to capture the memories and couragement as I make key decisions about ty, Mankato. I am in my first semester after career trajectories of important engineers jobs, networking, and research. The advice transferring from Augsburg College and am and scientists dates to the beginning of the from these successful women in STEM and anticipating graduation from MSU-Mankato center, a collection that now includes over the mentorship from my project supervisor in spring of 2019 with a bachelor of science. 800 interviews. The transcripts of these in- has truly been an invaluable experience, and I plan to continue studying and working in terviews are hosted on the Engineering and has strengthened my motivation to contin- the energy management side of engineer- Technology History Wiki, ETHW, a website ue in STEM fields. ing, with a special focus on multifamily developed by the IEEE History Center and buildings. maintained by the center on behalf of a con- Liz Hiteshue sortium of engineering associations (AIChE, I graduated from the University of Pennsyl- This project has offered me a chance to AIME, ASCE, ASME, IEEE, SPE, and SWE). vania in May 2015 with a degree in systems learn from the experiences and paths taken engineering and a minor in nutrition. Cur- by other successful STEM women. It encour- Collaborating with the Oral Histories of Dis- rently, I am working as an associate consul- aged me to look outside my narrow major tinguished Women in STEM program helps tant at Bain & Company in Washington, DC. view and into the larger STEM field for in-

10 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs ternships and other career-building experi- of my life. This project continues to push me courage their research endeavors. ences. I will continue to use their advice to and remind me that the gift of education help me make wise and educated decisions is the best gift I can give myself, and has Acknowledgments about my own career path. opened my eyes to the amazing opportuni- The authors thank Richard Martin at the Air ties STEM offers. Force Institute of Technology and Bradley Caroline Wochnick Paul at the Air Force Research Laboratories I am currently a junior at Augsburg College Maj. Derrick Langley, PhD, USAF Sensors Directorate for research support. We pursuing a BA in physics with a minor in The Oral Histories of Distinguished Women thank Amanda Kapetanakis for joining the business. I am the treasurer of our chapter of in STEM is a project that allows me to help project in 2016. We are very grateful to our Society of Physics Students and am current- underrepresented college students reach project sponsors, National Science Founda- ly taking classes to finish my degree. out to STEM leaders. In my opinion, it serves tion ADVANCE grant award no. 0810989 at three purposes for improving the ratio of the Air Force Institute of Technology, the Air This project is always great to come back underrepresented college students in STEM: Force Research Laboratory Sensors Director- and look at. These women are outstanding First, it provides a mentoring opportunity ate, the Augsburg College Undergraduate role models, and knowing that they didn’t for STEM leaders. Second, it provides a last- Research and Graduate Opportunities Of- always have a plan is comforting. They in- ing impression on students conducting the fice, the IEEE Foundation, and the IEEE His- spire me to keep working toward my goals interviews. And third, by capturing the in- tory Center, and thank Dr. Gregory Good at as a woman in physics, and motivate me to terviews, it provides an enduring snapshot the AIP Center for the History of Physics for apply my experience in STEM to all aspects of the STEM leader for future students to en- support of this project.

HISTORY CENTER AWARDED SUBSTANTIAL NASA GRANT By Teasel Muir-Harmony, Associate Historian, Center for History of Physics

The National Aeronautics and Space Admin- ’s magnetosphere, as well as efforts to of these touch on the history of . istration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate understand the effects of solar variability on The grant enables the Center to bring on two awarded the AIP Center for History of Phys- the Earth, technology, and humans working graduate student fellows for terms of three ics a three-year grant to support the Helio- in space have provided critical information to nine months, for the next three years, to physics Oral History Project. Motivated by for day-to-day life on Earth and to our explo- work with History Center staff on the He- the question of how heliophysics coalesced ration of the solar system. Heliophysics be- liophysics Oral History Project. Fellows will into a distinct discipline, the Center aims to gan to coalesce in the 1970s with the launch receive training in oral history interviewing, capture the history of a scientific field in for- of Skylab, followed by the coining of the carry out background research, conduct oral mation through the collection of oral history term in the 1980s and then a major upswing history interviews with scientists and engi- interviews with approximately 50 scientists in research activity in the 1990s and 2000s. neers working within heliophysics, and par- and engineers working within heliophysics Over 40 years have passed since Skylab as- ticipate in the Center’s programs. and related sciences. tronauts investigated the source of the solar wind, making it critical to preserve this his- The project will produce an online catalog The significance of the interaction of the tory without delay. of the transcripts and documents, a final re- Sun, heliosphere, and planetary environ- port, and publications in professional jour- ments has prompted scientists to come AIP has been collecting oral history inter- nals. Also, the Center for History of Physics together, across disciplines, agencies, and views since the 1960s on major areas and plans to develop new lesson plans on the countries, to investigate the Sun-Earth sys- discoveries in the physical sciences. Al- history of heliophysics for our curriculum tem. Since the launch of Explorer I in 1958, though the collection currently consists of material on women and minorities in the research in solar processes, solar wind, the more than 1,500 oral histories, the largest of physical sciences, as well as assemble a new impact of solar plasma and radiation on the its kind in the world, only a small percentage online exhibit based on these interviews.

For more information on oral history interviewing visit

https://www.aip.org/history-programs/physics-history/oral-history-interviewing

www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 11 MELANIE MUELLER NAMED NEW DIRECTOR OF THE NIELS BOHR LIBRARY & ARCHIVES By Greg Good, Director, Center for History of Physics

We are pleased to announce that Melanie Mueller has been named the R. Joseph Anderson Director of the Niels Bohr Library & Archives.

Melanie joined the staff of the AIP Center for History of Physics in 2005. During her 11 years as an archivist and manager with the Niels Bohr Library & Archives (NBL&A), she has directed ma- jor projects, including the digitization of the papers, upgrading our shelving infrastructure, and the upcoming launch of Archives Portals for the AIP Member Societies. She is an active member of the scientific archives community and has served as chair and Steering Committee member of the Science, Technology, and Healthcare Roundtable of the Society of American Archivists (SAA). Before coming to AIP, Melanie worked in the Broadcasting Archives of the University of Maryland and in the archives of the Mt. Vernon Estate. Melanie holds a mas- ters of library science concentrating in archives, records, and information management from the University of Maryland, College Park.

Melanie was named the acting director of the NBL&A following the retirement of former direc- tor Joe Anderson in November 2015. (See AIP History Newsletter, Volume 47, Number 2)

The R. Joseph Anderson Directorship was endowed in 2013 by the generous support of the Avenir Foundation. The Niels Bohr Library & Archives has long been recognized internationally as an innovative leader among scientific archives, and it strives to create connections between the physical sciences and the archives, library, and history communities.

Join us in welcoming Melanie to the leadership of the NBL&A. In the coming months, Melanie will be focusing on plans for exciting potential growth of the library and archives programs, as well as a strategy for ensuring the long-term sustainability of the vital work that we do. Keep an eye on future issues for reports on new projects, new staff, and other new developments.

12 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs CHANGING FACES, CHANGING TITLES By Greg Good and Melanie Mueller, Directors of Center for Hisotry of Physics and the Niels Bohr Library & Archive

AIP History Center postdoctoral fellow Teasel Muir-Harmony recently accepted a position as a cura- tor of space history at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. She joined the Space History Division at the National Air & Space Museum at the end of November 2016. Muir-Harmony will con- tinue to take part in the History Center’s new Heliophysics Oral History project but will no longer manage the project with Greg Good. Muir-Harmony came to AIP in September 2014, after complet- ing her PhD in history of science and technology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Previously she held positions as an assistant curator at the Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Mu- seum in Chicago and as a research and curatorial assistant at the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum.

Two Niels Bohr Library & Archives staff members were promoted this year in recognition of their dedicated service and increasing responsibility. Amanda Nelson was promoted from associate archivist to archivist, and Chip Calhoun was promoted from technical services archivist to digital archivist.

We also welcome two new members to the library and archives team: Audrey Lengel began as the new assistant photo librarian in June, and Allison Rein joined the staff in November as the new assistant director of Special Collections. Audrey graduated from the University of Maryland (College Park) iSchool in 2015, and gained experience working with photographs and media at the Library of Congress and National Public Radio. Allison worked for several years at the Maryland State Archives and brings a unique perspective to our growing book collections.

HELP US RENAME AND TEST UPDATES TO ACAP! By Amanda Nelson, Archivist, Niels Bohr Library & Archive

The Array of Contemporary American Physicists (ACAP) (https://www.aip.org/history/acap), a bi- ographical resource on the AIP website containing information on over 850 physicists working in America from 1945 to the present, is currently getting a face lift. We have been implementing a new standard for coding the information (find out more at https://www.aip.org/history-pro- grams/news/new-changes-coming-soon-acap) and will soon be expanding the resource to in- clude more physicists and institutional histories, including international entries. With the upcom- ing expansion and new look, we think it’s time for a more encompassing name.

If you have suggestions for new names or would be willing to test the new version and send us feedback, please contact Amanda Nelson ([email protected]) for more information.

And keep an eye out for the updates starting in 2017!

www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 13 BACK TO SCHOOL WITH THE EMILIO SEGRÈ VISUAL ARCHIVES Audrey Lengel, Photo Librarian, Niels Bohr Library & Archive

This fall, as students around the country re- turned to school, the Niels Bohr Library & Ar- chives featured some images from the Emilio Segrè Visual Archives of physicists sharing their knowledge of the physical sciences with students of all ages. These images were part of our ongoing Photos of the Month series, where we share a selection of photo- graphs on a particular theme with our photo researchers.

Included in September’s selection of photo- graphs were: James Solomon, the 1994–1995 director of the American Society (AVS); John Stehn, a nuclear physicist at the Knolls Atomic Laboratory; James Stith, a physics education researcher, past vice president of AIP’s Physics Resources Center and past president of the American Asso- ciation of Physics Teachers; , an astronomer and namesake of the Hub- ble Space Telescope; Harald Enge, a nuclear physicist and professor at MIT; and Isidor Fankuchen, a teacher and leader in the fields of crystallography and X-ray diffraction.

One interesting photograph we discovered in our collections while researching this theme was of a small 4-year-old Dutch boy, taken in approximately 1935, learning sim- ple math problems on a blackboard. This young student, Martinus J.G. Veltman, would grow up to win the 1999 Nobel Prize in Phys- ics with Gerardus ‘t Hooft for developing a mathematical equation on electroweak in- teractions.

Don’t miss a single Photos of the Month up- date! Subscribe to our Photos of the Month e-mail by signing up at https://www.aip.org/ history-prorgrams/niels-bohr-library/pho- tos/esva-subscribe, and view our Photos of the Month archive at https://photos.aip.org.

We are always looking for monthly theme suggestions. If there is a Photos of the Month theme you would like to recommend, please contact us at [email protected] or 301-209-3184. Martinus Veltman “learning basic math at age 4,” circa 1935. Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives.

Make sure to follow us on Facebook and Twitter at @AIPhistory and @HistoryPhysics

14 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs Isidor Fankuchen (center) shows lab equipment to two high school students, James S. Solomon demonstrates the force of atmospheric to elemen- circa 1960s. Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Fankuchen Collection. tary school children, 1992. Credit: AVS, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives.

John R. Stehn explains the properties of to high school teachers at James Stith, past Vice President of AIP’s Physics Resources Center and past Union College, September 1954. Credit: Company Research President of the American Association of Physics Teachers, presents a lesson to Lab, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives, Physics Today Collection. a group of unidentified students. Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives.

Young Edwin Hubble (back row, center) coached the 1914 New Albany High Harald Enge uses a magnetically suspended mannequin in a demonstration School Basketball Team. He also taught physics, math, and Spanish. Credit: New of Stokes for students in a freshman physics class at the Massachusetts Albany High School Yearbook, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives. Institute of Technology. Credit: AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives. www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 15 THE ‘FORMAN COLLECTION’ IN NBL&A By

I donated these books to the Niels Bohr Li- found in the catalogs of European book sell- quency (1960) and Course 46 brary & Archives as one of several actions ers, reflects both the still undeveloped de- (1969): Physics with intersecting storage taken in preparation for retirement—re- mand for such items in that era and the then rings, were later acquisitions whose de- tirement generally, but more particularly, substantial differential in wealth and price sirability arose from research and exhibi- from my position as curator of the Modern levels between the United States and Eu- tion projects at the Smithsonian: “ Collection at the Smithsonian Insti- rope, where the pressure that would lift Eu- Clocks” (on display 1982–1988) and “ tution’s Museum of American History, a posi- ropean prices from far below to well above Smashers” (on display 1977–1988), the lat- tion that I had held for the previous 40 years, ours had hardly begun. Even while I was ter bringing me into a continuing personal nearly. In disburdening myself of most of still a student at the University of California, correspondence (now in the Smithsonian In- my one to two thousand books from many Berkeley, and even more when I was a junior stitution Archives) with the organizer of that fields, I gave the NBLA those relating directly faculty member at the University of Roches- course, Bruno Touschek. The last item in the to the history of physics which its excellent ter, most of these works could be seen only collection, Boris Weinberg’s statistical survey collection did not already contain. This con- through interlibrary loan, if at all. But be- of university-level teaching of physics circa straint obliged me to find other repositories yond the utilitarian rationale for possessing 1900, published in 1902, was something of for some far more important works, such these works, there was, I admit, a bibliophilic an inspiration, and certainly a support, for as, notably, my copies of all four editions of motive. That weakness is clearly revealed in my collaborative study with John Heilbron Sommerfeld’s Atombau und Spektrallinien. this collection by the instances of my own and Spencer Weart, Physics circa 1900 (1974). The smallness, and much of the miscella- bookbinding, pursued as a hobby while in Books shows us the wide attention neous nature of this “Forman Collection” is a Rochester, 1967–1972: Carl Runge und sein that Weinberg’s study received when pub- consequence of that constraint. Yet there is wissenschaftliches Werk, Die neuere Entwick- lished—and a total absence of citation in an evident thematic unity to most of these lung der Quantentheorie, and Die Entwick- the following seven decades. Subsequent to works, the result of their having been ac- lung des Temperaturbegriffs. Moreover, while our use of it, Google knows only its citation quired in the first phase of my scholarly ca- the first of these three is my binding of a in 1989 by Barbara J. Reeves in her chapter reer, 1965–1975, when my research focused purchased Broschiert copy, the latter two are on the research tradition in physics in Italy on physics in early 20th-century German so- my Klebebindung of Xerox copies of originals in the late 19th century in a volume edited ciety and culture. obtained through interlibrary loan! by Vittorio Ancarani, La Scienza accademica nell’Italia post-unitaria. That I, as a graduate student with a wife Also reflected in the collection are some of teaching elementary school, and then as a my subsequent engagements. The two vol- You can view the Forman Collection at poorly paid assistant professor at the Uni- umes resulting from courses organized by http://repository.aip.org/islandora/object/ versity of Rochester, was easily able to afford the International School of Physics “Enrico nbla%3Aforman. the cost and the postage of these items, Fermi,” Course 17 (1960): Topics on radiofre-

AIP’S ORAL HISTORIES ON THE INTERNATIONAL STAGE By Greg Good, Director, Center for History of Physics

The last week in June 2016 I had the op- ues, where we attended public programs portunity to speak about AIP’s 54-year-old with partner institutions. We attended an oral history program in Bangalore, . opening plenary lecture on memory, oral The occasion was the 19th conference of history, and radical action in Bangladesh, the International Oral History Association, followed by a traditional shadow-puppet attended by over 150 speakers from around presentation. At the Indian Institute of Sci- the world. The diversity of the attendees ence—known for its founder, industrialist was expected from one point of view: many J. N. Tata, and for C. V. Raman, who received cultures, many religions, many ethnicities. the in 1930—a panel From another point of view, the diversity of of speakers addressed the question, “What uses and purposes for oral history was a bit happens when oral history goes public? Oral of a surprise. History Online.” The answer to this question depends on the nature of the interviews Every day sessions were held at the Srishti and, to one degree or another, raises both Institute of Art, Design, and Technology, technical and ethical considerations. It mat- an institution of higher education. In the ters, for example, whether the interviewee is evenings, we moved by bus through the Entrance to the Indian Institute of Science in discussing a scientific discovery or a sensi- crowded streets of Bangalore to other ven- Bangalore, India. tive political or social issue.

16 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs Although our oral histories at AIP are often with famous scientists, many oral histories are with ordinary and even illiterate people. We use oral histories with scientists to delve into the stories behind the discoveries and to explore the human face of science. Oth- ers use oral histories to tell the stories of people whose lives leave little or no written record. Sessions discussed “Indigenous Peo- ples and Colonization,” “Oral History and the Politics of Identity,” and “Tracing Dissent and the Politics of Marginalization through Oral History.” It was instructive to hear of the con- siderations that oral historians in other areas have to take into account, and to help them understand our experience at the Center for History of Physics.

Given that so many oral historians work with Greg Good, Jahnavi Phalkey, and Ron Doel speak about oral histories with scientists. Photo by Ida Milne. very different populations and problems than those we face, it was a delight to find two scholars with AIP connections. Professor gram and they are eager to work with us to out that many of them know our resourc- Ron Doel is a member of the History Center’s accomplish more through cooperation. The es well. Robert Perks, who directs the rich Task Force on Professional Standards and steps we have taken in the last decade to and productive British Library oral history spoke about one particular project, to docu- place our transcriptions online—now over project, praised our website, as did Michael ment through interviews the history of geo- 1,100 transcripts are on our website (https:// Frisch, professor emeritus at SUNY Buffalo physics at . The other www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr- and a leading figure in oral history. speaker was Prof. Jahnavi Phalkey of King’s library/oral-histories)—provide opportuni- College, London, who received a Grant in ties for using new analytical techniques to I was part of a session titled, “What’s Next? Aid from AIP to support her oral history in- gain novel insights from our interviews. We Achievements and Opportunities in Oral terviews with Indian scientists. Attendees at also look forward to reinvigorating the inter- History of Recent Science.” Joining me on our session included Robert Perks, Michael view process so that we can document new this panel was Prof. Indira Chowdhury (Sr- Frisch, and others interested in what AIP’s areas: the lives and careers of women and ishti Institute and president of the Interna- future plans are regarding oral histories. underrepresented minorities in the physical tional Oral History Association). Professor sciences, the work of the last half-century in Chowdhury established the archive for the The future of AIP’s oral history program is as , new materials, etc., and the roles Tata Institute of Fundamental Research a de- bright as its achievements. We look forward of physical scientists in environmental re- cade ago and continues to anchor efforts in to forming critical collaborations in India, search. Oral history cannot rest if we are to India to conduct more oral histories with In- China, and other countries. AIP is seen by preserve and make known the history of the dia’s scientists. Joining us on the panel were other oral historians as having a model pro- physical sciences!

SEEKING ORAL HISTORY GRADUATE FELLOWS

The American Institute of Physics is seeking two Oral History Graduate Fellows to join the Center for History of Physics for a period of three to nine months, with possible renewal for another term. The successful candidates will participate in the Center’s Heliophysics Oral History Project, a comprehensive three-year project motivated by the question of how helio- physics coalesced into a distinct discipline. The Center aims to capture the history of a scientific field in formation through the collection of oral history interviews with approximately fifty scientists and engineers working within heliophysics and related sciences.Fellows will carry out background research, conduct oral history interviews with scientists and engineers working within heliophysics, and participate in the Center’s programs. A portion of each fellows’ time will be allocated to completing his/her dissertation.

https://www.aip.org/aip/jobs/oral-history-graduate-fellow

www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 17 LYNE STARLING TRIMBLE SCIENCE HERITAGE PUBLIC LECTURES NOW AN AIP TRADITION By Greg Good, Director, Center for History of Physics

On September 13th, Prof. Matt Stanley (NYU) presented the fourth Lyne Starling Trimble Science Heritage Public Lecture to a full house at the American Center for Physics. Professor Stanley, best known for his biography of Arthur Eddington, Practical Mystic: Religion, Science, and A. S. Edding- ton, discussed two cases of how scientists have become “prophets of apocalypse.” The astronomer Carl Sagan and others argued in the 1980s that no nuclear war was winnable because expected levels of nuclear deploy- ment would release enough dust and aero- sols into Earth’s atmosphere to plunge the into die-offs and ecological col- lapse. At roughly the same time, argued the K-T extinction resulted from a massive meteor impact. Matt Stanley with the themed poster for his lecture on scientists who have predicted human or natural apocalypses. Photo courtesy of Greg Good. Professor Stanley connected these two stories to the long history of nonscientist high standard for the series as it moves these along with podcasts of some of the prophets and asked: “How can scientists forward. In addition to Prof. Stanley’s talk, lectures in 2017. make a reputable case for an apocalypse? we also heard from Michael Riordan (pro- How can we best communicate scientific fessor emeritus, UC Santa Cruz) on the An announcement will be made soon re- knowledge to broader audiences?” These demise of the Superconducting Super garding the 2017 Trimble Lectures. The two cases illustrate that the resulting repu- Collider, Zuoyue Wang (California State lineup includes Owen Gingerich (Harvard tations among the public and among scien- Polytechnic University, Pomona) on US– University), Michael Gordin (Princeton tists do not necessarily line up. Sagan gained Chinese scientific exchanges, and Kate University), Allan Franklin (University of wide press but lost ground among his col- Brown (University of Maryland, Baltimore Colorado), the awardee of the Abraham leagues. The K-T impact, however, changed County) on “Plutopia,” American and So- Pais Prize for the History of Physics for the way we all think of Earth’s relation to the viet atomic cities. We have been experi- 2016, and Diana Kormos-Buchwald, direc- solar system. menting with video interviews with the tor of the Einstein Papers Project. The four Trimble Lectures in 2016 set a Trimble lecturers and will begin posting

Find out more about the Lyne Starling Trimble Science Heritage Public Lectures series at

www.aip.org/history-programs/physics-history/trimble-lectures

18 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs 2015-2016 ADDITIONS TO THE NBL&A ARCHIVAL COLLECTIONS By Amanda Nelson, Archivist, Niels Bohr Library & Archives

The past year has been another busy time Today’s Bertram Schwarzschild’s Nobel Prize clude in our Manuscript Biography or Miscel- of adding historically valuable and relevant files; AIP Publishing Division records that de- laneous Physics collections, which help round materials to our archival collections at the tail AIP Press and Russian translation journal out sources available to our researchers. New Niels Bohr Library & Archives. These new col- records; and some correspondence and a re- manuscript biographies this year included a lections came in the form of donations from membrance book from Malcolm Thurgood’s article from the Harvard Ga- AIP’s Member Societies and from interested work on the , which go along zette detailing his childhood in Vienna, his individuals helping to preserve the history of with the Alsos Mission photograph donation career in physics, and beyond; Alberto Sirlin’s physics. Please inquire with the reference staff to the Emilio Segrè Visual Archives in 2015. “Remembering a Great Teacher,” about his if you’d like to use any of our new collections Look for a new exhibit in the near future high- relationship with ; a talk by to find out if any restrictions are associated lighting this collection online. George W. Smith about his career at Rice Uni- with the collection. versity and General Motors Research Labora- We’ve also received new audio-visual tories; and Eberhard Spiller’s paper describing As always, we’ve received additions to some of collections in the past year, including the films the that he and Prof. Werner our existing collections, including the Ameri- “Remembering Niels Bohr, 1885–1962” and Martienssen used in lectures and courses on can Association of Physicists in Medicine “: Understanding Quantum light beams and quasi-thermal light sources. (AAPM) and AVS records; Homer Dodge’s pa- Physics,” donated by Zoz Brooks; additional Finally, our Miscellaneous Physics collections pers and ’s collection on nucle- recordings from Michael Jones from the grew to include Bruno Zumino’s lecture notes ar arms control and disarmament; the Hawaii Conferences in High Energy Physics on and supergravity; the Research Foundation essay contest entries; from 1983 and 1985; and audio recordings of manuscript “Kepler, The Astronomia Nova” by and a full run of the AIP Relations the American Physical Society (APS) Forum William Stahlman from his time as a PhD stu- Division’s FYI: Science Policy News with the re- on the History of Physics (FHP) sponsored dent under Otto Neugebauer at Brown Uni- tirement of their director, Richard M. Jones. sessions from the APS March and April annual versity; AAS Astrophysical Journal “crank mail” To go along with these additions, we’ve re- meetings. files; Leon Landovitz’s lecture notes of Robert ceived the following new collections: Allan A. Serber’s course; and Al- Needell’s research records from his personal Furthermore, some of our most personal do- len Buskirk’s lecture notes for classes of Emil research on national laboratories; AIP Physics nations come as single folder items that we in- Konopinski and J. Robert Oppenheimer.

BROADENING THE COMMUNITY FOR HISTORY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE By Greg Good, Director, Center for History of Physics

The two goals of AIP’s Center for History of tinue to encourage early-career historians to entist’: W.E.B. DuBois and the Diversity Prob- Physics and Niels Bohr Library & Archives take on topics in history of physical science. lem in Science and the History of Science.” are (1) to preserve and (2) to make known We are pursuing collaborations with histo- Community building is a critical part of pro- the history of the physical sciences. For rians and archives in India and Japan. This viding for the future of both science and the both of these goals, the AIP programs must year AIP was visited by the former president history of science. The Center for History of reach out and build community in many of the International Oral History Association, Physics and the Niels Bohr Library & Archives directions at once. We reach out to AIP’s Prof. Indira Chowdhury (Shrishti Institute, are proactively involved in facing the future Member Societies behind the scenes and Balgalore, India) and by Nobumichi Ariga, while preserving the evidence of the past. at their membership meetings. We sponsor Curator of History of Science at the National a History Liaison Committee meeting every Museum of Nature and Science in Tokyo. On Elmer Imes and Spectroscopy, see autumn which is attended by a representa- the AIP Teachers Guide at https://www. tive of each Member Society. We present our The staff also maintains professional mem- aip.org/history-programs/physics-histo- work at Member Society meetings and help bership in appropriate organizations out- ry/teaching-guides-women-minorities/ on their own committees. In 2016, Melanie side of the Member Societies. These include dr-elmer-imes-and-spectroscopy. On the Mueller and Greg Good presented at a meet- the Society of American Archivists and the relevance of the famous Booker T. Wash- ing of the American Association of Physicists History of Science Society. At the HSS meet- ington/ W.E.B. DuBois debate on education in Medicine and other presentations are ing in November 2016, long-time supporter and its impact in science, see AIP’s lesson scheduled for upcoming meetings of the of the Center and the Library & Archives, plan “Historical Detective: Edward Alexan- American Association of Physics Teachers Prof. Ron Mickens of Clark Atlanta Universi- der Bouchet and the Washington-Du Bois and the American Meteorological Society. ty spoke on “Elmer S. Imes and Willie Hobbs Debate over African-American Education” Moore: Quantum Physics and Infrared Spec- at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/ We also build community in the direction of troscopy” and Prof. Evelynn Hammonds of physics-history/teaching-guides-wom- collaboration with other archives and with presented the riveting en-minorities/historical-detective-ed- other centers for historical research. We con- HSS Distinguished Lecture “’The Negro Sci- ward-alexander-bouchet-and. www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 19 DOCUMENTATION PRESERVED Compiled by Melanie Mueller, Director, Niels Bohr Library & Archives

Our report of new collections or new finding aids is based on our regular survey of archives and other repositories. Many of the collections are new accessions, which may not be processed, and we also include previously reported collections that now have an online finding aid available.

To learn more about any of the collections listed below, use the International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics and Allied Sciences at www.aip.org/history/icos. You can search in a variety of ways including by author or by repository.

Please contact the repository mentioned for information on restrictions and access to the collections.

NEW COLLECTIONS

CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) Scientific David Ritchie papers. Collection dates: 1962-2011 (bulk 1971-2011). Information Service. CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland Size: 6.25 linear feet (4 record cartons; 3 document cases; 2 rolls).

Archives of Massimiliano Ferro-Luzzi. Collection dates: 1955-2000. Size: 4 linear meters (34 boxes; 100 items). George Mason University. Special Collections & Archives Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, USA Brian Powell archives. Collection dates: 1951-1989. Size: 3 linear meters (44 items; 28 boxes). Oral history interview with Dimitrios Papaconstantopoulos. Collection date: 2004 November 22. Size: Audio recording: 2 compact discs, 1.25 hours. Columbia University. Rare Book and Manuscript Library. Butler Library, 6th Floor East, New York, NY 10027, USA Harvard University. Archives. Pusey Library. Cambridge, MA Columbia University Department of Physics Historical Records. 02138, USA Collection dates: 1862-1997. Size: 2.29 linear feet (5 document boxes; 1 half-size document box). Edwin Roedder papers. Collection dates: 1851-1997. Size: 0.7 cubic feet (2 document boxes). Committee of Concerned Scientists records. Collection dates: 1970-2006 (bulk 1974-2005). Size: 45.36 linear feet (108 document boxes). Harvard University. Environmental Science and Public Policy Archives. Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Reminiscences of Bernard Taub Feld, oral history. Collection dates: 1980. Size: 132 leaves; 5 cassettes. Edward A. Parson stratospheric ozone collection. Collection dates: 1976-1997. Size: 11 linear feet (26 boxes). Brian Greene lectures. Collection dates: 1997-2002. Size: 2.5 linear feet (2 record cartons). Harvard University. Houghton Library. Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Fermilab. History and Archives Project Office, MS-109 PO Box American Academy of Arts and Sciences meteorological records. 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA Collection dates: 1754-1865. Size: 3.5 linear feet (1 box, 33 ).

Captain Bradley F. Bennett papers. Collection dates: 1963-1988. William Cranch Bond correspondence. Collection dates: 1840-1852 Size: 1 linear foot (2 boxes). Size: 0.1 linear feet (1 box).

20 History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 www.aip.org/history-programs Harvard University. Ukranian Research Institute. Cambridge, MA State University. University Archives. 2700 Kenny Road, 02138, USA Columbus, OH 43210, USA

Alexander Smakula papers. Collection dates: 1962-1979. Size: 1 Geoffrey Keller papers.Collection dates: 1969-1970. Size: 0.1 cubic foot. linear foot.

Rice University. Fondren Library. Woodson Research Center. P. O. Henry E. Huntington Library. 1151 Oxford Road, San Marino, CA Box 1892, Houston, TX 77001, USA 91108, USA Jim Newman space mementos. Collection date: 1993. Size: 0.25 Camille Flammarion letters. Collection dates: 1890-1919. Size: 4 linear feet. items.

Joseph Hickox letter to Laurence D. Peabody. Collection date: University of California, Los Angeles. University Research 1967 June 10. Size: 6 pages. Library. Department of Special Collections. Los Angeles, CA 90024-1575, USA S. P. (Samuel Pierpont) Langley letter to Henry S. Mackintosh. Collection dates: 1902 April 7. Size: 1 page. Jack M. Hubbard papers. Collection dates: 1940-1976. Size: 1.5 linear feet (3 boxes). James Mervin Parker photographs related to Mount Wilson. Collection dates: circa 1950-1952. Size: 7 photographs. University of California, Santa Barbara. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Institute Archives and Special Collections. M.I.T. Libraries, Rm. 14N-118, Cambridge, Los Alamos lecture series tapes. Collection date: 1975. Size: 0.4 MA 02139, USA linear feet (11 open reel tapes).

Eric Cosman papers. Collection dates: Unknown. University of California, Santa Cruz. Mary Lea Shane Archives of Frank A. papers. Collection dates: 1902-1927. the Lick Observatory. University Library, Rm. 359, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA Convocation in commemoration of . Collection dates: 1954. Russell Tracy Crawford papers. Collection dates: 1897-1960. Size: 2.45 linear feet (3 boxes and 1 oversize box). March 4 teach-in for nuclear disarmament. Collection date: 1989. Charles Donald and Mary Lea Shane papers. Collection dates: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Rocket Research Society 1895-1983. Size: 11.2 linear feet (17 boxes and 5 oversize boxes. records. Collection dates: 1951-1962. Richard Hawley Tucker papers. Collection dates: 1879-1939. Size: Karl Taylor Compton memorial tribute. Collection date: 1954. 2.53 linear feet (6 boxes).

NEW FINDING AIDS

Academy of Natural Sciences of . Library, 19th Street Auburn University. Ralph B. Draughon Library, Department of and the Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA Archives. Auburn, AL 36849, USA

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia records. Collection Auburn University Nuclear Science Center records. Collection date: 1877. Size: 2 items. dates: 1961-1967. Size: 0.5 cubic feet (5 items).

Philadelphia local committee records. Collection dates: 1883-1898. Size: 831 items. University of California, Santa Cruz. Mary Lea Shane Archives of the Lick Observatory. University Library, Rm. 359, Santa Cruz, CA Crystallographic Society of America records. Collection date: 1948. 95064, USA Size: 13 items. Hamilton Jeffers papers. Collection dates: 1895-1975. Size: 3.6 linear Spring course in X-ray. Collection dates: 1947-1949. Size: 14 items. feet (5 half cartons, 1 document box, and 1 half document box).

www.aip.org/history-programs History Newsletter | Volume 48, No. 2 21 Gerald Edward Kron papers. Collection dates: 1928-1996 (bulk 1940- 1000 E. University Avenue, Laramie, WY 82071, USA 1980). Size: 6.9 linear feet (11 boxes). John C. Bellamy papers. Collection dates: 1944-1981. Size: 13 cubic Nicholas U. Mayall papers. Collection dates: Uknown. Size: 31 linear feet (13 boxes). feet. R. Hobart Ellis papers. Collection dates: 1957-1967. Size: 1.8 cubic Stanislaus Vasilevskis papers. Collection dates: Uknown. Size: 7 feet (4 boxes). linear feet. correspondence. Collection dates: 1961-1969. Size: William Hammond Wright papers. Collection dates: 1895-1957. Size: 0.45 cubic feet (1 box). 2 linear feet. Haines C. Hibbard papers. Collection dates: 1930-1987. Size: 3.8 cubic feet (8 boxes). University of Utah. Marriott Library. Special Collections. Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA Ronald C. Surdam papers. Collection dates: 1965-1986. Size: 2.05 cubic feet (5 boxes, 1 oversize folder). Newton’s Principia exhibition records. Collection dates: 1987-1988. Size: 0.75 linear feet (0.75 linear feet). Learn more about the new collections at www.aip.org/history/icos University of Wyoming. American Heritage Center. Dept. 3924,

PreservePreserve and make and known make the known past... the past...

For more information about naming And honorAnd honor opportunities please contact:

someonesomeone AIP Development Office 301-209-3006 close to youclose to you [email protected]

You can have a shelf in the NielsYou can Bohr have Library a shelf & inArchives the Niels named Bohr after Library a & Archives named after a family member or colleague.family member or colleague. For more information, or toFor learn more information, or to learn of other naming opportunities,of other naming opportunities, Your $1,000 donation enablesYour $1,000 the Library donation to do enables all this: the Library to do allplease this: contact: please contact:

• Purchase specially-treated• archivalPurchase containers specially-treated archival containers Development Office Development Office • Support22 an internHistory for Newslettertwo• daysSupport | Volume an 48, intern No. 2 for two days 301-209-3006 301-209-3006 www.aip.org/history-programs • Fund travel for a post-doctoral• Fund researcher, travel for anda post-doctoral researcher, and [email protected] [email protected] • Transcribe a 2-hour interview• Transcribe with a luminary a 2-hour in interview the physical with sciences a luminary in the physical sciences The American Institute of Physics’ History Programs are seeking to raise two million dollars to build capacity by strengthening programs that currently have partial support and to ensure their sustainability for the long term. The programs include the Lyne Starling Trimble Science Heritage Public Lecture Series, Grants- in-Aid, Grants to Archives, and the Emerging Fund—all of which are instrumental in making widely known the human face of science and the physical sciences’ impact on modern life.

Trimble Lectures AIP History Programs intend to use a portion of the funds toward fully endowing the Lyne Starling Trimble Science Heritage Public Lecture Series. The series was partially endowed at $100,000 from Professor Virginia Trimble, in memory of her father, who was an innovative chemist, and will be fully endowed at $500,000. The lecture series is an important public outreach initiative featuring prominent science historians and writers who aim to highlight the important roles that science plays in modern society and culture.

Grants-in-Aid & Grants to Archives The Grants-in-Aid and Grants to Archives programs fund research in the history of physics and allied sciences (such as astrono- my, , and ) and their humanistic interactions. These programs have assisted more than 250 scholars to produce dozens of publications and helped archives make 69 major collections available for research. The programs are partially funded by AIP and endowment income. The Institute aims to expand the programs and complete its endowment of these programs through this campaign.

Emerging Technologies The Emerging Technologies Fund allows AIP History Programs to keep current with digital technologies. The goal is to satisfy the growing demand for robust online, interactive resources and to make our collections more available to the global commu- nity of scholars and historians. New technologies will also enable staff to preserve and digitize the rarest, most fragile books and documents in AIP’s history collections. Center for History of Physics Nonprofit Org. American Institute of Physics U.S. POSTAGE One Physics Ellipse PAID College Park, MD 20740-3843 College Park, MD Permit No. 2321

HISTORY NEWSLETTER A Publication of the American Institute of Physics

Staff Members This newsletter is a biannual publication of the Center for History of Gregory A. Good, Director, Center for History of Physics Physics, American Institute of Physics, One Physics Ellipse, College Melanie Mueller, Director, Niels Bohr Library & Archives Park, MD 20740; phone: 301-209-3165; fax: 301-209-0882; e-mail: Chip Calhoun, Digital Archivist [email protected] or [email protected] Editor: Gregory A. Good. The newsletter Nathan Cromer, Graphic & Web Designer reports activities of the Center for History of Physics and Niels Bohr Stephanie Jankowski, Senior Administrative Secretary Library & Archives, and other information on work in the history of Audrey Lengel, Photo Librarian the physical sciences. Sean McEnroe, Digitization Assistant Teasel Muir-Harmony, Associate Historian Any opinions expressed herein do not necessarily represent the Amanda Nelson, Archivist views of the American Institute of Physics or its Member Societies. Allison Rein, Assistant Director of Special Collections This newsletter is available on request without charge, but we wel- come donations (tax deductible) to the Friends of the AIP Center for History of Physics (www.aip.org/donate). The newsletter is posted on the web at www.aip.org/history-programs/history-newsletter.