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Introduction to Primates

Introduction to Primates

Index of activities, lessons, and -outs The following handouts/documents are included in PDF format and are ordered by type. “Day in Schedule” refers to the schedule of the two-week pilot course, but timing may be adjusted to as needed.

Resource Type Page Numbers

Organizational (e.g. classroom routines, rules, final project)

Notes

Activities

Handout/Document Description Version Activity/Lesson Day in Page schedule #

Class routines Class routines; addresses entering Teacher Organizational Day 1 classroom, picking volunteers, etc.

Gorilla troop rules Class rule sheet in the context of Student Organizational Day 1

Gorilla troop rules Student version plus notes Teacher Organizational Day 1

Table of contents For student binders, to be updated as Student Organizational Day 1 course proceeds. Teacher should create master copy as well.

Course survey What do students already know, and Student Organizational Days 1, 9 what have they learned? To be completed on the first day of class and at the end of the course.

Course survey Student version plus answers Teacher Organizational Days 1, 9

End-of-class reflection Topic of reflection may vary, but Student Organizational Introduced typically a chance for students to write Day 1; used what they learned. daily

Mural description Run-down of the mural project Teacher Organizational Day 1

Activity 1: Practice Introduction to the scientific method Teacher Activity 1: Practice Day 1 being a scientist! (in the context of ) being a scientist!

What is a ? (I) Focus on aspect and the two Student Notes Day 2 main groups of primates. Useful in conjunction with primate tree. What is a primate? (I) Student version plus notes Teacher Notes Day 2

Activity 2: Primate Creation of binder-sized primate Teacher Activity 2: Primate Day 2 family tree family tree family tree

Individual family trees Entire Primate , plus tree. To Student Activity 2: Primate Day 2 & primate photographs be kept by student for future reference family tree

What is a primate? (II) Focus on physical characteristics of Student Notes Day 3 primates

What is a primate? (II) Student version, plus notes Teacher Notes Day 3

Primate photos Given to students when assigning Mural/assigning Day 3 primates for the mural. Used as a primates visual reference for drawing primate. Also used in Activity 3(1).

Activity 3: What is a Lesson in ways to tell primates apart Teacher Activity 3: What is Day 4 primate? from other , with focus on a primate? opposable and forward-facing eyes

Animal photos & labels Non-primate photos, used in Activity Activity 3: What is Day 4 3. Labels are “non-primate” and a primate? “primate”.

Forward-facing eyes Comparison of horse and gorilla Activity 3: What is Day 4 graphic . Useful if students don’t use a primate? “What is a primate? (II)” notes page (e.g. if Activity 3 is used by itself)

Activity 4: Primate Lesson on where primates live Teacher Activity 4: Primate Day 4 habitats habitats Blank maps World, , South America, & Asia. Student Activity 4: Primate Day 4 For creation of binder-sized range habitats map for various primates

Habitat photos Mainly forests. Used in primate Activity 4: Primate Day 4 habitat lesson and mural planning habitats/Mural planning

Primate notes Fill-in-the-blank format; addresses Student Notes Blanks habitat, terrestrial/arboreal, activity filled in as pattern, diet, and conservation status. topic Two versions: one for “endangered”, covered and one for “least concern”

Primate ecology info Table with information on 8 selected Teacher Notes Blanks primate filled in as topic covered

Activity 5: Primate diets Instructions for diet-making activity Teacher Activity 5: Primate Day 7 diets

Primate food pyramids Food pyramid for assigned primate Student Activity 5: Primate Day 7 diets

Activity 6: Are you Demonstration of Teacher Activity 6: Are you Day 10 smarter than a chimp? smarter than a chimp?

Routines

- Gorilla troop metaphor -- Each group of has 1-2 older, dominant leaders called silverbacks. The rest of the group looks to the silverbacks for guidance, and the silverbacks are responsible for mediating conflict and making sure the group is safe. In this class, the teacher fills the role of silverback. -- Gorilla troop rules: 1. Respect each other 2. Listen to each other (and raise hand to ask questions) 3. Approach silverbacks quietly with problems (raise hand) -- Attention cue: “chest” beat (beat stomach with palms of , everyone else responds by mimicking the beat) - Reluctant chest beaters may encouraged to on the table instead - May also experiment with varying the rhythm of the beat

- Entering the classroom -- Go straight to seat -- Instructions for warm-up activity on board

- At the end of each day -- End-of-class reflection or question -- Ticket to leave class that will be returned on the next day

- Picking volunteers -- Names on popsicle sticks

- Moving around the classroom -- We will be moving around in activities -- Otherwise, raise hand to leave seat

- Praise -- Verbal -- Reward tokens (e.g. peas, other plant-able seed) - Given out daily - May be exchanged for small primate-related prize at end of week (e.g. edible from Museum of and Science gift shop) -Those with the most beans get first pick, with ties resolved by drawing popsicle sticks

Gorilla Troop Rules

1. Respect each other

2. Always pay attention to the silverbacks

3. Approach silverbacks with problems (raise hand)

page ____ Gorilla Troop Rules

1. Respect each other

Gorillas live in family groups averaging 10 individuals, and there is no fighting amongst each other! Within the group there are 1-2 older, dominant leaders called silverbacks.

2. Always pay attention to the silverbacks

The rest of the group looks to the silverbacks for guidance. The silverbacks decide, for example, which direction to travel in and when to forage. The other members must pay attention in order to keep up!

3. Approach silverbacks with problems (raise hand)

All conflicts are settled through the silverbacks.

Apes, monkeys, & : an introduction to primates

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Apes, Monkeys, and Lemurs: An Introduction to Primates! Pre-Course Survey

Please answer the following questions the best you can. If you don’t know an answer, don’t worry! That’s the point of taking this course, right? :)

1. Who’s who? Which of the following are primates? (check all that apply)

2. Which of the following primates are endangered? (circle all that apply) gorilla spider ring-tailed

3. What is one thing that could make a primate become endangered? Explain.

page ___ 4. What is ? What are your thoughts about evolution?

5. Which of the following is the closest living relative to ?

Chimpanzee/ gorilla colobus monkey

6. Look at the photograph below. What are four words that come to mind?

______

7. Is it important to save the environment? Why or why not?

______Photographs taken from: http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/image/ObamaBarack.htm http://ourentropy.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/business-chimp.jpg Aaron Sandel Apes, Monkeys, and Lemurs: An Introduction to Primates! Pre-Course Survey

Please answer the following questions the best you can. If you don’t know an answer, don’t worry! That’s the point of taking this course, right? :)

1. Who’s who? Which of the following are primates? (check all that apply)

!

! ! !

2. Which of the following primates are endangered? (circle all that apply) chimpanzee gorilla ring-tailed lemur baboon

Answer: all but ring-tailed lemurs and are considered endangered (or critically endangered) by the IUCN List.

3. What is one thing that could make a primate become endangered? Explain.

Some possible answers: habitat loss, hunting, capture for pet trade (proximate causes); overpopulation, poverty (ultimate causes) 4. What is evolution? What are your thoughts about evolution?

Basic answer: change over time/change in the genetic structure of a population over time

5. Which of the following is the closest living relative to humans?

Answer: Chimpanzee/bonobo

Chimpanzee/bonobo gorilla gibbon colobus monkey

6. Look at the photograph below. What are four words that come to mind?

______

7. Is it important to save the environment? Why or why not?

______Photographs taken from: http://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/image/ObamaBarack.htm http://ourentropy.files.wordpress.com/2008/11/business-chimp.jpg Aaron Sandel End-of-Class Reflection

Name:______

Date Topic

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page ___ Final Project: Primate Mural

Overview: A mural of primates in their habitats can be completed as a large-scale project, depending on amount of class time available; that is, finishing an entire mural in less than two weeks may be rather ambitious, and dedicating full class periods to painting is suggested to minimize set-up/clean-up time. Class size should also be considered when planning the format of the mural – such as substrate type and size – as during the painting process, only about three students can fit around the panels pictured above.

During our pilot course, students were each assigned a primate for the mural. Throughout the course they were responsible for taking notes specifically on their primate, drawing and coloring a cut-out for the mural, and writing a summary to go alongside their drawing. Students worked together to paint the backgrounds, and since primate habitats can easily be grouped by continent – South America, Africa, and Asia – we designated each panel as a continent and had students whose primates lived in the same place collaborate to create a representative habitat.

Upon completion, murals were presented to another class for about 15 minutes.

Materials: See supply list, but note collection of relevant details below: - Thin plywood was chosen because it was lightweight but sturdy (compared to, say, butcher paper). Purchased at Home Depot and cut into thirds in-store. Having multiple pieces of mural simplified transportation and minimized crowding during the painting process. - Poster paint makes for straight-foward clean-up but requires multiple coats to prevent woods from showing through. Encourage students to lightly draw the habitat outline in pencil (not colored pencil) to minimize the amount that must be covered. - If possible, display the mural afterwards to encourage an awareness of primates.

Sample student work:

Activity 1: Practice being a scientist!

Brief description: When trying to solve a problem, scientists generally follow a set of steps called the “scientific method” to guide their thinking. An important part of the scientific method is close observation. This activity emphasizes this aspect of science by having students practice describing novel objects, then hypothesizing what their functions could be.

Lesson objectives: - Learn the steps of the scientific method - Practice making detailed scientific observations

Background information: The scientific method is comprised of four main steps: observation of a problem or phenomenon, hypothesizing about possible explanations, predictions from the possible explanations, and experimentation. The scientific method, while broken up into these steps, is by a very dynamic process; for example, experiments are often repeated and hypotheses are frequently revised.

The main ways we study primates are naturalistic observation and controlled experiments, and the scientific method guides the thinking of both.

Materials: - Variety of primate-related objects; some ideas: • Binoculars (used to study primates) • Apparatus (used to study primates) • -beater (example of tool use) • Stones (hammer & anvil; example of tool use) • Coconut (primate food; eaten by aye-ayes, for example) • • Pelt - Blank paper - Colored pencils - Measuring tools: rulers, string, and/or scale - “What am I?” paragraphs for each object prepared ahead of time - Photographs/videos showing how the objects relate to primates

Activity: 1. Explain the scientific method, and tell students that they are now scientists whose job is to observe several peculiar objects somehow related to primates. 2. Observation and hypothesizing (10 minutes): Encourage students to look, touch, listen, smell their object (but probably not taste it!). Have each draw a detailed picture and write three complete sentences describing it and one sentence hypothesizing as to its function and/or relation to primates. 3. Ask students to share their sentences one at a time. 4. Read off “What am I?” descriptions, match with student’s object, then show picture/video explanation. OR…. Activity with a twist: focus on investigating the bizarre aye-aye!

Background information: Aye-ayes are relatively large-bodied nocturnal lemurs from best known for their “creepy” appearance and unique strategy. Madagascar has no woodpeckers, but aye-ayes fill this open niche by extracting insects from tree branches; using their thin middle to tap on wood, they listen for hollow spots and bite into suitable (hollow) areas where insects could be hiding, proceeding to pull out any insects with their middle digit.

Materials: - Aye-aye related items (loaned from ): • Skull & mandible • Pelt • of hand • Chewed wood • Chewed nuts • Chewed lock • Chewed ball - Video of aye-aye foraging (& projector)

Activity: 1. Tell students that they are scientists investigating a rare species of lemur about which little is known; because aye-ayes are shy and nocturnal animals, they are rarely seen and researchers can usually only find traces of them. Their task is to observe the traces closely and hypothesize what they might tell us about the aye-aye.

2. Observation and hypothesizing (10 minutes): Encourage students to look, touch, listen, smell their object (but probably not taste it!). Have each person draw a detailed picture and write three complete sentences describing it and one sentence hypothesizing as to its function and/or relation to aye-aye ecology.

3. Share hypotheses and show video of aye-aye tap-foraging.

What is a primate?

1. Mammal • ______• ______• ______• ______

2. Divided into two main groups:

Prosimians Anthropoids

page ___

What is a primate?

1. Mammal • __fur______• __live young______• __nurse young______• __warm-blooded______

2. Divided into two main groups:

Prosimians Anthropoids

Lemurs Monkeys Apes Bushbabies

Activity 2: Primate family tree

Brief description: Given that the current estimated number of primates may exceed 600, it is helpful to organize all the species into categories. One way to make of primate is to create a family tree – a visual display of the main primate groups: lemurs, lorises & bushbabies, monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes.

Lesson objectives: - Gain exposure to the diversity of primates - Understand the concept of relatedness and family trees - Learn the main five groups of primates and how they are related to each other

Background information: The Order Primates exhibits impressive diversity and can be broken up into five main groups based on evolutionary history. See the primate family tree below for relatedness between these groups:

Materials: - Blank primate family trees - Primate photographs, cut out and labeled with the appropriate letter on back • See primate photos below, which are sized to fit mostly within the boxes. - Glue sticks

Activity: 1. Two techniques for passing out primate photos: pass out one at a time, or all at once and let students use the letters on the back to know where to put them. Passing out one group at a time takes less time and allows you to talk specifically about the group while they’re being passed out (e.g. “I’m passing out lemurs right now. Lemurs only live in Madagascar and range from the tiny nocturnal to the large- bodied diurnal like Zoboomafoo.”) Letting students look through the photographs may allow them to pay more attention to the appearance and diversity of various primates represented (each letter has four different photos, so chances are that no two trees will be alike).

2. Have students glue photos in the appropriate places and write the group names at the top. Although the tree pictured above shows the letters (A-J) for explanatory purposes, have students cover the letters with the pictures. Color the tree if time allows.

3. If time and interest allow, you can also make an ape family tree.

4. With still more time and interest, you can also elaborate on the differences between the different groups, e.g. the differences between monkeys versus apes. See major differences between the groups below:

Lemurs, lorises, bushbabies, tarsiers* Old & New World monkeys, apes

(“Prosimians”) (“Anthropoids”)

- Wet - Dry nose

- Dental comb ** - Post-orbital plate

- Grooming ** - Larger

- Post-orbital bar ** - Eyes face more forward

- Many nocturnal - Fusion of mandible

*Grouped here based on the /Anthropoid classification (also be aware of the Strepsirrhine/Haplorrhine classification system in which they are considered more closely related to the Anthropoids)

**Not in tarsiers (tarsiers are trouble!)

Old World monkeys (“Catarrhines”) New World monkeys (“Platyrrhines”)

- Live in Africa, Asia - Live in Central/South America

- Downward-facing nostrils - Sideways-facing nostrils

- Dental formula: 2.1.2.3 - Dental formula: 2.1.3.3 (extra )

Monkeys Apes

- Have tails - Do not have tails

- Arms and legs similar length, or legs longer - Arms longer than legs

! Primate family tree photographs (sheets of 12) LEMURS (A):

LEMURS (B):

LORISES & BUSHBABIES (C):

TARSIERS (D):

NEW WORLD MONKEYS (E):

NEW WORLD MONKEYS (F):

OLD WORLD MONKEYS (G):

OLD WORLD MONKEYS (H):

APES (I):

APES (J):

! Ape family tree photographs (sheets of 12)

Gibbons (A) (B):

ORANGUTANS (C): GORILLAS (D): HUMANS (E):

CHIMPANZEES (F):

BONOBOS (G):

What is a primate? (II) -- Characteristics of primates

1. grasping hands and opposable

- prehensile -

- An opposable thumb can touch______.

2. forward-facing eyes

- Circle the primate skull(s):

- Forward-facing eyes allow ______.

page ____ 3. nails, not

4. bigger relative to body size

What is a primate? (II) -- Characteristics of primates

1. grasping hands and opposable thumb - Hands (and feet!) have high grasping ability () - Prehensile – able to grasp - An opposable thumb can touch___across the hand_____.

2. forward-facing eyes - Eyes on the front of the face, not to the sides (e.g. gorilla vs. horse) - Forward-facing eyes --> overlap of visual fields --> allows for depth perception! - Photos: horse (L) and gorilla (R) - Forward-facing eyes allow __depth__ __perception__. - Humans have an 180° field of view, with 140° of that being binocular, i.e. with overlapping visual fields (where fields overlap, can see in 3-D)

3. nails, not claws - Fingernails instead of claws, though claws have revolved in some species like , , and the fork-marked lemurs that all feed of tree gums and use their claws to cling to tree trunks when feeding.

4. bigger brains relative to body size - For example, an brain is large, but so is an elephant! (Similarly, mouse brain is much smaller than mouse lemur brain, even though animals are about the same size). ______Visual field photos: http://tle.westone.wa.gov.au/content/items/969144ed-0d3b-fa04-2e88- 8b23de2a630c/1/human_bio_science_3b.zip/content/001_evol_trends/page_07.htm

Activity 3: What is a primate?

Brief description: The primate order consists of humans and our closest relatives, among which there is great diversity. However, across the many species of monkeys, apes, and lemurs (as well as the lesser- known lorises, bushbabies, and tarsiers), there are several uniting characteristics. This lesson explores two main physical characteristics that all primates share: opposable thumbs and forward-facing eyes.

Lesson objectives: - Name some examples of animals that are primates - Learn what is meant by “opposable thumb” and “forward-facing eyes” - Learn what having these characteristics allows primates to do

Background information: All primates have hands and feet with five and . Of these fingers/toes, the “big” one is considered “opposable”, meaning it can “oppose” the palm, i.e. touch across the hand. Opposable thumbs vastly increase grasping ability and allow primates to pick up small objects, climb trees, and catch prey.

Forward-facing eyes refer to eyes that are situated toward the front of the skull (e.g. as in people) as opposed to the sides (e.g. as in a horse). Forward-facing eyes allow overlapping visual fields, which results in depth perception, or the ability to judge distance. Many predators, such as cats and , also have forward-facing eyes, and it is thus thought that such eyes were originally an adaption to catching prey.

Materials: - primate photos - masking tape - cups - bananas - Ziploc bags - plastic knife - paper towels - primate skull and horse skull casts OR printout of pictures - toss-able objects (rolled up socks work well) - pen & paper

Activity 1: What types of animals are primates? 1. Ask if anyone knows what a primate is and listen to responses. 2. Hand out photographs of animals, some primates, some non-primates. 3. On the floor/board, make two columns, one for primates and one for non-primates. Put several example photos in each column. 4. Have students put their photo in the appropriate column. 5. If columns are mixed up, explain that it’s a tricky exercise but that there are some hints that can help determine if an is a primate.

Activity 2: Importance of opposable thumbs (“Thumbless Relay”) 1. Explain that primates have opposable thumbs and describe what an opposable thumb is. Demonstrate by folding thumb across palm. 2. Tape students’ thumbs to their palms with masking tape. 3. Divide students into groups and have each group complete the following activities without their thumbs [Assigning each person a task is an option, as is making it a relay race.] a. Open Ziploc bag containing banana b. Peel banana c. Cut banana into 10 pieces d. Pick up banana pieces and put into cup (all participate) e. Put banana peel into bag f. Close Ziploc bag

4. Optional: repeat tasks with thumbs. 5. Optional: add tasks for larger teams, or for a greater challenge. Suggested tasks: • Unscrew water bottle • Zip zipper (e.g. on a jacket) • Tie shoelace • Write a short phrase

Activity 3: Importance of forward-facing eyes (“Depth Perception Activity”) 1. Show skulls or photographs demonstrating what is meant by “forward-facing” eyes and explain that forward-facing eyes allow primates to judge distance. 2. Split group into partners 3. Demonstrate catching a sock with one hand, explain that students should throw underhand and not at people’s heads 4. Have each pair play toss with a sock, catching with one hand. Have each partner toss and catch 5 times (10 exchanges). Have a mentor record how many catches and how many misses. (See record-keeping sheet below.) 5. Have students cover one of their eyes and repeat the tossing. Record how many catches and how many misses. 6. Gather the data from each group (should be more misses with only one eye) and talk about why that is so (cannot judge the distance) and why that might be important for primates (movement in trees, ).

Primate

Not Primate a. Open Ziploc bag containing banana b. Peel banana c. Cut banana into 10 pieces d. Pick up banana pieces and put into cup (all participate) e. Put banana peel into bag f. Close Ziploc bag Partner 1:______Partner 2:______

Trial # Both eyes open: 1 eye open: (1 exchange = 1 trial) Miss? (Y/N) Miss? (Y/N) 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Partner 1:______Partner 2:______

Trial # Both eyes open: 1 eye open: (1 exchange = 1 trial) Miss? (Y/N) Miss? (Y/N) 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Activity 4: Primate habitats

Brief description: Primates are generalists in many ways, and habitats are no exception; while they are largely restricted to areas near the equator, beyond this requirement they are able to exploit a range of habitats, from to cities to tropical . That said, most species are adapted to forests, and widespread has taken its toll on many primate habitats. This lesson introduces students to the concept of a primate habitat and the threat of widespread habitat loss.

Lesson objectives: - Learn what is meant by the term “habitat”, and describe several types of habitats (e.g. , , grassland) - Observe some examples of primate habitats - Create a map depicting the ranges of several primates - Understand that lots of primate habitat is disappearing due to encroachment from humans

Background information: A habitat is – quite simply –where an organism , often phrased as the specific habitat type (e.g. forest) of a specific country or region (e.g. South America). Many habitat types as defined by WWF are listed on the accompanying handout; those in primate-inhabited regions include , dry forest, broadleaf forest, coniferous forest, grasslands/, and . An animal is considered “endemic” to a habitat if it lives nowhere else.

Some specific examples of primate habitats are also included.

Materials: - World map or board space to draw on - Blank binder-sized world maps - Colored pencils - Photos/videos of habitat loss

Activity: 1. Draw the various primate ranges on the large map and have students color in the ranges of the primates on their individual maps. 2. Show photographs or videos of habitat loss.

Some possible : • Write paragraphs about the specific primate habitat – about the countries in the range and any other interesting flora and fauna in the area, for example – and then play “Where in the world is [insert primate here]?”. That is, read (or select students to read) the clues out loud and have them think about where the habitat might be before revealing. • Emphasize primate to habitat. For example, have very long arms but short legs – adaptions for arboreal living; indeed, they live in the upper canopy of the rainforest and rarely descend to the ground. Primate diet also relate to habitat. • Discuss evolutionary history and how the current distribution of primates came about (such as rafting to Madagascar and the New World).

Describing Primate Habitat Types Major terrestrial habitat types - Moist forest/rainforest • Wet! >200cm rain/ - Dry forest Extant primate ranges • Seasonal droughts - Broadleaf forest • Trees have leaves, not needles - Coniferous forest • Trees have cones and needle-like leaves - Grasslands/savannas Tropic of Cancer • Mostly grass, with some gallery forests (trees along water source) - Deserts Equator • Very dry, temperature extremes due to lack of Extant primate ranges: insulation from clouds/humidity - Tropical Tropic of Capricorn • Located along the Equator - Subtropical • Located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn - Temperate • Located between the of Cancer/ ______Capricorn and the polar circles Photos: http://wwf.panda.org/_core/general.cfc?method=getOriginalImage&uImgID=%26*R4%27%22N%27%3F%0A http://wwf.panda.org/_core/general.cfc?method=getOriginalImage&uImgID=%26*R4%27%22N%236%0A http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4e/Non-human_primate_range.png Pick the terms and combine! Some specific primate habitats:

Zanzibar monkey Africa ! Southeast Zanzibar !Rainforest, agricultural/fallow land due to habitat loss (IUCN status: Endangered)

Brown mouse lemur Africa ! West coast of Madagascar ! all types of forest (e.g. rain, spiny) (IUCN status: Least concern) Some specific primate habitats:

Black-handed spider monkey (Geoffrey’s spider monkey) Central America !Rainforest ! Upper canopy (IUCN status: Endangered)

Golden lion South America ! Southeast Brazil !Rainforest (IUCN status: Endangered) Some specific primate habitats:

Rhesus Asia ! Forest, semi-desert, urban areas (IUCN status: Least concern)

White-handed gibbon Southeast Asia! Rainforest!Upper canopy (IUCN status: Endangered) Some specific primate habitats:

Bonobo Africa ! Democratic Republic of the Congo ! Rainforests (IUCN status: Endangered)

Lowland gorilla Africa ! Tropical forest, including swamp forest (IUCN status: Critically endangered) Case study of habitat loss: Madagascar

- 10% of original forests remain - 80-90% of land area burned each year - Slash and burn agriculture practiced for farming, especially for rice - Land also burned for cattle grazing - Root cause? Poverty; 85% of population makes less than $2 a day!

Name:______

Primate ecology overview

I am studying the ______, (primate species) which is found in ______(habitat) of ______. (country and continent).

______(primate species) spend most of their time______, (part of the habitat) so they are considered______. (terrestrial or arboreal)

______(primate species) are active ______, (time of day) so they are ______. (activity pattern)

______(primate species) eat______(food items) so are considered______. (diet type)

______(primate species) are ______and efforts should be made to protect them. (conservation status)

page ____ Name:______

Primate ecology overview

I am studying the ______, (primate species) which is found in ______(habitat) of ______. (country and continent).

______(primate species) spend most of their time______, (part of the habitat) so they are considered______. (terrestrial or arboreal)

______(primate species) are active ______, (time of day) so they are ______. (activity pattern)

______(primate species) eat______(food items) so are considered______. (diet type)

______(primate species) are currently considered “______“, but they may become (conservation status) endangered without efforts to protect them.

page ____

Ecology of selected primate species

Habitat Country Continent Terrestrial/ Diurnal/ Food items Diet type Conservation Arboreal Nocturnal consumed status Forests (all Madagascar Africa Arboreal Nocturnal Fruit, , nectar, Least concern types: rain, insects spiny, degraded) Zanzibar red Rainforests Southeast Africa Arboreal Diurnal Leaves (>50%), unripe - Endangered colobus monkey Zanzibar fruit Black-handed Rainforests Mexico, Central Arboreal Diurnal Mostly fruit (about 80%), Omnivore Endangered spider monkey Belize, America also young leaves, flowers, Costa Rica, seeds, decaying wood, El Salvador, honey, insects Guatemala, (occasionally) Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama Golden Rainforests Southeast South Arboreal Diurnal Fruits, flowers, insects, Omnivore Endangered Brazil America small (e.g. ), nectar, , gum (when other food scarce) Forest, Southern Asia Either, Diurnal sources: crops, OMNIVORE! Least Concern semi- Asia, depending garbage; Other: fruits, desert, including on habitat flowers, leaves, seeds, urban Afghanistan, gums, grass, eggs, areas Pakistan, shellfish, fish , Nepal, Myanmar, China, etc White-handed Rainforests SE Asia: Asia Arboreal Diurnal Mostly fruit (about 60%, Omnivore Endangered gibbon China, especially figs), also Myanmar, leaves, flowers, shoots, Thailand, vines, insects, eggs Malaysia, Indonesia Bonobo Rainforests Democratic Africa Arboreal Diurnal >50% fruit & seeds, also Omnivore Endangered Republic of leaves, flowers, pith, the Congo insects, small (), eggs, honey Lowland gorilla Tropical Gabon, Africa Terrestrial, Diurnal Fruit (67%), also leaves, Omnivore Critically forest, Cameroon, but must shoots, pith, insects (ants, endangered including Congo, climb trees ) swamp Central to access forest African fruit Republic, Equitorial Guinea

Ecology of selected primates, continued

Main threats Group Interesting facts: size Brown mouse Habitat loss, Solitary - Brown mouse lemurs weigh about 50 grams, or the equivalent of 10 nickels. lemur though foragers - BML sleep in tree hollows. appear to be that - Mouse lemurs are likely the most widespread, abundant, and adaptable lemur species. adaptable gather at group sleeping sites of 15-ish Zanzibar red Habitat loss 5-50 - The ZRCM is a type of monkey called a “colobine”. Colobines eat primarily leaves and have colobus monkey (agriculture, specialized stomachs to process plant material. logging, - Because of the specialized, four-chamber stomach, ZRCM cannot digest the sugars of ripe fruit. development) - The name “colobus” comes from a Greek word that means “cut short”, as colobus monkeys have highly reduced stumpy thumbs and hooked fingers for grasping branches. Black-handed Habitat loss 16-24 - Spider monkeys have prehensile tails, which they use has a fifth digit during suspensory feeding spider monkey (agriculture), - Spider monkeys are important seed dispersers in the forests they inhabit. hunting - Spider monkeys live in the upper canopy and are highly arboreal, often traveling through (food, pet trade) Golden lion Habitat loss 2-16 - Tamarins have re-evolved claw-like nails, which allow them to cling vertically to tree trunks. tamarin (logging, - Tamarins give to twins most of the time, and usually two males help the female care for the agriculture, infants development) - Groups sleep in tree hollows or dense vines to avoid predation. - GLT were at one point considered critically endangered, but wild populations have since been resuscitated through reintroduction of captive individuals Rhesus macaque Biomedical 8-180 - Humans are the only primate with a broader distribution. research - are skilled swimmers and will enter water to forage, escape from danger, cool off, or play. - Macaques are frequently used in biomedical research. - A free-ranging colony was established on the island of Cayo Santiago (Puerto Rico) in 1938, and since then their behavior has been intensely studied. - In India, macaques live in temples and are fed by locals as a form of worship. - Macaques are super, super adaptable! White-handed Hunting 2-5 - Group usually consists of mated pair and offspring. Generally monogamous, or serially gibbon (food, pet monogamous. trade), - Pairs sing elaborate duets to each other to maintain contact and advertise their . habitat loss - Gibbons are quite adept at moving through the trees, especially by using brachiation (arm (road swinging). Several adaptations for this lifestyle include: curved hands, long fingers, and a ball- construction, and-socket wrist joint. - Gibbons sometimes move bipedally on branches and characteristically hold their hands above plantations, their heads when doing so. agriculture) Bonobo Habitat loss 30-80 - are very closely related to , and together they are our closest living relatives. (logging, - Despite their close relation to chimps, bonobos exhibit many marked differences, such as: female agriculture), dominance, opportunistic hunting (not hunting parties), and absence of intraspecific killing. Physically, they are more gracile, have black faces, and their hair parts to the sides of their heads. trade, civil They are also the most predisposed for of the other great apes. warfare - Bonobos settle disputes and strengthen bonds by sexual behavior. - The name “bonobo” is meaningless and probably comes from a misspelling of “Bolobo” (Zaire) seen on a shipping crate. Lowland gorilla Habitat loss 2-20 - Gorillas are very susceptible to bushmeat trade because gorilla meat considered a symbol of (logging, wealth and prestige. agriculture), - Western gorillas are smaller and lighter than eastern gorillas because they feed on fruit in trees. virus, - Compared to Eastern mountain gorillas, western gorillas have shorter hair and brown (not black) bushmeat hair on their heads trade - When on the ground, gorillas display knuckle-walking. - Koko, a WLG, knows more than 1000 signs in American sign !

Activity 5: Primate diets

Brief description: Primates are quite generalistic feeders; most species are truly omnivorous. This diet- making activity introduces students to the terms that describe primate diet types and to the composition of their assigned primate’s diet.

Lesson objectives: - Understand how to classify primate diet types into 3 main categories: herbivore, frugivore, (or combination of these) - Understand that despite these categories, primates are generally omnivorous.

Background information: - Primate diet definitions • Omnivorous – eats a mix of all food types; applies to most primates • Folivorous – eats mostly leaves • Frugivorous – eats mostly fruits • Insectivorous – eats mostly insects • Diets can also be described by combining these terms, e.g. frugivore-folivore

Materials: - Primate food pyramid hand-outs - Array of possible primate foods (prepared ahead of time): • Lettuce • Celery • Grapes • Figs • Raspberries • Sunflower seeds • Agave nectar • Gummy insects • Edible flowers • Hard-boiled egg slices - Large Tupperware containers - Bowls, forks, napkins

Activity: 1. Talk about the classifications of diets, and ask students to list everything they ate in the previous day. Are humans generally omnivorous, folivorous, frugivorous, or insectivorous? 2. Give each student a food pyramid for their primate and explain that the base of the diet should be composed of the food material in the largest level. 3. Take turns making salads. Tell students that they can add extra items to their salad after they make one representative of their primate first (students will likely want more fruit, eggs, and gummy insects!).

Sixth-graders foraging Name______Date______

Yesterday I ate:

So I am a(n):

Spider monkeys eat:

Seeds, honey, insects

Leaves & flowers

Ripe fruit Example: figs

So they are: page ___ Name______Date______

Yesterday I ate:

So I am a(n):

White-handed gibbons eat:

Flowers, insects, eggs

Leaves

Ripe fruit Example: figs

So they are: page ___

Name______Date______

Yesterday I ate:

So I am a(n):

Bonobos eat:

Insects, small mammals, eggs, honey

Leaves, flowers, pith

Fruit and seeds

So they are: page ___ Name______Date______

Yesterday I ate:

So I am a(n):

Red colobus eat:

Unripe fruit

Leaves (young and mature)

So they are: page ___ Name______Date______

Yesterday I ate:

So I am a(n):

Mouse lemurs eat:

Flowers & nectar

Insects (example: beetles)

Fruit

So they are: page ___ Name______Date______

Yesterday I ate:

So I am a(n):

Western lowland gorillas eat:

Insects (example: ants & termites)

Leaves, shoots, pith

Fruit

So they are: page ___ Name______Date______

Yesterday I ate:

So I am a(n):

Rhesus macaques eat:

Insects, fish, shellfish, eggs

Leaves, grass, roots

Fruit & seeds

So they are: page ___ Activity 6: Are you smarter than a chimp? A brief demonstration of primate cognition

Brief description: Primates display the ability to make and use tools more so than other types of animals. For example, chimpanzees, one of our closest relatives, use stones to crack nuts and sticks to “fish” for termites. The following demonstration shows a way that chimps solve a problem in which a peanut is trapped at the bottom of a narrow, immovable graduated cylinder.

Lesson objectives: - Learn that a chimpanzee is a primate that is very closely related to humans - Learn that chimpanzees use tools to solve foraging problems - Attempt to solve a foraging problem using available tools

Background information: While some primates such as capuchin monkeys have been observed using tools in the wild, most evidence of wild primate tool use comes from chimpanzees. For example, chimps use stone hammers and anvils in order to crack nuts and will modify sticks, insert them into mounds, and then slowly draw them out as the soldier termites attack the foreign object. Chimpanzees and bonobos (smaller chimp look-alikes) are humans’ closest relatives, and their remarkable cognitive abilities illustrate our commonalities.

In the presented problem, the easiest solution involves pouring water into the cylinder, which allows the peanut to float to the top.

Materials:

• projector and/or laptop computer • following video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q40YgjU1cs8 • tall, plastic graduated cylinder or water bottles affixed to table (Nalgenes & duct tape work well) • whole peanuts/marshmallows/apple slices (anything that floats!) • assortment of possible tools: pitcher of water, chopsticks, yarn, short spoons

Activity: Are you smarter than a chimp?

1. Tell students that their challenge is to get the food item out of the water bottle without un- taping it from the table. They can use any of the tools presented. If they easily extract the food, challenge them to invent a second (or third!) technique.

2. At the end, show the video showing how the chimp solves the problem. Assumes that basic supplies such as pencils and paper are supplied. Item: Used in: Plywood, 1/8 -1/4'' thick, about 10 ft x 4 ft, cut into thirds Mural Poster paint - red Mural Poster paint - blue Mural Poster paint - yellow Mural Poster paint - brown Mural Poster paint - green Mural Pack of paintbrushes (set of 25) Mural Paint containers (e.g. yogurt cups) Mural Posterboard Mural (drawing primates, info cards) Scissors Mural (cutting out drawn primates) Elmer's glue Mural (gluing on drawn primates) Colored pencils Habitats Glue sticks Primate Family Tree Popsicle sticks Picking volunteers Potting soil Planting peas Peas Planting peas/reward tokens Tupperware containers (large, circular, set of 4) Primate Diets Celery (one bunch) Primate Diets Seedless grapes (one bag) Primate Diets Baby romaine lettuce (carton) Primate Diets Figs (carton) Primate Diets Sunflower seeds (.12 lb) Primate Diets Sour candy worms (1 small bag) Primate Diets Raspberries (carton) Primate Diets Edible flowers Primate Diets Egg Primate Diets Bananas What is a primate? (Thumbless Relay) Masking tape What is primate? (Thumbless Relay) Cutting board What is a primate? (Thumbless Relay) Plastic knives What is a primate? (Thumbless Relay) Ziploc bags What is a primate? (Thumbless Relay) Graduate cylinders/Nalgenes & duct tape Are you smarter than a chimp? Mini marshmallows Are you smarter than a chimp? Variety of possible tools (chopsticks, straws, forks, yarn, pitcher of water)Are you smarter than a chimp? Amount used for 7 students: Price each: Amount purchased: Total amount spent: all 9.67 1 9.67 1/2 - 3/4 bottle 1.99 2 3.98 1/2 - 3/4 bottle 1.99 2 3.98 1/2 - 3/4 bottle 1.99 2 3.98 1/2 - 3/4 bottle 1.99 1 1.99 1/2 - 3/4 bottle 1.99 3 5.97 most 4.99 1 4.99

4-5 sheets 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 all 2.85 2 5.7 half 1.79 1 1.79 most 4.98 1 4.98 most 1.74 1 1.74 all 3.99 1 3.99 all 0.6 1 0.6 all 1.69 1 1.69 all 3.49 1 3.49 all 3.99 1 3.99 all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

&RJQLWLRQ:UDS 0XUDO:RUN'D\ 'D\ 'LHWV 'D\ 0XUDO:RUN'D\ 'D\ 0XUDO:RUN'D\ 'D\ XS 'D\ $UH\RXVPDUWHU 'UDZSULPDWHV 'LHWPDNLQJ 3DLQWLQJ 3DLQWLQJ WKDQDFKLPS" 3ULPDWHHFRORJ\ :ULWHXSURXJK :ULWHXSILQDO 3RVWFRXUVH 3DLQWLQJ QRWHVKHHW GUDIWV GUDIWV VXUYH\ :KDWLV FRQVHUYDWLRQ" )LQLVKPXUDO 3UHVHQWDWLRQV Note: these schedules represent what fit into the allotted class time during the pilot course, plus some reorgnization -- activities may be further rearranged, certain lessons may be emphasized (or taken out), et cetera! Day 1 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-8:35 - Welcome Instructions on board: - Introduce warm-up routine (directions on 1. Find a seat with an item. board) 2. Observe the item - look, touch, listen, smell! 3. On the blank paper: - Draw item - Write 3 COMPLETE sentences describing it - What you think it is? What is it used for?

8:35-8:45 - Activity 1: Practice being a scientist! - Primate-related items - Blank paper - Colored pencils - Measuring tools - Photographs/videos (see Activity 1 for details)

8:45-9:00 - Teacher introduction - Rule sheet - Student introductions: name - Table of contents - Gorilla troop rules (silverback metaphor) - Peas/other tokens and containers to put - Explain peas them in

9:00-9:10 - Pre-course survey - Survey

9:10-9:20 - Debrief warm-up: what is item? how might it - Photographs/videos relate to primates? - Talk about what items are with photographs showing how items pertain to primates (e.g. primates using tools, eating coconuts, observing primates)

9:20-9:25 - End-of-class reflection - Write 1 thing you - End-of-class reflection sheet learned today AND 1 thing you want to learn in the next two weeks. (Complete sentences with correct capitalization and punctuation!) EXTRA -Talk about mural - Board space to write on TIME - Notes page for students - What is a primate? (I) - Supplies for individual primate family tree 1. Mammal 2. Prosimians vs. anthropoids

- Individual primate family tree

Day 2 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE

8:30-8:35 - Warm-up - Warm-up question, such as: • List as many primates as you can • List the first five words you think of when you hear the word “primate”. “Monkey”? “Ape”?

8:35-8:40 - Recap: • Names • Rules • Routines

8:40-8:55 - Notes -- What is a primate? (I) - What is a primate? (I) – Student version - What is a primate? (I) – Teacher version

8:55-9:20 - Activity 2: Primate family tree - Blank primate family trees - Primate photographs - Glue sticks see Activity 2 for details

9:20-9:25 - End-of-class reflection - End-of-class reflection sheets

EXTRA - Explain final project - Large (poster-board-sized) primate family TIME - Complete large primate family tree tree with removable photos and labels (e.g. - Assign primates for final project “Prosimian”, “Anthropoid”, “Apes”, “OWM”, “NWM”, “Lemurs”, etc.) - Popsicle sticks Day 3 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-8:45 - Warm-up: Complete large primate family tree - Large (poster-board-sized) primate family - Assign primates: Have each student put a tree with removable photos and labels (e.g. primate on the family tree, as determined by “Prosimian”, “Anthropoid”, “Apes”, “OWM”, drawing popsicle. The primate placed on the “NWM”, “Lemurs”, etc.) tree is the student’s primate for the final - Popsicle sticks project. - Explain final project.

8:45-8:55 - Notes -- What is a primate? (II) – Primate - What is a primate? (II) – Student version characteristics - What is a primate? (II) – Teacher version • Grasping hands and opposable thumb

8:55-9:10 - Activity 3: What is a primate? (Thumbless - Bananas relay) - Ziploc bags - Plastic knives, paper towels - Optional items See Activity 3 for details

9:10-9:20 - Notes – What is a primate? (II) - What is a primate? (II) – Student version • Forward-facing eyes - What is a primate? (II) – Teacher version

9:20-9:25 - End-of-class reflection - End-of-class reflection sheets

EXTRA - Activity 3: What is a primate? (Depth - Rolled-up socks TIME perception activity) - Record-keeping sheet See Activity 3 for details

Day 4 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-8:45 - Warm-up: Depth perception activity - Rolled-up socks - Record-keeping sheet - Board space for tally See Activity 3 for details

8:45-8:55 - Notes -- What is a primate? (II) – Primate - What is a primate? (II) – Student version characteristics - What is a primate? (II) – Teacher version • Nails, not claws • Bigger brains relative to body size

8:55-9:15 - Activity 4: Primate habitats - Individual world maps • Draw habitats on individual maps - Large map/board space to draw on - Video of primate habitats? - Colored pencils - Video of primate habitat loss? See Activity 4 for details - OR: Show photos of sample primate habitat - Video? - Primate habitat photos

9:15-9:25 - Conservation game, e.g. web of life - Conservation videos

EXTRA - End-of-class reflection - End-of-class reflection sheets TIME

Day 5 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-8:40 - Mural planning, in groups: Habitat background - Blank paper, pencils

8:40-8:50 - Drawing habitat outlines on mural - Pencils

8:50-9:20 - Painting mural background - Old newspapers - Paint - Paintbrushes - Paint containers - Water for rinsing brushes

9:20-9:25 - Clean-up

Day 6 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-8:50 - Warm-up: Draw primate on posterboard - Posterboard - Colored pencils

8:50-9:20 - Painting mural background - Old newspapers - Paint - Paintbrushes - Paint containers - Water for rinsing brushes

9:20-9:25 - Clean-up

Day 7 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-8:35 - Warm-up - Warm-up question: • List everything you ate yesterday. - Diet handouts (see Activity 5)

8:45-9:05 - Activity 5: Primate diets - Food - Tupperware containers - Spoons, forks, napkins see Activity 5 for details

9:05 – 9:20 - Discuss primate ecology (e.g. - Primate ecology notes – Student copies diurnal/nocturnal, terrestrial/arboreal) • Two versions: one for “least concern” - Fill in blanks of primate ecology notes primates, one for “endangered” - Discuss conservation again, e.g. IUCN - Primate ecology table – Teacher categories

9:20-9:25 - End-of-class reflection - End-of-class reflection sheets

EXTRA - Start rough drafts of info write-ups TIME

Day 8 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-8:35 - Warm-up - Warm-up question: • Why are many primates endangered? • What are ways to solve the problem?

8:35-9:00 - Painting & “office hours” for each student to - Old newspapers find out interesting facts about assigned project - Paint (students take notes and incorporate facts into - Paintbrushes write-up) - Paint containers - Water for rinsing brushes - Primate ecology table – Teacher

9:00-9:25 - Rough drafts of primate write-ups - Primate ecology notes – Student copies

EXTRA - Start final copies of write-ups after checked by - Posterboard TIME teacher - Pens

Day 9 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-9:15 - Last mural work-day! - Old newspapers • Painting - Paint • Final copies of write-ups - Paintbrushes • Coloring, cutting out primates - Paint containers - Water for rinsing brushes - Posterboard - Pens - Colored pencils - Scissors

9:15-9:25 - Post-course survey - Course survey

EXTRA - Plant peas - Potting soil TIME - Prize distribution - Prizes - Popsicle sticks

Day 10 Schedule TIME PLAN OF ACTION WHAT TO PREPARE/MATERIALS

8:30-8:35 - Warm-up: Glue primate cut-outs to mural - Cut-outs - Glue

8:35-8:50 - Activity 6: Are you smarter than a chimp? - Graduated cylinders/Nalgenes & duct tape - Peanuts/marshmallows/apple pieces - Possible tools - Video & projector see Activity 6 for details

8:50-9:20 - Presentations!

9:20-9:25 - Plant peas - Potting soil - Prize distribution - Prizes - Popsicle sticks