Erin M. Dugan, Ph.D., LPC-S, RPT/S Adrianne L. Frischhertz, Ph.D., LPC-S, RPT/S Karen Taheri, LPC, NCC, RPT What is Attachment? …special emotional relationship that involves an exchange of comfort, care, and pleasure.
Freud’s beginnings… Bowlby’s credits…. What is Attachment? "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194).
“…early experiences in childhood have an important influence on development and behavior later in life.”
"The propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular individuals [is] a basic component of human nature" (Bowlby, 1988, 3). How Do You Assess Your Client’s Attachment Style in Play Therapy? Parent’s Report Observations of Child Assessments Not at all VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6bul1meciGE
4 Distinguishing Characteristics Proximity Maintenance - The desire to be near the people we are attached to. Safe Haven - Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat. Secure Base - The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the child can explore the surrounding environment. Separation Distress - Anxiety that occurs in the absence of the attachment figure. BOWLBY
Bowlby’s Attachment 10 Basic Tenets of Attachment Theory Intrinsic motivation Security equals enhanced autonomy Security offers a safe haven Attachment offers a secure base Accessibility and responsibility builds bonds Fear and uncertainty activate attachment needs Separation distress is predictable Insecure forms of engagement can be identified Separation and loss are traumatizing Working models of self and others Johnson & Whiffen, 2003 Review of Attachment
Attachment Theory Goal-Corrected Behavioral System Sense of Felt Security Emergence of Self Autonomous Self Formation of Attachment Representational Models Internal Working Models Development of Self and Self and Others Intergenerational Attachment Styles Internal/External Factors Ainsworth “further expanded upon Bowlby's groundbreaking work in her now-famous "Strange Situation" study.”
The study involved observing children between the ages of 12 to 18 months responding to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mother (Ainsworth, 1978). Ainsworth and Main & Solomon Ainsworth secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment.
Main and Solomon (1986) added a fourth attachment disorganized-insecure attachment.
“these early attachment styles can help predict behaviors later in life.” Strange Situation Videos… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTsewNrHUHU
Studies also report…. “Researchers Hazen and Shaver (1987) found a number of different beliefs about relationships amongst adults with differing attachment styles. Securely attached adults tend to believe that romantic love is enduring. Ambivalently attached adults report falling in love often, while those with avoidant attachment styles describe love as rare and temporary.”
Kendra Cherry – About.com Research States… Studies show that there are correlations between the attachment representation of the parents, their observable behavior in caregiving and the interaction between their infants and the later development of attachment quality in their children. (Grossmann, Grossmann, & Zimmermann, 1999, p. 760-786) Research Shows… Children with secure attachment styles are: More socially adept Have enhanced cognitive abilities Are more competent in problem-solving Are more independent Have a more positive self-concept
Johnson & Whiffen, 2003; Levy & Orlans, 1998 The Clinician’s Tools
• Adult Scale of Parental Attachment (ASPA; Snow, Martin, & Helm, 2008)
Theraplay (Jernberg, 1993b)
• The Marschak Interaction Method Rating System (MIM-RS; O’Connor, Ammen, Hitchcock, & Backman, 2004)
• Filial Problem Checklist (Horner, 1974)
• Child Parent Relationship Training (CPRT; Landreth & Bratton, 2006)
Attachment Styles Secure Insecure MIM-RS Secure Insecure Ambivalent Disorganized ASPA Safe Dependent Parentified Distant Fearful
ASPA Adult Scale of Parental Attachment 5 Subscales Safe Dependent Parentified Distant Fearful The Adult Scale of Parental Attachment Safe. This pattern measures the extent to which the child felt the relation provided comfort and security. A child with a safe pattern of relating may have experienced confidence in the parent’s availability and support. Dependent. This pattern measures the extent to which the child felt a need for the parent to be available. A child with a dependent pattern of relating may have experienced helplessness and uncertainty when the parent was not available. Snow et al., 2008 The Adult Scale of Parental Attachment Parentified. This pattern measures the extent to which the child felt responsible for meeting the parent’s needs. A child with a parentified pattern of relating may have experienced feelings of importance and enjoyed being helpful Distant. This pattern measures the extent to which the child experienced disappointment in the parent’s support and availability. A child with a Distant pattern of relating may have experienced a need to distance from the parent and may have experienced anger toward the parent.
Snow et al, 2008 The Adult Scale of Parental Attachment Fearful. This pattern measures the extent to which the child experienced a fear of abandonment and a belief that the parent would not be available for support. A child with a fearful pattern of relating may have experienced anger toward the parent or frustration with the parent.
Snow et al, 2008
MIM-RS Marschak Interaction Method Rating System 4 Dimensions Structure Engage Nurture Challenge MIM-RS 8 Summary Rating Mother’s Ability to Structure, Challenge, Engage, Nurture, Facilitate Child’s Regulatory Processes Child’s Ability to Demonstrate Exploratory Behaviors, Reciprocity with Their Parents, and Regulatory Behaviors INFLUENCE OF ATTACHMENT ON PLAY THERAPY Determining the attachment style of the primary caregiver is important to issues concerning play therapy. Determining the attachment style of the child through an MIM-RS influences the direction of play therapy. Attachment issues in play therapy can influence the success of play therapy. Psychosocial History Info Intake interview helps the therapist understand the following types of questions (Jernberg, 1993b, 47-48): What kind of world was the child born into? How did the marriage come about? What kind of world greeted each of his or her parents? What is this marriage like today? What about siblings? What is the degree of emotional overlay? What are the most effective methods for instituting growth?
Filial Problem Checklist Horner, 1974 Measure the effectiveness of filial in reducing children’s problematic behaviors by comparing pre-test and post-test scores. Not true for my child Some: do not view as problem Viewed as moderate problem Severe problem
Filial Therapy Goal of Filial Therapy “To allow parents to become the primary change agents as they learn to conduct child-centered play sessions with their own children.” (VanFleet, p.1, 2005) Filial Therapy Core Values
◦ Honesty - Relationship ◦ Humility - Playfulness and humor ◦ Openness - Emotional expression ◦ Collaboration - Family strength ◦ Respect - Balance ◦ Genuineness - Empathy, acceptance, ◦ Empowerment, self-understanding efficacy, education
(Ginsberg, 2003, L.F. Guerney, 997, 2003b; VanFleet, 2004) Filial Therapy Goals for Children….
Goals for Parents…
Goals for Child –Parent Relationship…
(VanFleet, R., 2005, p.4)
Summary Eliminate the presenting problems at their sources Develop positive interactions between parents and their children Increase families’ communication, coping, and problem-solving skills so they are better able to handle future problems independently and successfully (VanFleet, R., 2005, p.4) Filial Therapy Skills Structuring
Child Centered Imaginary Play
Limit-Setting (VanFleet, R., 2005, p.4) Child Parent Relationship Therapy Objectives ◦ Play = child’s language ◦ Communication of experiences, thoughts, feelings, and wishes ◦ “keen observers” of child ◦ Learning to understand that the child’s play provides you with a window to your child’s world ◦ Child feels better = child behaves better Landreth & Bratton, 2006
Child Parent Relationship Therapy Goals Tools that parents need to better understand their child Strengthens the parent child relationship Parent regains control Child develops self-control Effective discipline
Landreth & Bratton, 2006 Child Parent Relationship Therapy Skills - Reflective Responding - Limit Setting - Empowerment - Encouragement - Esteem Building Responses - Rules of Thumb Landreth & Bratton, 2006 Child Parent Relationship Therapy Rules of Thumb - Focus on the donut, not the hole - Be a thermostat, not a thermometer! - What’s most important may not be what you do, but what you do after what you did! - The parent’s toes should follow his/her nose! - You can’t give away which you don’t posses! - “Be With” Attitudes - When a child is drowning, don’t try to teach her to swim! - If you can’t say it in 10 words or less, don’t say it! (Landreth & Bratton, 2006)
References Grossmann, K.E., Grossmann, K.., & Zimmermann, P. (1999). A wider view of attachment and exploration: Stability and change during the year of immaturity. In J. Cassidy & P.R. Shaver (Eds). Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 760-786. Horner, P. (1974). Dimensions of child behavior as described by parents: A monotonicity analysis. Unpublished masters thesis, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, PA. Landreth, G.L. & Bratton, S. C. (2006). Child parent relationship therapy (CPRT): A 1-session filial therapy model. New York, NY: Routledge. O’Connor, K., Ammen, S., Hitchcock, D., & Backman, T. (2004). The MIM Rating System Administration and Scoring Manual. Fresno, CA. Snow, M. Sullivan, K., Martin, E., Helm, H. (in review). The adult scale of attachment: Psychometric properties, factor analysis and multidimensional scaling in two studies. Journal of Attachment & Human Development. VanFleet, R. (2005). Strengthening parent-child relationships through play. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
References Bratton, S. C., & Landreth, G. (1995). Filial therapy with single parents: Effects on parental acceptance, empathy, and stress. International Journal of Play Therapy, 4(1), 61-80. Chau, I. Y., & Landreth, G. L. (1997). Filial therapy with Chinese parents: Effects on parental empathic interactions, parental acceptance of child and parental stress. International Journal of Play Therapy, 6(2), 75-92. Costas, M., & Landreth, G. (1999). Filial therapy with nonoffending parents of children who have been sexually abused. International Journal of Play Therapy, 8(1), 43-66. Glass, N. (1986). Parents as therapeutic agents: A study of the effects of filial therapy (Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Texas, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, A 47 (07), 2457. Glover, G. & Landreth, G. (2001). Filial therapy with Native Americans on the Flathead Reservation. International Journal of Play Therapy, 9(2), 57-80 Jang, M. (2000). Effectiveness of filial therapy for Korean parents. International Journal of Play Therapy, 9(2), 39-56. Johnson, S., & Whiffen, V. (2003). Attachment processes in couple and family therapy. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Lahti, S. L. (1992). An ethnographic study of the filial therapy process (Doctoral Dissertation, University of North Texas, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International, A 53 (08), 2691. Levy, T., & Orlans, M. (1998). Attachment, trauma, and healing: Understanding and treating attachment disorder in children and families. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America, Inc. www.play-therapy.com (2007.)“Play and Culture” Rise Van Fleet
Ainsworth, M.; Blehar, M.; Waters, E.; and Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of Attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment and Loss, Vol. 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Bowlby, J. (1979). The Making and Breaking of Affectional Bonds. London: Tavistock.
Bowlby, J. (1988). A Secure Base. New York: Basic Books.
Feeney, J. A.; Noller, P.; and Patty, J. (1993). "Adolescents' Interactions with the Opposite Sex: Influence of Attachment Style and Gender." Journal of Adolescence 16, 169–186.
Hazen, C. & Shaver, P. (1987) Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511-524.
Main, M. & Cassidy, J. (1988) "Categories of response to reunion with the parent at age 6: predictable from infant attachment classifications and stable over a 1-month period. Developmental Psychology 24, 415-426.
Main, M., & Hesse, E. (1990). Parents' unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened/frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E. M. Cummings (Eds.), Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research, and Intervention, 161-182. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Diagrams and figures obtained online via aboutus.com Kendra Cherry