Chapter 28 , Post-Impressionism, Syypmbolism: and America, 1870 to 1900 Selections from: Chapter 34 , 1336 to 1980 ƒ3rd quarter of – 2nd . ƒ1st – , steam, iron ƒ2nd – steel,,y,, electricity, chemicals, oil: foundation for plastics, machinery, construction, and automobiles. of radio, electric light, telephone, and electric streetcar shortly followed. ƒURBANIZATION – farmers with less land were squeezed from . ƒWork opportunities in factories, improved health/living conditions in cities. MARXISM and DARWINISM ƒ19th century empiricists, believed scientific, rational law governed . ƒMarx –economic forces based on cl ass st ruggl e iidnduced hihitstori cal change. ƒGermans living in , Marx and Engles wrote the communist Manifesto in 1848, advocating the creation of a socialist state – working class seized power and destroyed . ƒDarwin challenged religious beliefs by postulating a competitive system where only fittest survive – contributed to growing secularism. : Herbert Spencer applied Darwinism to rapidly developing socioeconomic realm – justified colonization of less advanced peoples and cultures. ƒBy 1900 major economic and political powers divided up much of the world. French colonized N. and Indochina; Br itish occupied India, , Nigeria, , Sudan, Rhodesia, Union of South Africa; Dutch were a majjpor presence in Pacific . . . : Darwin’s ideas of evolution, Marx’s emphasis on continuing sequence of conflicts – acute sense of world’s impermanence and constantlyygy shifting reality. ƒModernists transcend simple depiction of contemporary world (), they examine premises of itself (Manet in Le Dejejner l’Herbe). ƒ wrote, “The limitations that constitute the medium of – the flat surface, the shape of the support, the properties of the pigment . . . Modernist painting has come to regard . . . as positive factors that are to be acknowledged openly.” „ had a profound impact on late 19th century painting „ Plein-air painting dominates much of Impressionist art „ Post-Impressionists reacted against what they saw as the ephemeral of Impressionist painting. „ Symbolist painters seek to portray mystical personal visions. „ In the 19th century the skyscraper was born as a result of new technologg,ical advances, the of the elevator, and the rise of land values. „ seeks to create a unified artistic experience combining painting, , and ; it relies on organic forms and s.

Movement Dates Impressionism 1872-1880s Post-Impressionism 1880s- 1890s Art Nouveau 1890s-1914 „ Avant-garde: an innovative group of who generally reject traditional approaches in favor of a more experimental technique „ : an attraction for Japanese art and artifacts that were imported into Europe in the late nineteenth century „ Modernism: a movement begun in the late 19th century in which artists. embraced the current at the expense of the traditional in both subject matter and in media. Modernist often seek to question the very nature of art itself. „ Plein-air: painting in the outdoors to directly capture the effects of light and atmosphere on a give object „ : a painting technique that uses small dots of color that are combined by the eye at a given distance. „ Primitive or naïve artist: an artist without formal training; a folk ar tis t. is a pri miti ve arti st „ Skeleton: the supporting framework of a building „ Zoopraxiscope: a device created by Eadweard Muybridge that projects sequences of photographs to give the illusion of movement ƒHostile critic named movement in response to Monet’s ppgainting in 1st Imppyressionist show in 1874. By 3rd show in 1878, the artists embraced their title. ƒBefore the term was used for sketches, whose qualities apply to Impressionist : abbreviation, speed, spontaneity, sensation, impermanence, and the “fleeting moment” – artists’ sensations, subjective and personal responses to nature. ƒModernist art opposed to , Royal . Membership and annual exhibitions, “Salons,” were highly competitive. Government subsidized – traditional subjects and polished technique. ƒDissatisfaction jurors led III to establish de Refuses (Rejected). Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass was displayed, entire exhibit was panned by public. ƒIn 1867 after more rejections, Manet mounted private exhibit outside World’s Fair. 6 years later, Monet and Impressionists formed own society and held exhibitions from 1874 – 1886. In 1884 Salon of Independent Artists was founded. Venues increased, along with new art forms/styles. ƒPainting – focus on light and color – instantaneous representation of atmosphere and climate. Scientific studies of light and chemically synthesized pigments increased artists’ sensitivity to multiplicity of colors in nature. ƒLocal color is modified by light shining on it, reflections of other objects. ƒShadows do not appear gray or black, but are modified by reflections . . . ƒSeries of paintings of the same subject done at different times of day/days of the year. ƒMeant to hang together for effect. were the first series paintings to hang as a group; some thirty were painted, fifteen hung in the original exhibition. ƒ side by side intensify. “Mixed” by juxtaposing colors – more intense. ƒShort choppy brushstrokes captured the vibrating quality of lihlight. ƒSubtle gradations of light on the surface ƒForms dissolve and dematerialize, color overwhelms the forms ƒJuries rejected modernist work – challenge to established artistic conventions, preventing public to see art that was not officially sanctioned. ƒA student of Monet describes his approach, “. . . try to forget what objects you have bef ore you . . . Merel y think , here is a little square of , here an oblong of pink, . . . and paint it just as it looks to you . .” ƒIn The Painter of Modern Life,1860 BdliBaudelaire wrote, “ is the transitory, the fugitive, the contingent.” ƒIn 1872 Monet moved to , prosperous industrial town on ; leisure destination of Parisians. ƒWith funds from painting sales, Monet bought a boat to use as a floating studio.

ƒLeisure activities of and industrialization. ƒManet is painting modern life (as defined by Baudelaire). Adopted younger artist’s subject matter, short brushstrokes and reflected light on water. Cue Card ƒMonet created more than 3 dozen paintings of the Cathedral from the same view at different times of day, under various climatic conditions. ƒWith scientific precision, he carefully recorded the passing of time as seen in the movement of light over identical forms. ƒFocused on light and color to reach a greater understanding of appearance of form. ƒWorld's first socialist working class The : March – May 1871 uprising. The workers of Paris, joined by insubordinate National Guardsmen, seized and set about re-orggganizing the government. ƒThe Commune occurred after was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War and Napoleon III was exiled. ƒCaused by disaster of war and growing discontent of French workers. Between 25 – 35,000 people lost their lives during the street massacres of the Commune’s last days. ƒPainting symbolizes Paris recuperated for the bourgeoisie. ƒRain on the cobblestones symbolized purification of the streets after the war and uprising of the communards. (A Social history of Volume 4: Art in an Age of Civil Struggle 1848 – 1871 by Albert Boime) ƒRedesigning of Paris began in began in 1852, ordered by Napoleon III, to accommodate increased population (1.5 million) and to facilitate movement of troops in case of another revolution. ƒBoulevards widened, new water/sewer systems, street lights, . Transformed medieval Paris, thousands of buildings/streets demolished. ƒInformal/ asymmetrical composition, frame seems to crop figures randomly – suggesting transitory nature of street scene. ƒSet working hours enabled people to plan pastimes. ƒRenoir painted en plein air with Monet and Manet at Argenteuil. ƒDappled with sunlight and shade, blurred into figures – floating and fleeting light. ƒOutdoor leisure activities of the middle class ƒClipped figures on extremes of painting suggest photographic randomness

Cue Card ƒChild in lower left suggests a relaxed and innocent atmosphere. ƒCasual unposed placement of figures and continuity of space – viewer as participant. People going about their business, they do not pose ƒClassical – universal and timeless qualities, Impressionism the opposite – incidental, momentary, and passing aspects of reality. Cue Card ƒFaraway look in the eyes of a bidbarmaid who seems bbdored by her customer. ƒMirror reflects into our world ƒUncertainty as to what the mirror is reflecting: is it her back listening to a customer, or is this another barmaid? ƒTrapeze in far upper left corner, largely ignored by customers ƒComposition pushes goods up close to the cust omers ƒModern sales technique of placing the products next to a pretty salesgirl. ƒMore formal leisure activities – Paris Opera and ballet school. ƒDiverg ing lines lea d v iewer into picture. ƒFigures not centrally placed. ƒ3 similar versions: largest, in grisaille, shown in 1st Impressionist exhibition in 1874. ƒWorked mostly indoors on subjects that suggest movement such as ballet ƒPtPreparatory didrawings exiitst for almost every figure; Degas also used for preliminary studies. ƒInfluence of Japanese prints in compositional elements ƒFigures often seen from the back, cut off at edges of composition, or marginalized Cue Card ƒDegas was a master of line; studies of figures in rapid and informal – impression of arrested motion. ƒ, outlined objects, covered with hatch marks. ƒShelf on right tilted, seems parallel to picture plane, from Japanese prints – visual complexity for viewer.

ƒDue to simppyplicity of printing gp process, ,p Japanese prints feature flat color, limited gradation. ƒFlatness interested modernists who sought ways to call attention to picture surface. ƒDegas owned a print by Torii Kiyonaga depicting 8 women at a bath in various poses and states of undress. ƒJapan avoided Western intrusion until 1853 – 1854 when Commodore Matthew Perry and American naval forces exacted trading and diplomatic privileges from Japan. ƒJaponisme – French term to describe Japanese aesthetic; appealed to Fashionable segment of Parisian society. ƒJapanese kimonos, fans, lacquer cabinets, tea caddies, folding screens, tea services and jjyewelry flooded Paris. ƒDuring in Japan woodblock prints became very popular. ƒPrints were sold for the cost of a bowl of noodles – efficient production system. ƒArtists designed the prints and sold drawings to publishers – name of both appeared on print s, bbtut not blblkock carvers and printers. „ Utilized the Chinese syygggstem for suggesting which is different from Western art: lines stay parallel as they recede into the background – they do not converge. „ This technique created diagonal planes that was later employed by the French Impressionists. „ No shadows are used because they convey a temporal experience. „ The word ukiyo-e means a picture of “the floating world”. „ Derived from Buddh ist religious interpretation that described life on earth as unhappy, a stage to go through on the road to salvation. „ Portrays the pleasures that helped to relieve the restraints of urban Japanese life. „ Growing urbanization in Japanese cities led to increase of pursuit of sensual pleasure in popular theaters and pleasure houses by „ Ukiyo-e priitnts usually te ll a st ory with scenes from life in the houses of merchants and samurai prostitution or in the theater, posed as a (whose families remained in tableau or scene. home territories). „ Details such as fabric and hair had „ Also admirers of literature, to reflect the current fashions of the time. music, and art. ƒLate 18th century designer, played key role in developing multicolored prints – highest quality paper and costly pigments. ƒMost Japanese prints were susceptible to fading, sued inexpensive dies from plants. ƒKnown for depicting activities of daily lives of beautiful young women. ƒElevated point of view. ƒDrying after bath with maid turning to face chiming clock.

18 ƒUsed European synthetic dyes – Prussian blue. ƒLow horizon typical of , in foreground wave’s more traditional flat and powerful graphic form. ƒVan Gogh collected and copied Japanese prints. ƒ depppicted places of leisure and natural where Japanese escaped city life. ƒBold abstract pattern resembling . ƒRed sky enhances abstract effect, flattening pictorial space – completely foreign to Western notion of perspective. ƒJapanese compositional style and distinctive angles to represent figures, translated into Impressionist . ƒDaughter of Philadelphia banker, although family objected, began training at the Pennsylvania of at 15, but not satisfied with the instruction: "There was no teaching" at the Academy. Female students could not use ldl[lhl]live [until somewhat later] and the principal training was primarily drawing from casts.” ƒLater moved to Europe to study master- works in France and . Also studied with Gerome (Eakins also a student). ƒDegas admired her work and befriended her. ƒCould not frequent cafes with male artists – had to care for aging parents whhdho had moved to Europe to join h er. ƒSubjects frequently women and children. ƒMix of objecti vit y & genui ne senti ment . ƒCompositional devices of Degas and Japanese prints. Cue Card ƒAmerican expatriate, spent time in Paris before settling in ƒ“Arrangements” or “” – parallel those in music. ƒJapanese signature in lower right corner ƒWhistler – “Nature contains the elements, in color and form, . . . as the keyboard contains the notes of all music. But the artist is born to pick, and choose, . . . that the result may be beautiful – as the musician gathers his notes and forms his chords . . .” ƒBritish critic accused Whistler of “flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face.” Whistler sued him for libel. He claimed damaged his reputation; He won the trial but was forced into bankruptcy in paying court costs.

ƒAtmospheric effects of fireworks over a riverbank; not a realistic depiction but a study in the harmonies of colors, shapes, and light.

Cue Card „ By 1886 mos t cr itics an d much of the publi c accept ed the Impressionists as serious artist. „ Some painters along with a group of younger artists felt the movement neglltected too many ttditiraditional elltements of picture making while attempting to capture momentary sensations of light and color. „ By the 1880s ar tis ts were aga in exam in ing the properties and expressive qualities of line, pattern, form, and color. „ Van GGhogh (D(Dthutch-b)born) and GGiauguin (Fh)(French) – expressive capabilities of formal elements. „ Seurat and Cezanne (French) – more analytical. „ Known as Post Impressionism, roots in Impressionist precepts and methods, but not stylistically homogeneous. ƒGenetic defects stunted growth, partially crippled, self-exile from high society offf famil y. ƒReveled in Paris’ music halls, cafes, bordellos. ƒInfluence of Degas, Japanese prints (tilted perspective), and photography with asymmetry, diagonals, strong linear patterns, and harsh colors. Zigzag composition ƒScenes from earlier Impressionist paintings – he exaggerated or emphasized elements so is new, satirical edge, borders on caricature. Cue Card ƒGlaring artificial light, brassy music, corrupt, cruel, and masklike faces – distortions by simplification of figures and faces anticipated with even brighter and bolder lines. ƒLarge area of flat color, Figures are out to have a good time, but everything appears to be joyless. Tiny bearded man in back is self- ƒAfternoon activity of the middle class on a Sunday ƒFrozen quality Cue Card ƒFiggq,,ures are statuesque, uncommunicative, almost all are faceless, as if expressing the anonymity of modern society ƒColor: hue (red, ), saturation (hue’s brightness or dullness), value (hue’s lightness or darkness) ƒChemist Michel-Eugene Chevreul – law of simultaneous contrasts of colors: juxtaposed colors affect the eye’s reception of each, making the colors as dissimilar as possible – in hue and value. ƒArt critic Charles Blanc, discovered optical mixing: the smaller the areas of juxtaposed complementary colors, the greater the tendency for the eye to “mix” the colors – grayish or neutral tint. ƒPhysicist Ogden Rood suggested graduation could be achieved by placing small dots/lines of color side by side, blend from a distance. ƒ calculated painstaking system of painting based on scientific color theory. ƒPitilliPointillism or diiiidivisionism –obibserving color and separati ng it itinto component parts, pure component colors are applied in dots/ daubs. ƒImpressionist recreational subject – shifting social class relationships – people from various classes. ƒRepeated motifs create patterns, rhythm and suggest spatial depth and movement. Light, air, people, – elements in abstract design. ƒVan Gogh explored capabilities of colors and distorted forms to express his emotions as he encountered nature. ƒSon of Dutch Protestant pastor, Vincent believed he had a religious calling, did missionary work with coal- miners in . ƒRepeated professional and personal failures brought him close to despair. ƒPaintinggy was a way to communicate his experiences. ƒPainted The Potato Eaters at 32 years old. ƒFive yy,ears later, considering himself a failure as an artist and an outcast from society at large, he fatally shot himself. ƒSold only one painting during his lifetime; even though his brother, Theo, was a Parisian . ƒFauves and German Expressionists built on his expressive use of color. ƒInfluence is an important factor in determining artistic significance; today Van Gogh is one of the most revered artists in history. 1888. Oil on canvas, 2’ 4” x 3’. Cue Card •1886 – Van Gogg,h moved to Paris, collected and copied Japanese prints. •1888 – relocated to Arles in southern France where he painted Night Café. He also lived with Gauguin for a short period of time there. •He wrote letters to his brother Theo about his work and stated he wanted Café to convey an oppressive atmosphere – “a place where one can ruin oneself, go mad, or commit a crime.” •Communicated the “madness” of the place with juxtaposed vivid hues to amplify their intensity. •Known for expressive value of both color and paint application. •Communicates electrifying vastness of the universe, with earth huddling beneath. Perhaps church expresses or reconciles his conflicted views about religion. “In both my life and in my painti ng, I can very well d o with out G od b u t I canno t, ill as I am, d o with out somethi ng which is greater than I, . . . The power to create.” Another seemingly contradictory quote, "a great starlit vault of can only call God." ƒThick short brushstrokes ƒStarry Night painted a year before his at an asylum in Saint-Remy, near Arles. Mountains in the distance that Van Gogh could see at his hospital room in St. Remy, steepness exaggerated. ƒCypress trees and placement of constellations confirmed as matching the view from his room at the asylum. ƒComposite landscape: Dutch church, crescent moon, Mediterranean cypress tree ƒAt one with the forces of nature ƒParts of the canvas can be seen through the brushwork; artist need not fill in every space of the “Why . . . shouldn’t the shining dots of the composition. sky be as accessible as the black dots on ƒStrong le ft-to-rig ht wavelike ilimpulse the map of France? Just as we take the in the work, broken only by tree and train to get to Tarascon or Rouen, we take church steeple. death to reach a star.” ƒTree looks like green flames reaching into the sky exploding with stars over – Van Gogh a placid village; cypress tree a traditional symbol of death and eternal Cue Card life. •Self-taught painter, later took lessons with Impressionist Pissarro, resigned from brokerage business at aggpe 35 to paint full time. •3 years later, attracted by ’s supposedly unspoiled culture, Gauguin left his wife and 5 children and moved to Pont-Aven •Painting shows Breton women in their Sunday clothes, visualizing the sermon they just heard. Biblical account includes the renaming of Jacob as “Israel”, literallyygg “He who struggles with God.” •Women pray as they would before roadside crucifix shrines, characteristic of Breton countryside. Red heat of the sermon matches the red earth •Determining colors was Gauguin's central element of . Twisted perspective emphasized innocent faith of women, shrank Jacob and the . Wrestling matches were regular after high mass. •Gauguin admired Japanese prints, stained , and cloisonné metal work – abstract, expressive patterns of line, shape, and pure color. •After brief period with Van Gogh in Arles, moved to Tahiti searching for a life far removed from materialistic Europe, to reconnect with nature, search for provocative subjects, and an economical place to live. Tahiti – French colony since 1842, so Gauguin moved to countryside. •Tree trunk separates the real from the miracle. Apple tree (tree of knowledge) not in story, Gauguin addition •Cow symbolizes man’s redemption, Ezekiel’s sacrifice •Broad areas of relatively flat color, subtle variations of hue within color planes. Cue Card ƒGauguin's Tahitian girlfriend Tehura, 14 years old, who one night, according to GiGauguin, was lilying in fear when he arrived late home: "immobile, naked, lying face downward on the bed with the eyyyges inordinately large with fear . . . Might she not with her frightened face take me for one of the demons and spirits of the Tupapaus, with which the of her race people sleepless nights?“ ƒ The spirit she fears, personified by the old woman seated at left. The strong colors are symbolic of the Polynesian belief that phosphorescent lights were manifestations of the spirits of the dead. ƒPhosphorescent lights were in fact a type of fungus that grows on dead trees. ƒGirl's fear also might have been in response to Gauguin's aggressive behavior; consistent with his known physical abuse of women. Cue Card

ƒFascinated with primitive life – native motifs, colors from tropical flora. ƒIn Gauguin’s judgment, most important painting – summary of artistic methods and views on life. ƒTropical landscape; broad areas of flat color – lushness and intensity. ƒGauguin in a letter to a friend, “Where are we going? Near to death an old woman . . . . What are we? Day to day existence. . . . Where do we come from? Source. Child. Life begins. . . .” ƒTried to commit suicide after completion of painting, died a few years later in Marquesas Islands – his artistic unrecognized. „ Allied with Impressionists, especially Pisarro, but studies of Old Masters in Louvre persuaded him Impressionist paintings lacked form and structure. „ Cezanne declared he wanted to “make of Impressionism something solid and durable like the art of the museums.” „ Sought a lasting structure behind formless and fleeting visual information eyes absorb. „ More analltilytical stltyle –order lines, p lanes, and col ors compri iising nature. Constantly checked his painting against the part of the scene, he called “motif” he was studying at the moment. „ Sought to achieve Poussin’s effects of distance, depth, structure, and solidity not by using traditional perspective and chiaroscuro, but by recording the color patterns he deduced from an optical analysis. „ Explored properties of line, plane, color and interrelationships. „ Understood visual properties of colors: hues, saturation, value, cool colors recede, warm colors advance and juxtaposed colors to create volume and depth. „ Presents thhhe viewer with 2-dlddimensional and 3-dldimensional images simultaneously – profoundly influenced the development of in the early 20th century. ƒOne of eleven canvases of this view, series dominates Cezanne’s mature period ƒHad contempt for flat painting, wanted rounded and firm objects, but ones that were ggpeometric constructions made from splashes of undiluted color ƒUsed perspective through juxtaposing forward warm colors with receding cool colors. ƒLandscape rarely contains humans ƒNot the countryside of Impressionism, more interest in geometric forms rather than dappled effects of light ƒNot a momentary glimpse of atmosphere as in the Impressionists, but a solid and firmly constructed mountain and foreground. ƒLandscape seen from an elevation ƒInvited to look at space, but Cue Card not enter. ƒPainting process was so analytical and slow that Cezanne abandoned using real frfruituit – ttheyhey tetendednded to rrot.ot. ƒNot optically realistic: disjunctures in painting – table edges are discontinuous, objects depicted from different view points. ƒCezanne’s methods never allow viewer to disregards the 2-dimensi ona lity of the pic ture plane. Contrasts between 2- dimensionality of the painting surface and 3-dimensionality of objec ts; object s tilt towar d us yet remain fixed on the tabletop. ƒAn exercise in the solidity of forms; the contrasting nature of round objects, flat objects, and the drapery falling into our own space ƒStrongly painterly brushstrokes Cue Card „ Impressionists and Post-Impressionists used their sensations and emotions to interpret nature. „ Symbolists concerned with expressing their individual spirit/free interpretations of nature – rejected optical world for world. „ Artists spoke in signs and symbols, as if they were prophets. „ Symbolists disdained Realism as trivial – see through things to a significance far deeper than superficial appearance. „ insisted, artists became beings of extraordinary insight. In his Letter from a Seer (1871) he explained that to achieve the seer’s insight, artists must become deranged – unhinge/confuse everyday faculties of sense and reason. „ Artists’ mystical vision – convert objects of world into symbols of reality beyond this world, from within the individual. „ Elements of Symbolism in Van Gogh and Gauguin’s work; differed from mainst ream SSbymboli st s in ththtat they portrayed unseen powers linked to a physical reality instead of depicting a wholly interior life. „ Against /conventions of industrial/middle-class society. „ Subjects: esoteric, exotic, mysterious, , dreamlike, fantastic. „ , founder of was a contemporary – introduced world to unconscious experience. ƒSubjects inspired by dreaming. ƒKnown for sensuous design, gorgeous color, intricate line, rich details, opulent settings. ƒSubmitted The Apparition to Salon of 1876 – pppopular contem porar y theme of femme fatale (fatal woman) who destroyed men. ƒ (Mark 6:21-28) danced entic ing ly for st epf ath er/ great -uncle, King Herod, who promised her any wish. Mother told her to ask for of . He had condemned Herod for marrying Salome’s mother (who was his brother's former wife and Herod's niece) in violation of Old Testament law. ƒHerodbkdd sits in background –clllassical columnar hall resembles Roman triumphal arch. ƒHalo-framed head of John the Baptist drips with blood – hallucinatory ƒForeshadows work of Surrealists. ƒ“Primitive” without lileaving PiParis –self taught amateur, started painting full- time after retirement from service in French government. ƒ1st exhibited in Sal on of 1885 when he was 41. Derided by critics, he then started exhibiting in Salon des Independants in 1886 until his death. ƒUnfavorable reviews – lack formal training, imperfect perspective, doll-like figures, settings resembling constructed theater sets not . ƒNatural for design and teeming with exotic images of mysterious tropical landscapes. ƒUneasiness of subconscious self during sleep – subject of contemporary Sigmund Freud; influenced the development of . ƒSterile and desertlike environment with lion,lion, a jujunglengle animal, sniffing at a gypsy like a Snake Charmer Tropical Forest Cue Card with Monkeys curious cat ƒTilted perspective of gypsy pose ƒRecurrent use of stripes in composition ƒIs the lion a ? Is the gypsy really sleeping as she holds onto a walking stick? ƒInscription: “The feline, though ferocious, is loathe to leap upon its ppy,rey, who, overcome by Henri Rousseau The Sleeping Gypsy, 1897, Oil on fatigue, lies in a deep sleep.” canvas, 4’3” X 6’7” ƒOriginally conceived by Norwegian Munch as part of his Frieze of Life series, which explored the progression of modern life by ffocusingocusing oonn tthehe tthemeshemes ooff llove,ove, aangst,ngst, aandnd death. ƒHe believed humans were powerless before natural forces of death an love and emotions associated with them – jealousy, loneliness, fear, desire, despair became themes of his art. ƒHis goal was to describe the conditions of “mod ern psychic lif”life.” ƒExpressive color, line, and distortion. ƒInfluenced by Gauguin and would inspire Germ an Exp ress io nists in ea rly 20 th centu ry . Art Nouveau swirling patterns ƒFigure walking along a wharf, boats are at sea in the distance ƒLong thithikck bbhtkrushstrokes swi ilrl around composition ƒFigure cries out in a horrifying scream, the landscape echoes his emotion, discordant colors symbolize anguish ƒEmaciated twisting stick figure with skull- like head Cue Card „ Historians have adopted the term fin-de-siecle which means “end of the century” for the spirit of dissolution, , cynicism, , anxiety, and a widespread belief that civilization leads to ; characteristic of European, especially Austrian culture. „ Middle classes aspired to advantages of – to lead “the good life.” This evolved into culture of indulgence. „ Also immersed in exploring the unconscious – Sigmund Freud. „ Determination to enjoy life masked anxiety prompted by significant political upheaval and an uncertain future. „ Viennese artist Klimt captured period’s flamboyance in work, tempered with unsettling undertones. „ has an ambiguous apart from space and time. „ Shimmer ing ex travagan t fla t patt erni ng with ties to Art Nouveau and . „ between 2 and 3 dimensionality central to work of modernists. „ Patterns signify gender contrasts while simultaneously uniting the lovers into a single formal entity. ƒLittle of the human form is actually seen; two heads, four hands, two feet ƒThe bodies are suggested under a sea of richly designed patterning ƒMale figure has large rectangular boxes; female figure has circular forms. ƒSuggests all-consuming love; passion; ƒSpaced in an indeterminate location against flattened background

Cue Card Cue Card ƒTangibility and solidity of sculpture suggests permanence, so it could not capture the “fl“fltieeting moment” of Impressionist painters. ƒIn France, Carpeaux combined Realism with love of ancient, , and sculpture. ƒBased on Dante’s Inferno where Count Ugolino with 4 sons starve to death while shut up in tower. In Hell, Ugolino tells Dante how in despair he bit both his hands in grief. His children thought he was hungry and offered him their own flesh as food. ƒStudied ’s male figures and also had Hellenistic Laocoon group in mind, early 1st century CE, 7’ 10” hig h. ƒVivid reality of anatomy – life studies. ƒRejected from Ecole des Beaux-Arts, enrolled in French school of , “Petit Ecole,” lesser version of prestigious school. ƒAttention for early , 1880 government commission to design for Museum of Decorative Arts (never built). ƒDoors were cast in bronze after his death. ƒRodin did not use photographs, “I have always endeavored to express the inner feelings by the mobility of the muscles. . . . photographs, . . . seem suddenly fixed in midair, . . . there is no progressive development of movement as there is in art. . . . [I]t is the artist who is truthful and it is photography which lies, for in reality time does not stop.” ƒPrimarily worked in pliable material – would move around for him for preliminary sculptures in clay. Influence of Impressionism – concern for effect of light on surfaces.

Cue Card ƒRodin depicts a headless Walking Man, and armless figure in midstride – It dedemonstratesmonstrates hihiss mmasteryastery of anatomy and ability to capture transitory motion. ƒMastery of realistic detail in his meticulous rendition of muscle, bone, and tendon. ƒRodin said, “The scultlpture mus t learn to reproduce the surface, which means all that vibrates on the surface, , love passi on, life. ”

AUGUSTE RODIN, The Thinker, ƒ1346, English King Edward III surrounded French port of Calais,,g cutting off essential supplies. 11 months later, he demanded surrender of 6 of the town’s leading men, burghers, in return for sparing citizens. ƒRodin’s sculpture emphasizes internal struggle of men walking toward their fate wearing a sackcloth, rope halter. ƒLater spared by intervention of English queen feared their would bring bad luck to her unborn child. ƒFigures sculpted individually, each has different emotions, some fearful, resigned, or forlorn ƒMeant to be placed at ground level so that people could see it close up ƒName from a shop in Paris ƒConsidered an important transition between the eclectic historic revival styles of the 19th-century and Modernism. ƒArt based on natural forms that could be reproduced for a large . ƒSinuous lines and "whiplash" curves were derived, in part, from botanical studies and illustrations of deep- sea organisms such as those by German biologist Ernst Heinrich Haecklkel ƒUndulating twisting forms of hand-cut stone ƒConservative in its use of cut stone, modern in its design ƒModern apartment building for its time: garage for carriages below, elevators to take people up to their Cue Card apartments ƒAntonio Gaudi, trained as an ironworker, inspired by Moorish and simple architecture from his native . ƒConceived of buildings as a whole, like sculptures; invented new structural techniques. ƒCasa Mila features: lacy iron railings, dormer on undulating roof, fantastic writhing chimneys, surface like worn rock, entrance like sea cave. ƒ1879 discovery of Paleolithic cave paintings at Altamira. ƒRealist impulse – architectural designs that honestly expressed a building’s purpose, rather than elaborately disguise its function. ƒEiffel tower responded to this idea and contributed to development of 20th century skyscraper. ƒEiffel designed exhibition halls, bridges, and interior armature of Statue of Liberty, France’s anniversary gift to UUS.S. ƒDesigned for an exhibition in 1889 as a symbol of modern Paris; still considered a symbol of 19th century civilization. ƒTallest structure in the world at time of construction. ƒ4 giant supports, connected by arching open framed skirts, mask heavy horizontal girders strengthen the legs. ƒTransparency of structure blurs distinction between interior and exterior never before achieved or attempted. ƒInterpenetration of inner and outer space – hallmark of 20th-centryuy art and architecture. ƒInnovative elevator swings diagonally up ramplike sides of tower ƒAssembled from a limited number of shapes, symbolizing the interlocking members of a democratic society – Triumph of wrought-iron design Cue Card ƒGreater speed and economy in building (especially commercial), reduction in fire hazards, use of cast and . ƒDisastrous fires in proved cast iron by itself was not resistant to fire. ƒStarted encasing metal (for strength) in masonry (for fire resistance). ƒIn cities increase values forced architects to build upwards. ƒ1st elevators used in Equitable Building in New York in 1868 – 1871. ƒ one of 1st to design modern commercial structures. Marshall Field store occupied entire city block. ƒRespect for of Auvergne area in France – heavy round arches, massive masonry walls. ƒTripartite elevation of a Renaissance palace. No classical ornamentation, massive courses of masonry, strong horizontals of sills. ƒGlazed arcades opened up walls, led to modern total penetration of walls. Cue Card

ƒ1st truly modern architect; synthesized industrial structure and ornamentation.

ƒExpressed the spirit of late-19th-century commerce – light filled, well ventilated office buildings. Regularity of window placements expressed large-scale, refined, and orderly office work taking place within. ƒSullivan’s dictum, “,” became slogan of early 20th century architects. Exterior and interior – free and flexible relationship, as his p up il Frank described, similar to bones and hands. ƒ Carson, Pirie, Scott Building – minimal structural steel skeleton for broad open display spaces. ƒLower 2 levels – elaborate ornamental cast iron frame display windows. ƒHorizontal emphasis symbolizes continuous flow of space ƒCast iron decorative elements transformed the store into a beautiful place to buy beautiful things.