Adaptations of

See also: Pop culture references to Sherlock Holmes “Thank you, but I'm afraid the pipe is purely for show these days.” The stories of Sherlock Holmes by Sir Arthur Conan Holmes was also featured prominently in issue 13 of the Doyle were very popular as adaptations for the stage, DC/WildStorm series Planetary. Holmes is shown to be and later film, and still later television. The Universal in league with Bram Stoker's Dracula in the story. A Sherlock Holmes (1995) by Ronald B. DeWaal lists over Charlton series depicted a Holmes based in New 25,000 Holmes-related productions and products. York City. SelfMadeHero published “Hound of the Baskervilles”, adapted by Ian Edginton and illustrated by Ian Culbard, 1 Board games in May 2009. Holmes is referred to and briefly featured in 's • Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective (gamebook) The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. Holmes appears (1981) (Sleuth Publications) (book-based game) in a flashback sequence depicting the climactic scene of • 221B (Gibsons Games) The Adventure of and is still believed by the public to be deceased following the events of that • Watson & Holmes. From the Diaries of 221B (2015) story, although it is revealed in the second volume that (Ludonova) Mina later meets with him. 's Aetheric Mechanics is primarily inspired by Sherlock Holreimanmes, while being a mashup of 2 Holmesiana with other contemporary works. In the Italian Martin Mystère and spin-off se- Three Sherlock Holmes adaptations have appeared in ries Storie di Altrove/Stories from Elsewhere Holmes is a American newspapers. The first, titled Sherlock Holmes, historical character.[4] In the late 1880s he worked on ran from 1930 to 1931. Sherlock Holmes was drawn by the case of Jack the Ripper and met professor Richard Leo O'Mealia (who later drew covers for Action Comics) Van Helsing, a vampire who destroyed Count Dracula.[5] and distributed by the Bell Syndicate.[1] A short-lived Along with Professor Challenger, Holmes visited a se- half-page Sherlock Holmes comic strip appeared daily cret valley of dinosaurs in South America in 1896. The and Sunday in the 1950s, written by radio scriptwriter same year he worked with the American Secret Ser- and drawn by Frank Giacoia.[2] The third vice “Elsewhere” to stop paranormal threats from an- adaptation “Mr. Holmes of Baker Street” by Bill Barry other dimension.[6] In 1910 he discovered a life extension appeared in 1976-1977. serum.[7] At the beginning of he had a final The latest arc of the famous webcomic Sweet Bro confrontation with .[8] After the war, and Hella Jeff shows the main characters in the roles he moved to Ukraine, giving the task of Holmes and Watson and details their detective-hat- to convince everyone that he was just an imaginary char- wearing, pipe-clinking adventures.[3] acter. With the help of his serum, Holmes prolonged his life for several decades. In the 1990s he indirectly helped Martin Mystère to capture a villain who found a formula 3 Comic books of his serum.[8] In the 1990s, issued a four-part There have been a number of Sherlock Holmes comic Sherlock Holmes Reader which featured quotes from books, notably from Dell and DC. The 50th anniversary Holmes, a map of 221-B Baker Street, and canon story issue of Detective Comics features a cameo from a 135- adaptations[9] as well as individual stories such as Dr. year-old Holmes, who congratulates Batman for defeat- Jekyll and Mr. Holmes[9] and The Sussex Vampire.[10] ing Professor Moriarty's descendants. He explains “A 2009 brought the Black House Comics series The Dark proper diet, a certain distillation of royal jelly developed Detective: Sherlock Holmes.[11] The series is written by in my beekeeping days, and the rarified atmosphere of Ti- Christopher Sequeira with covers by Academy Award bet, where I keep my primary residence,” have kept him winning artist Dave Elsey.[12] alive. When Batman tries to light his pipe, Holmes states

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In 2010, Boom! Studios published a four-part series en- By 1916, Harry Arthur Saintsbury, who had played titled Muppet Sherlock Holmes which featured Gonzo as Holmes on stage hundreds of times in Gillette’s play, Holmes,[13] Fozzie Bear as Dr. Watson,[13] and Kermit reprised the role in the 1916 film .[18] [13] the Frog as . The next significant cycle of Holmes films were produced In the Victorian Undead comic series (2010 and 2011 by the Stoll Pictures company in Britain. Between 1921 by Wildstorm and DC) Sherlock Holmes, Doctor Wat- and 1923 they produced a total of 47 two-reelers,[19] all son and others must deal with a zombie outbreak, Count featuring noted West End actor in the lead Dracula, and Doctor Jekyll and Mister Hyde. with as Watson. In 2013, New Paradigm Studios began publishing a played the role in a 1922 movie en- monthly, ongoing series entitled Watson and Holmes. The titled Sherlock Holmes, with Roland Young as Watson series re-imagines Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson as and in his first screen appearance. This living in the 21st Century and living in Harlem.[14] Goldwyn film is the first Holmes movie made with high production values and a major star. played Sherlock Holmes three times: The 4 Film Return of Sherlock Holmes (1929), as part of an anthology film, Paramount on Parade (1930), and Sherlock Holmes (1932). In 1931 Raymond Massey played Sherlock Holmes in his screen debut, ,[20] while Arthur Wont- ner played Holmes in five British films from 1931 to 1937. and played Holmes and Wat- son in The Hound of the Baskervilles which launched a 14 film series. Rathbone is regarded as the Holmes of his generation. Many other films have been comedies and parodies which poke fun at Holmes, Watson, their relationship and other characters. These have included Billy Wilder’s The Pri- vate Life of Sherlock Holmes with and Colin Blakely as Holmes and Watson. Sherlock Holmes Baffled, the first screen portrayal of Holmes More serious, non-canonical films were A Study in Ter- from 1900. ror (with and Donald Houston) and (with and James Mason) It has been estimated that Sherlock Holmes is the most both of which involved Holmes and Watson investigating prolific screen character in the history of cinema.[15] The the murders by the Whitechapel serial killer Jack the Rip- first known film featuring Holmes is Sherlock Holmes Baf- per. And with fled, a one-reel film running less than a minute, made as Holmes and Alan Cox as Watson playing the duo as by the American and schoolboys (in this film one of Holmes’ early mentors be- in 1900. This was followed by a 1905 Vitagraph film comes an enemy who, in the final credits, hides out in the Adventures of Sherlock Holmes; or, Held for Ransom, fea- Swiss Alps and signs his name as Moriarty). [16] turing Maurice Costello as Holmes. Sherlock Holmes The 1974 novel The Seven-Per-Cent Solution, a “lost has also been a prolific screen character in foreign lan- manuscript” of a Holmes adventure, was also made into guage films, such as the Russian 2013 mini-series version a film in 1976 starring Nicol Williamson as Holmes and [17] broadcast in November 2013. as Watson. Many similar films were made in the early years of the The 1988 film was a comedic twist on the twentieth century, most notably the 13 one- and two-reel familiar Holmes legend. Dr. John Watson (Ben Kingsley) silent films produced by the Danish Nordisk Film Com- is a genius crime fighter and successful author. Fans of his pany between 1908 and 1911. The only non-lost film is novels clamor to see the real Sherlock Holmes and Wat- Sherlock Holmes i Bondefangerkløer, produced in 1910. son realizes that his audience simply would not accept the Holmes was originally played by Viggo Larsen. Other ac- fact that Holmes was a fabrication and to reveal himself tors who played Holmes in those films were Otto Lagoni, as the creator and brains behind him would be tantamount Einar Zangenberg, Lauritz Olsen and Alwin Neuss. In to literary suicide. To solve his dilemmas, Watson hires 1911 the American Biograph company produced a series Reginald Kincaid (), an alcoholic, woman- of 11 short comedies based on the Holmes character with izing, ne'er-do-well actor to impersonate Holmes. Mack Sennett (later of Keystone Kops fame) in the title role. The twenty-eighth film in the VeggieTales series is en- 3

titled Sheerluck Holmes and the Golden Ruler, and fea- them are posted online, and can be found on Tumblr. tures Larry the Cucumber as Holmes and Bob the Tomato "Scarlet Story", the opening theme of the NHK puppetry as Watson. Sherlock Holmes is titled after "". And Robert Downey, Jr. appears as the detective in the Guy a song titled “Agra Treasure” that is made for the show is Ritchie–directed Sherlock Holmes (2009) and its sequel sung in “The Adventure of the Cheerful Four”, one of the Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows (2011), with Jude episodes of the series based on "". Law as Dr. Watson, Rachel McAdams as , In the episode, some of the characters are modeled after and Jared Harris as Moriarty. the members of the Beatles. In 2010, low-budget film company The Asylum produced Sherlock Holmes, which is intended to capitalize on Guy Ritchie’s film. It stars new actor Ben Syder as Holmes and 7 Radio Torchwood actor Gareth David Lloyd as Watson. It was shot in Wales and directed by Rachel Lee Goldenberg.[21] See also: List of BBC Radio Sherlock Holmes Dramati- In the 2015 film Mr. Holmes, Ian McKellen portrays the sations detective as a 93-year-old retiree, living in a countryside farmhouse with his housekeeper (Laura Linney) and her In the , writer, actress, and producer Edith Meiser son. As his memory deteriorates, he struggles to recall the was largely responsible for first bringing Holmes to Amer- last case of his career, which sent him into retirement. ican radio listeners. Meiser, loved the Holmes stories, See also the 1971 film They Might Be Giants, starring helped sell the show to the NBC radio network and found George C. Scott and Joanne Woodward, which portrays a sponsor. She wrote the show by herself for 12 years a man who believes himself to be Sherlock Holmes. [1930–1942], both adapting Doyle’s classic tales as well The film adaptations of Sherlock Holmes and the actors as writing new adventures in the Holmesian style. The who played the main role are listed here. first show she adapted was “The Adventure of the Speck- led Band.” It was broadcast on October 20, 1930 and fea- tured in the lead role. Various actors played the Holmes and Watson parts in the series until 5 Internet October 2, 1939 when Basil Rathbone and Nigel Bruce were cast after appearing in the 1939 film “The Hound In January 2004, the BBC posted five new Sherlock of the Baskervilles”.[23][24][25] NBC’s Red and Blue net- Holmes short stories on their “Cult” website, along with works carried the series until 1942. After that the shows RealAudio files of the stories, as read by Andrew Sachs were then written by the team of Dennis Green and An- and Hannah Gordon. The audio productions were done thony Boucher. Then the Mutual Broadcasting System in association with BBC 7, but are no longer available. picked up the series which it ran until 1947 [Rathbone left The texts of all five short stories are still posted, with ac- in 1946 and was replaced by , Nigel Bruce companying illustrations and illustration galleries, as well remained] with the proviso that Meiser continue to con- as an edited transcript of an interview with Bert Coules. tribute “new adventures”. Meiser’s adaptations and origi- The short story texts can also be downloaded as eBooks nal stories won praise from Conan Doyle’s family for their in three different formats. faithful adherence to the original characterization.[26][27] One famous radio appearance starred as Sherlock Holmes in an adaptation of one of William 6 Music Gillette’s plays. This was broadcast in September 1938 as part of The Mercury Theater on the Air series on CBS Sherlock Holmes is the subject of the song “Sherlock Radio. Holmes” by Sparks from their 1982 album Angst in My Throughout the early on American Radio, Basil Pants. Rathbone and Nigel Bruce performed as Holmes and Composer Jon Deak wrote a work for solo double bass Watson, respectively, in several series of canonical and based on The Hound of the Baskervilles, complete with original Sherlock Holmes stories on The New Adventures narration and sound effects to mimic radio plays of the of Sherlock Holmes radio show. These broadcasts were 1920s.[22] loosely based on Doyle’s cases. When Rathbone finally departed the role before the 1947 season, Tom Conway Progressive rock musicians Clive Nolan & Oliver Wake- played Sherlock Holmes opposite Nigel Bruce for one man released a concept album titled The Hound Of The season. After a change of networks, there were two more Baskervilles about the story of the same name in 2002. pairings: John Stanley as Holmes and Alfred Shirley as Shrock is a genre that’s developed by the fans of BBC Watson in 1947–1948 and Stanley and “George Spelvin” Sherlock. They write music about the new series during in 1948–1949. Both Stanley and Conway emulated Rath- the considerably long hiatuses between seasons. Most of bone when performing Holmes to aid in continuity for the 4 8 STAGE

audience. by Lawrence Albert.[28] Scripts are by Jim French, M. played Holmes for BBC radio in the 1950s, J. Elliott, Matthew Booth, John Hall, Gareth Tilley, J R with as Watson. Gielgud’s brother, Val Campbell and Lawrence Albert. In 2005, with adapta- Gielgud, appeared in "The Bruce-Partington Plans", per- tions written by M. J. Elliott, French and his company haps inevitably, as . As this series was began a new series based on Conan Doyle’s original tales co-produced by the American Broadcasting Company, called “The Classic Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.” known American actors also appeared, such as Orson Many episodes are available on CD as well as download- Welles as Professor Moriarty in "The Adventure of the able from the Imagination Theater website. Final Problem". Carleton Hobbs portrayed Holmes in a series of BBC ra- 8 Stage dio broadcasts that ran from 1952 to 1969, with playing Watson. Many of these were broadcast on Children’s Hour. Of the many actors who have por- trayed Holmes and Watson for the BBC, the Hobbs and Shelley duo is the longest running. There have been many other radio adaptations (over 750 in English), including a more recent BBC Radio 4 run fea- turing Clive Merrison as Holmes and Michael Williams as Watson. Together, the two actors completed radio adaptations of every story in the canon between 1989 and 1998. The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, a new series consisting of original stories written exclu- sively by Bert Coules was then commissioned, but follow- ing Williams’ death from cancer in 2001, he was replaced by Andrew Sachs. The episodes of The Further Adven- tures were based on throwaway references in Doyle’s short stories and novels. The complete canonical run is avail- able on CD and audio tape. The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes is also available on CD as four box sets H. A. Saintsbury as Holmes, c. 1903 each containing four episodes. BBC Radio 2 also broadcast in 1999 a more ribald six- The actor most associated with Holmes on stage was episode spoof series featuring Holmes and Watson enti- William Gillette, who wrote, directed, and starred in a tled The Newly Discovered Casebook of Sherlock Holmes popular play entitled Sherlock Holmes in seven different starring Roy Hudd as Holmes (“’s greatest detec- productions on Broadway from 1899 (filmed in 1916), tive, master of disguise and toffee-nosed ponce”), Chris while the stories were still being published, to 1930. Emmett as Watson (“contributor to the British Medi- His version of Holmes, dressed in hat and cal Journal, Which Stethescope Magazine and inventor Inverness cape and smoking a large curved calabash pipe, of the self-raising thermometer") and June Whitfield as contributed much to the popular image of the character. Mrs. Hudson. Titles in this series included “The Case of The deerstalker hat appears occasionally in Paget’s origi- the Clockwork Fiend”, “The Mystery of the Obese Es- nal illustrations for The Strand, but it is by no means a part capologist”, “The Caes of the Deranged Botanist”, “Sher- of Holmes’ regular clothing. Doyle’s text is even vaguer, lock Holmes and the Glorious Doppelganger”, “Holmes referring only to a travelling cap with earflaps in the pas- Strikes a Happy Medium” and “The Demon Cobbler of sages with the relevant illustrations. He is also described Greek Street”, and usually turned out to have Holmes’ as smoking several different types of pipes, varying them mortal enemy Moriarty (Geoffrey Whitehead) behind with his mood. each mystery. This series has since been re-broadcast on While Gillette is the most well known stage actor to por- BBC Radio 7. tray Holmes, the first was John Webb.[29] Webb assayed [29] Starting in 1998, U.S. radio producer Jim French was Holmes in a play written by Charles Rodgers in 1894. given permission from the Conan Doyle estate to produce Holmes is tangentially referred to in an unfinished play by new, original Sherlock Holmes stories for radio in North L. Frank Baum and Emerson Hough called The King of America.[28] These are presented within the Imagination Gee-Whiz (1905). Theater program on radio stations and XM satellite ra- In Langdon McCormick's 1905 play, The Burglar and the dio. The new stories are also broadcast under the ban- Lady, Holmes is pitted against the fictional criminal A. J. ner The Further Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. John Raffles, created by E. W. Hornung. McCormick did not Gilbert played Holmes until 2000, and subsequently by secure permission from either Doyle or Hornung to use John Patrick Lowrie.[28] Watson is played in all shows their characters.[30] 5

The calabash pipe is associated with Sherlock Holmes be- 9 Television cause early portrayers, particularly William Gillette and Basil Rathbone, made an artistic decision to use some- There have been many television incarnations of Sher- thing large and easily recognized as a pipe. A calabash lock Holmes, varying in faithfulness to the source mate- pipe has a large air chamber beneath the bowl that pro- rial from direct adaptations of Holmes stories, most no- vides a cooling and mellowing effect. Holmes preferred tably The Hound of the Baskervilles, to new stories set in harsh and strong tobaccos and therefore would eschew the present day and even the future. such a pipe. In fact, most stories, particularly The Adven- ture of the Copper Beeches, described him as preferring a long-stemmed cherry-wood or a clay pipe. 9.1 Television series In the first twenty years of the 20th century, Harry Arthur Saintsbury played Holmes on stage in Gillette’s play more One of the earliest television appearances was the 1951 than 1,400 times.[18] In subsequent revivals of this pro- BBC mini series Sherlock Holmes starring Alan Wheatley duction, Holmes was played by John Wood, John Neville, as Holmes and Raymond Francis as Watson. Patrick Horgan, Robert Stephens and . Three years later, the first American adaptation of played Holmes in a 1981 production for Holmes and Watson, Sherlock Holmes was produced by HBO. Sheldon Reynolds in 1954, and starred Ronald Howard as The play Sherlock’s Last Case by Charles Marowitz ran on Holmes and Howard Marion-Crawford as Doctor Watson Broadway in 1987, starring Frank Langella.[31] produced in Paris, France. The Secret of Sherlock Holmes by Jeremy Paul was staged In the 1960s, there was a BBC TV series entitled Sherlock in ’s West End in 1988, with and Holmes with and . Peter Edward Hardwicke reprising their television roles as Cushing, who had earlier played the detective in the Holmes and Watson. It was revived in the summer of Hammer version of The Hound of the Baskervilles, later 2010 at the Duchess Theatre, this time starring televi- took over from Wilmer in the lead role. sion actors Peter Egan as Holmes and Robert Daws as The 24 part 1980 series Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Wat- [32] Watson. son starred Geoffrey Whitehead as Holmes and Donald Two musicals -- Baker Street in 1965, and Sherlock Pickering as Watson. Holmes: The Musical in 1988—have been written around In 1982, Granada Television aired an eight-part series en- Holmes, as well as a ballet. titled Young Sherlock: The Mystery of the Manor House Sherlock & Watson: Behind Closed Doors, a short play which told the story of Holmes’ youth. The show starred by Darren Stewart-Jones premiered at the Gay Play Day Guy Henry as Sherlock Holmes. LGBTQ theatre festival in Toronto in 2013 and also Also in 1982, the BBC produced an adaptation of The played both the Hamilton Fringe Festival and the Lon- Hound of the Baskervilles, starring Tom Baker as the de- don One Act Festival in Ontario, in 2014. The tective. play imagines a romantic involvement between the two characters. Jeremy Brett starred as Holmes in a Granada Television adaptation screened from 1984 to 1994, The Adventures In 2007, Peepolykus Theatre Company premiered a new of Sherlock Holmes, with David Burke and subsequently adaptation of The Hound of the Baskervilles at West York- Edward Hardwicke as Watson. All but 18 of the Co- shire Playhouse in Leeds. Adapted by John Nicholson nan Doyle stories were filmed before the death of Jeremy and Steve Canny, directed by Orla O'loughlin with Javier Brett from a heart attack in 1995. Between 1984 and Marzan as Sherlock Holmes, the production involves only 1994, 36 episodes and five films were produced over 3 actors. Following a UK tour, it transferred to the six series. Brett and Hardwicke reprised their roles as Duchess Theatre in London’s West End. This adaptation Holmes and Watson in 1988-89 in a West End stage play, continues to be presented by both amateur and profes- The Secret of Sherlock Holmes, written by Jeremy Paul. sional companies around the world.[33] In 1988, the animated series Alvin and the Chipmunks An abridged version of Peepolykus’s adaptation was aired an episode entitled “Elementary, My Dear Simon”, recorded in front of a live audience with the original which stars Simon as Holmes, Theodore as Watson, Alvin cast for BBC Radio 4 (directed by Alison Hindell) and as Professor Moriarty, and Dave as Inspector Seville. broadcast in 2012.[34] A DVD of the stage version and CD of the radio version is available via the Peepolykus An animated series, Sherlock Holmes in the 22nd Cen- website.[35] tury, brings Holmes into the future through the marvels of science. There is also a Japanese animated series called featuring anthropomorphic canine char- acters. Several of its episodes were directed by Hayao Miyazaki. Another Japanese anime series called , based on the manga of the same name, features 6 9 TELEVISION

a main character by the name of Conan who is heavily series were split into eleven episodes and starred Vasily influenced by Sherlock Holmes. Livanov as Holmes and Vitaly Solomin as Watson. Li- The children’s television series The Adventures of Shirley vanov earned honorary membership Order of the British Empire for a performance ambassador Anthony Brenton Holmes, which ran from 1996 to 1999, features a main [37] young, modern-day female character who claims to be a described as “one of the best I've ever seen”. distant descendant of Sherlock Holmes himself and has In 1983, Ian Richardson portrayed Sherlock Holmes in inherited his intellect in solving crimes. The Sign of Four with David Healy as Dr. John H. In 2007, the BBC released Sherlock Holmes and the Baker Watson. Later that same year, Richardson again played Street Irregulars, a children’s series focusing on the Baker Holmes in a version of The Hound of the Baskervilles with Street Irregulars and starring Jonathan Pryce as Holmes. Donald Churchill as his Watson. In 2009, the BBC began making Sherlock, created by In 1986, a TV movie called My Tenderly Loved Detective Steven Moffat and Mark Gatiss. Three seasons of three was made in about the adventures of the 90-minute episodes each were broadcast in 2010, 2012, female Sherlock Holmes, called Shirley Holmes here, and and 2014, starring as Sherlock female Dr.Watson, called Jane Watson here. and Martin Freeman as John. Moriarty appears as a The contemporarily-set 1987 television movie The Re- recurring villain. A special episode, "The Abominable turn of Sherlock Holmes starred as Bride", was broadcast in January 2016, with a limited cin- the detective and Margaret Colin as Dr. Watson’s grand- ematic release worldwide. The fourth series began film- daughter, Jane. Jane, after following directions written by ing in April 2016. her grandfather years ago, finds out that she has thawed Holmes who had been cryogenically frozen by Dr. Wat- CBS in Fall 2012 premiered the series Elementary, a contemporary remake of the Doyle character set in the son for 88 years due to Bubonic plague. They become , starring as Holmes and a team—the essential Victorian gentleman and a post- Lucy Liu as Watson.[36] feminist young woman—to solve a case that combines el- ements of “The Sign of the Four” with elements from the Sherlok Kholms premiered in November 2013 on - celebrated news story of a plane hijacked for ransom by 1. The eight episodes were filmed in St. Petersburg, D. B. Cooper. Russia and starred Igor Petrenko as Holmes and Andrey Panin as Watson.[37] The 1991-92 series Sherlock Holmes the Golden Years consisted of two TV films, in which Sherlock Holmes In 2014, NHK produced a puppetry Sherlock Holmes (played by Christopher Lee) and Dr. Watson (played by written by Kōki Mitani. It is set in Beeton School, a fic- Patrick Macnee) are older adults who continue investigat- tional boarding school and Holmes is a fifteen-year-old ing cases. The two films were Incident at Victoria Falls pupil who lives in the room 221B of Baker House and re- and Sherlock Holmes and the Leading Lady. solves the troubles in the school but there’s no murder. In In 1991, Charlton Heston played Holmes in the Turner the show, John H. Watson is his roommate, Mrs Hudson is a housemother of Baker House and James Moriarty is Network Television production of Paul Giovanni's play . deputy headmaster of the school.[38] While not direct adaptations, the series House, MD and In 2000 the telemovie Murder Rooms featured Ian Psych contain elements of the Sherlock Holmes stories. Richardson as Dr. Joseph Bell, who solved (fictional) Gregory House derives his name, deductive prowess, crimes with the aid of his young pupil Arthur Co- and addictive nature from Sherlock, but solves medical nan Doyle. Four more telemovies followed in 2001. mysteries as opposed to criminal investigations. Shawn The series was subtitled “The Dark Origins of Sherlock Spencer has the same observational skills as Holmes, Holmes” for US syndication. as well as solving criminal mysteries with a medically From 2000 to 2002, Muse Entertainment Enterprises trained partner (Burton “Gus” Guster). produced four television films for the Hallmark Channel, starring Matt Frewer as Holmes and Kenneth Welsh as Dr Watson, in The Hound of the Baskervilles (2000), The 9.2 TV movies Royal Scandal (2001), The Sign of Four (2001) and The Case of the Whitechapel Vampire (2002). John Cleese starred as Holmes’ grandson - Arthur Sher- 2002 saw a new version of The Hound of the Baskervilles lock Holmes - in the comic TV special The Strange Case featuring Richard Roxburgh. Ian Hart played Dr. Wat- of the End of Civilization as We Know It (1977). Arthur son then and also in the 2004 BBC airing of Sherlock Lowe played Dr. William Watson, the original doctor’s Holmes and the Case of the Silk Stocking, alternatively grandson. billed as The Return of Sherlock Holmes. An original Between 1979 and 1986, Soviet television produced a se- screenplay “based on the character created by Sir Arthur ries of five television films[37] at the Lenfilm movie studio, Conan Doyle”, this film takes place in 1902, with Dr. The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. The Watson “saving a dear friend from narcotics and bore- 7

dom”, this friend being an opium-addicted and increas- • 221B Baker Street (1987) (Datasoft) (PC and Mac) ingly weak Sherlock Holmes. Rupert Everett plays the • Great Detective. Sherlock: The Riddle of the Crown Jewels (1988) (Infocom) 2002 also saw the made for television cable movie, Case of Evil, about a 20-something Sherlock Holmes • Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective (1991) (James D'Arcy) and a Doctor Watson who worked as an (ICOM Simulations) early practitioner of autopsies, on the trail of Holmes’ • archenemy, Professor Moriarty (Vincent D'Onofrio). Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective Vol. II (1992) (ICOM Simulations)

9.3 Episodes of unrelated series • Sherlock Holmes: Consulting Detective Vol. III (1993) (ICOM Simulations) An adaptation of The Speckled Band aired on the early • The Lost Files of Sherlock Holmes: The Case of the TV anthology series Your Show Time, and starred Alan Serrated Scalpel (1992) (Electronic Arts) (PC) Napier as Holmes and Melville Cooper as Watson. • John Cleese played Holmes in a 1973 episode of “Com- The Lost Files of Sherlock Holmes: The Case of the edy Playhouse": Elementary My Dear Watson. William Rose Tattoo (1996) (Electronic Arts) (PC) Rushton played Watson. • Sherlock Holmes 2: Checkmate (2011) (Sticky Game The android Lt. Commander Data (Brent Spiner) from Studios) (PC and Mac online game) : The Next Generation had a personal interest of visiting the holodeck and playing Sherlock Holmes with • Sherlock Holmes: Mystery of the Mummy (2002) his friend Geordi LaForge (LeVar Burton) as Dr John (Frogwares) (PC) (DS) H. Watson, as can be seen in two episodes of the series. • Sherlock Holmes: The Case of the Silver Earring On these occasions, Commander Data would replay and (2004) (Frogwares) (PC) try to solve some of his favourite Holmes stories, or let the computer improvise a new mystery in the style of • Sherlock Holmes: The Awakened (2006) (Frog- Doyle’s stories. On most of these occasions, these ex- wares) (PC) ercises would result in a quick solution, since his android brain would immediately pick up all available clues, and • Sherlock Holmes versus Arsène Lupin (2007) (Frog- his superior deductive skills would quickly solve the prob- wares) (PC) lem. Attempting to let the computer create a more dif- • ficult mystery for him however, resulted in the computer Sherlock Holmes versus Jack the Ripper (2009) creating a holographic Professor James Moriarty which (Frogwares) (PC) (X360) was imbued with a measure of consciousness, and who • Sherlock Holmes and the Mystery of Osbourne House formed the basis for a story arc for said two episodes. The (2010) (Frogwares) (DS) holographic Moriarty quickly caused problems when he realised he was a holodeck creation, and demanded a 'full' • The Testament of Sherlock Holmes (2012) (Frog- life, with the possibility to leave the holodeck. wares) (PS3) (X360) (PC)

The children’s television series Wishbone featured • Sherlock Holmes: Crimes & Punishments (2014) Holmes and Watson in two episodes: “The Slobbery (Frogwares) (PC) (X360) (Xbox One) (PS3) (PS4) Hound” (based on The Hound of the Baskervilles) and “A Dogged Exposé" (). • Sherlock Holmes: The Devil’s Daughter (2016) (Frogwares) (PC) (Xbox One) (PS4)[39] 10 Video games 11 References Sherlock Holmes and his world are also used in video game universe as computer games and video games. [1] Ron Goulart, The Funnies:100 Years of American Comic Most successful of these games is the Adventures of Sher- Strips,Holbrook, Mass.:Adams Publishing, 1995. ISBN lock Holmes video game series by Frogwares. The series 094473524X (pp. 104, 106) has garnered awards and consists of six main games. [2] Goulart, 1995 (p.198)

• Sherlock (1984) (Philip Mitchell) (PC text adven- [3] http://www.mspaintadventures.com/ ture) sweetbroandhellajeff/?cid=045.jpg

• Sherlock Holmes: Hakushaku Reijō Yūkai Jiken [4] “Martin Mystère: The shadows of Baker Street”. (1986) (Family Computer) en.sergiobonellieditore.it. Retrieved 2011-01-02. 8 13 EXTERNAL LINKS

[5] “Martin Mystère: The Return of Jack”. [28] Jim French Productions en.sergiobonellieditore.it. Retrieved 2011-01-02. [29] Sir Arthur Conan Doyle; William S. Baring-Gould [6] “Stories from Elsewhere: The creature from the fog”. (1979). The Annotated Sherlock Holmes. Clarkson N. en.sergiobonellieditore.it. Retrieved 2011-01-02. Potter, Inc. p. 28. ISBN 0517502917.

[7] “Stories from Elsewhere: A woman who lived two lives”. [30] Kabatchnik, Amnon (2008). Sherlock Holmes on the en.sergiobonellieditore.it. Retrieved 2011-01-02. Stage: A Chronological Encyclopedia of Plays Featur- ing the Great Detective. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow [8] “Martin Mystère: The impossible world of Sherlock Press. pp. 47–51. ISBN 978-0-8108-6125-1. OCLC Holmes”. en.sergiobonellieditore.it. Retrieved 2011-01- 190785243. 02. [31] Frank Rich, “Stage: Langella In 'Sherlock’s Last.' ", The [9] “Sherlock Holmes Comics”. Caliber Comics. Retrieved Times, August 21, 1987. 2012-02-05. [32] “The Secret of Sherlock Holmes Opens at London’s [10] “The Sussex Vampire”. Comic Vine. Retrieved 2012-02- Duchess Theatre July 20”. .com. Retrieved 2011- 05. 01-02.

[11] “The Dark Detective: Sherlock Holmes”. Black House [33] “Licencing, The Hound of the Baskervilles, Peepolykus Comics. Retrieved 2012-02-05. Theatre Company”. Peepolykus.com. Retrieved 2014- 10-28. [12] “Dave Elsey Wins Oscar”. Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2012-02-05. [34] “The Hound of the Baskervilles, BBC Radio 4”. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-10-28. [13] “Review: Muppet Sherlock Holmes #1”. Comic Book Resources. Retrieved 2012-02-05. [35] “Peepolykus Theatre Company”. Peepolykus.com. Re- trieved 2014-10-28. [14] http://www.newparadigmstudios.com/about/ watson-and-holmes/ [36] Jonny Lee Miller & Lucy Liu Explain Their Elementary Take On Sherlock Holmes! News. Yahoo. 2012-05-16. [15] Redmond, Christopher (1993). A Sherlock Holmes Hand- Retrieved on 2012-06-19. book. Toronto: Dundern Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1- [37] Thomlison, Adam. “Q & A”. TV Media. Retrieved 2013- 55488-446-9. 05-03. [16] Hardy, Phil (1997). The BFI Companion to Crime. Berke- [38] NHK ley: University of Press. p. 168. ISBN 978-0- 201461319 304-33215-1. Shinjirō Okazaki and Kenichi Fujita (Ed.) Guidebook to [17] http://radiovesti.ru/article/show/article_id/113563 Sherlock Holmes, Tokyo, Shogakukan, 2014, p. 6, p. 13 and p. 19. [18] Robert W. Pohle, Douglas C. Hart, Sherlock Holmes on the screen: the motion picture adventures of the world’s most [39] http://www.frogwares.com/blog/ popular detective (A. S. Barnes, 1977), pp. 54, 56, 57 bigben-interactive-and-frogwares-reveal-the-new-sherlock-holmes-game/

[19] From Pages to Stages: Sherlock Holmes on Camera and Microphone 12 Literature [20] Biography for Raymond Massey at Turner Classic Movies • Peter Haining, The Television Sherlock Holmes, [21] Prepolec, Charles (October 7, 2009). “DVD: The Asy- W.H. Allen, London, 1986. ISBN 0-491-03055-X. lum’s Cash-In Sherlock Holmes Movie”. Sherlock Holmes News. Archived from the original on 19 January 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2009. 13 External links [22] “Deak: Hound of the Baskervilles, R. Fredrickson, bass -Pt.1”. YouTube. Retrieved 2011-01-02. • BBC Cult Page for five original Sherlock Holmes [23] http://special.lib.umn.edu/findaid/xml/scrb0007.xml short stories, posted in January 2004.

[24] The of 20th Century-Fox: A Pictorial History by • List of Sherlock Holmes games at MobyGames Tony ThomasHardcover, Citadel Press 1985 English Rev • and Enl ed. 496 pages ISBN 9780806509587 “Brief and Incomplete History of Sherlock Holmes on TV” by the Sherlock Holmes Society of London. [25] http://www.otrsite.com/otrsite/logs/logs1041.htm • The Russian TV films [26] https://archive.org/details/OTR_Sherlock_Holmes_ • smurfmeat Open audio collection of various Radio broadcasts (archive.org) [27] http://www.tv.com/people/edith-meiser/ 9

14 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

14.1 Text

• Adaptations of Sherlock Holmes Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adaptations_of_Sherlock_Holmes?oldid=720040622 Contrib- utors: Paul A, Emperor, Cheeni, Alight, Timrollpickering, Geeoharee, Angmering, Beardo, Scottperry, Alansohn, Ricky81682, Hu, Cmapm, Kznf, The JPS, Woohookitty, Bunnyhero, Bluemoose, Stefanomione, BD2412, Rjwilmsi, Tim!, Nightscream, Josiah Rowe, Veg- aswikian, JohnDBuell, Jonny2x4, Bgwhite, Wavelength, Cculber007, Rick Norwood, Welsh, Korny O'Near, CJMylentz, Brother William, RL0919, GeorgeC, EmiOfBrie, Nikkimaria, SmackBot, Jon Rob, Nihonjoe, Sea diver, Commander Keane bot, Marktreut, Aastrup, Daemonward, Unint, GVnayR, NickPenguin, Bob Castle, Ohconfucius, Hope(N Forever), Midnightblueowl, DabMachine, Clarityfiend, Drvanthorp, Narm00, Signinstranger, SkyWalker, CmdrObot, Mattbr, The ed17, Brownlee, RagingR2, KXL, Cydebot, Ganryuu, Aristo- phanes68, JoeWiki, After Midnight, Draky, TonyTheTiger, Skymasterson, Alientraveller, Natalie Erin, Scottandrewhutchins, Salavat, Byeee, MB1972, Lawrence Albert, Celithemis, Cartoon Boy, SwiftBot, Make, Frotz, Daemonic Kangaroo, PhantomS, Ukaunz, Keith D, SheerDark, Wiki Raja, Koplimek, WFinch, Emmahayley, Bonadea, Squids and Chips, Shortride, Chaos5023, WOSlinker, Daisyabigael, Vchimpanzee, Victory93, Wsanders, StAnselm, Slatersteven, Tom proffitt, Prof .Woodruff, Sirbennet, Goustien, Pepso2, Supermatt55, Budhen, Kolchack, Sfan00 IMG, Saddhiyama, Omz13, Mezigue, Niceguyedc, Redhead911, Estleman, MickMacNee, Razorflame, Lord Cornwallis, Mbakkel2, Wastetimer, Erroneuz1, Bradley0110, Luwilt, Addbot, Dy54, Ka Faraq Gatri, Tassedethe, Lightbot, Luckas-bot, WikiDan61, Granpuff, Ptbotgourou, AnomieBOT, Momoricks, Ulric1313, Cidcn, LilHelpa, Khajidha, REVUpminster, Mathonius, Lexy- lou, FrescoBot, Sercan0053, Alcesuk, JIK1975, Moonraker, DReifGalaxyM31, Dutchmonkey9000, Trappist the monk, Lotje, Chris Brehe, RjwilmsiBot, DASHBot, John of Reading, AnselmiJuan, Princess Lirin, AvicBot, Zuko Halliwell, Natsy16, TomorrowWeDie, ClueBot NG, Max Tomos, Snotbot, Wgolf, ThaddeusSholto, BG19bot, Frze, Bumblezellio, Kyle Brackman, Yowanvista, John Lestrade Jr., David Kaplowitz, Khazar2, Michaelcomella, BeeperNPS, Magicperson6969, TonyFHQ214, Udeudeude, Brisanzbremse, Bc modern, MasterTri- angle12, LawrencePrincipe, Ishinoak, Diogenesnyc, Karl Vickers, TomPowis, SoSivr, Zussman1, SallyWicked, DiaristBoswell, Tigress223, Thorkall and Anonymous: 117

14.2 Images

• File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-by- sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:H._A._Saintsbury_as_Holmes.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/H._A._Saintsbury_as_ Holmes.png License: Public domain Contributors: Theatre poster of Cecil Barth’s touring company, c. 1903 (detail) Original artist: Cecil Barth • File:Paget_holmes.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Paget_holmes.png License: Public domain Con- tributors: Strand Magazine Original artist: (1860-1908) • File:Portal-puzzle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ? • File:Sherlock_Holmes_Baffled.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/36/Sherlock_Holmes_Baffled.jpg Li- cense: Public domain Contributors: Screenshot from the public domain film. Likely sourced from YouTube or [1] Original artist: American Mutoscope and Biograph Company

14.3 Content license

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