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A New Way to Think About

Adam Carr, Julia Fisher, Andrew Roberts, David Xu, and advisor Stephen Kennedy

June 6, 2007 1 Background and Motivation

Around 500-600 B.C., either or of Samos introduced the Western world to the forerunner of Western . After a good deal of work had been devoted to the ﬁeld, compiled and wrote The Elements circa 300 B.C. In this work, he gathered a fairly complete backbone of what we know today as . For most of the 2,500 years since, mathematicians have used the most basic tools to do geometry—a compass and straightedge. by point, by line, drawing by drawing, mathematicians have hunted for visual and intuitive evidence in hopes of discovering new theorems; they did it all by hand. Judging from the complexity and depth from the geometric results we see today, it’s safe to say that geometers were certainly not suﬀering from a lack of technology. In today’s technologically advanced world, a strenuous eﬀort is not required to transfer the ca- pabilities of a standard compass and straightedge to user-friendly software. One powerful example of this is Geometer’s Sketchpad. This program has allowed mathematicians to take an experimental approach to doing geometry. With the ability to create constructions quickly and cleanly, one is able to see a result ﬁrst and work towards developing a proof for it afterwards. Although one cannot claim proof by empirical evidence, the task of ﬁnding interesting things to prove became a lot easier with the help of this insightful and ﬂexible visual tool. One of the most incredible features of Geometer’s Sketchpad is its ability to produce dynamic constructions. In other words, one can create a construction with interdependent elements, alter one of the elements, and observe the resulting movement in the rest of the construction. These motions could not be easily represented otherwise (without the use of a ﬂip book and a huge number of painstakingly accurate drawings). Because of this, Geometer’s Sketchpad has enabled modern mathematicians to ask questions that their predecessors were not able to formulate. On paper, geometry is static. With Geometer’s Sketchpad, it becomes dynamic. With this tool in hand, let us begin our project with a few questions: Is there a way to naturally relate triangles? Is there a logical method to deﬁne “families” using intrinsic properties of triangles? Can we easily construct these families? What would the space that results from this con- struction look like topologically? How could we characterize motions through this space? In short, our task is to ﬁnd a natural and meaningful way to name and relate triangles. Recognizing there are many ways to approach this task, we need a starting point. Since we want to ﬁnd a way to characterize families of triangles that utilizes intrinsic triangle properties, it seems logical to begin with triangle centers. Thus, let us start with a brief overview.

2 Basic Triangle Concepts

First, we should deﬁne a few very well-known triangle centers. Although we are not including any proofs of their existence in our paper, these are simple to reproduce and can be found in any basic geometry text. Deﬁnition 1. A is straight line joining a triangle to the of the opposite side. Proposition 1. The three medians intersect at a point. This point is known as the and will be denoted by G . Deﬁnition 2. A bisector is a straight line that bisects a at a right . Deﬁnition 3. The circumcircle is the determined by a triangle’s three vertices. Deﬁnition 4. The circumradius is the radius of the circumcircle.

1 Deﬁnition 5. The circumcenter is the center of the circumcircle, denoted by O henceforth. Proposition 2. The three perpendicular bisectors of a triangle meet at the circumcenter. Deﬁnition 6. An is a straight line going through a triangle vertex, perpendicular to the opposite side or extension of the opposite side. Proposition 3. The three altitudes of a triangle intersect at a point. This point is known as the orthocenter and will be denoted by H .

In addition to the few presented here, there are a huge number of known triangle centers, many of which are constructed through quite elaborate processes. Interestingly, many of these triangle centers are collinear, lying on a line known as the . A few of these include less common centers such as the nine-point center, the , the Schiﬄer point, the , and the far-out point. Most importantly for our purposes, the centroid, circumcenter, and orthocenter all lie 1 on the Euler line. Additionally, it is a well-known fact that G always lies 3 of the way from O to H, a relationship of which we will frequently make use. Because of its connection to triangle centers (and the fact that April 15th 2007 is Euler’s 300th birthday), it seems natural to use the Euler line as the basis of our construction. Such a construction would take full advantage of much work already done, since it is exploits the work already done on triangle centers.

3 Classifying Triangles Based on the Euler line

Now, we can begin our search for a method of constructing a triangle based on a given Euler line. In the end, we want to develop a general method to construct all possible triangles. So, we begin by classifying all triangles that share the same Euler line. Consider the following question: Given the circumcenter, the centroid, and one vertex of a triangle, can you construct a triangle? Is the triangle with these three points unique? Are there other triangles with diﬀerent vertices but the same circumcenter and centroid? In order to address the ﬁrst question, we need the known result below. Our own proof of it is provided.

A

Mc M b G

B Ma

C

A' Figure 1: An illustration of Proposition 4.

Proposition 4. Given 4ABC and its centroid G , let Ma be the midpoint of segment BC , Mb the midpoint of segment AC , and Mc the midpoint of segment AB . Then, AG = 2GMa , BG = 2GMb , and CG = 2GMc .

2 We will prove this statement for segment BG . The proofs for segments AG and CG are identical.

0 0 Proof. Extend segment AMa past Ma and mark point A such that A Ma = AMa . Since by ∼ 0 ∼ construction BMa = MaC and by the Vertical Angle Theorem ∠BMaA = ∠CMaA , it follows 0 ∼ 0 ∼ from SAS that 4A MaB = ∆AMaC . Thus, ∠BA Ma = ∠CAMa . By Proposition 0 ∼ 0 27 of Euclid’s Elements, this implies that AC k BA . So, ∠AMbG = ∠A BG . Again by the ∼ 0 0 Vertical Angle Theorem, ∠AGMb = ∠A GB . Thus, ∆BA G ∼ ∆MbAG by AAA . Since 0 0 BG A B AC BA = AC = 2AMb , this and the previous triangle similarity imply that = = = 2 . GMb AMb AMb Therefore, BG = 2GMb .

With this information in hand, we will show that with a given circumcenter, centroid, and one vertex of a triangle, we can construct a triangle.

3.1 Triangle Construction

Let line l and a point O on l be given. Choose a point A not on l and create circle c centered at O with radius OA . O will be the circumcenter of our triangle and A one of its vertices. Thus, the other two vertices of our triangle will also lie on circle c . Let M and N be the intersections of l with c . Now, choose a point G 6= O on l such that G lies between M and N . G will be the 1 centroid of our triangle. Construct point H on l such that OG = 3 OH . By construction, H must be the orthocenter of the triangle. Now, construct the line that passes through A and G and the line that passes through A and H . Since it was just proven that the distance from one vertex of a triangle to its centroid is twice the distance from the centroid to the midpoint of the opposite side, 1 construct point Ma on AG such that GMa = 2 GA and such that Ma is not between A and G . Then, construct line m through Ma such that m ⊥ AH . Let B and C be the intersections of m with circle c . Since H is the orthocenter of the triangle, AH must be the altitude from vertex A . Moreover, we constructed line m to be perpendicular to AH . Thus, line m must be the side of the triangle opposite vertex A , and B and C will be the triangle’s remaining two vertices. Therefore, we have constructed a 4ABC from a given Euler line l , two points on l , and a point A not on l .

c A

M l O G H N

m B

Ma C

Figure 2: The elements of the triangle construction.

Removing the condition that the speciﬁc point A must be a vertex of the triangle produces an inﬁnite number of triangles that have circumcenter O and orthocenter H . So, we will choose to classify triangles according to their circumcenter, centroid, and a given circumradius. As a convention, we will orient ourselves with the Euler line as the traditional x-axis unless otherwise stated.

3 Deﬁnition 7. Let 4ABC with circumcenter O and centroid G be given, and let T be the space of all triangles. Then, deﬁne a mapping F : T → R3 , where F (4ABC) = (θ, g, r) with θ , g , and r determined as follows:

θ = m∠GOP, where vertex P lies on the “one-vertex side”, g = OG, r = OA.

A

r

θ O g G H

B

C

Figure 3: OG = g , OA = r , and ∠GOP = θ where P is the vertex on the “one-vertex” side; in the diagram above, P = A

Note that in the event that one vertex falls on the Euler line we will have two “one-vertex sides,” and in that case θ will be the smaller of the .

3.2 Special Cases of the Construction

The natural question to ask now is, “is this construction well-deﬁned?” Before we address this, we must ﬁrst discuss some special cases of our construction. These will help us prove that the construction is in fact well-deﬁned. A

Mb

Mc G O

C

Ma B

Figure 4: When g = 0 , O and G are coincident.

Proposition 5. 4ABC is equilateral if and only if g = 0 .

4 Proof. (⇒) Let 4ABC be equilateral. Let Ma and Mb be the of sides BC and AC , ∼ ∼ respectively. Then, construct lines AMa and BMb . Since ∠ACB = ∠ABC , BMa = CMa , and ∼ ∼ AB = AC , it follows from SAS congruence that 4ABMa = 4ACMa . Therefore, m∠AMaB = m∠AMaC = π . Thus, AMa is the perpendicular bisector of BC . Consequently, the circumcenter O of 4ABC lies on AMa . Moreover, by construction, the centroid G of 4ABC lies on AMa .

By the same argument, O and G also lie on BMb . Since AMa and BMb only intersect once, the only way that this can occur is if O = G . Thus, OG = g = 0 .

(⇐) Let 4ABC be given with OG = 0 . Let Ma and Mb be deﬁned as above. Now, construct ∼ AG . Since G is the centroid, Ma must lie on AG . Since O = G , ∠AMaB = ∠AMaC . Thus, since ∼ ∼ AMa is common, by SAS congruence, 4AMaB = 4AMaC . This implies that AB = AC . By the same argument, BC =∼ AB . Therefore, AB =∼ AC =∼ BC , and 4ABC is equilateral.

Note that an does not in fact have an Euler line, since the triangle centers determining the Euler line collapse a single point. Also, since G and O are the same point the angle π formed by O , G , and a vertex does not technically exist. Thus, we will deﬁne θ = 2 for reasons that will become clear later.

Proposition 6. Let 4ABC with orthocenter H be given. If H lies on the circumcircle of 4ABC , then H is coincident with one vertex of 4ABC .

Proof. (⇒) Let circle c centered at O be given, and let H and A be points on c such that H 6= A . We will construct 4ABC with circumcenter O , circumcircle c , and orthocenter H and show that H must coincide with either B or C . To begin, connect A to the centroid G , which lies on the Euler Line one third of the way from O to H . Extend AG beyond G one-half the of AG , and call the endpoint of this extended segment Ma . By Proposition 4, Ma must be the midpoint of BC . Since H is the orthocenter of 4ABC , AH must be perpendicular to BC . Thus, if we construct the line MaP , where P is the point on AH such that MaP ⊥ AH , this line will contain vertices B and C . We will show that P = H .

c A

H O G Hc B P

Ma C

Figure 5: P lies past H on ray AH~ .

To do this, suppose to the contrary that P 6= H . Then, P lies between A and H , past H on −−→ −−→ the ray AH , or past A on the ray HA . −−→ Case 1: (Refer to Figure 5 above.) Suppose P lies past H on AH . Then, vertex B , the intersection of the circumcircle and the line MaP lies on the opposite side of the Euler line from

5 π A . By construction, m∠AP C = 2 . Now, construct CH . CH is the altitude from vertex C and thus meets AB perpendicularly at Hc . Consider 4ACHc . By angle subtraction, m∠ACH + π π m∠BAC = 2 . Consider ∆ACP . Again by angle subtraction, m∠ACP + m∠CAP = 2 . However, π = m∠ACP + m∠CAP > m∠ACH + m∠BAC = π . This is a contradiction. Thus, P cannot lie 2 −−→ 2 past H on AH .

A c

B P

Hc O G H

Ma

C

Figure 6: P lies between A and H .

Case 2: (Refer to Figure 6 above.) Suppose P lies between A and H . Then, vertex B , the intersection of the circumcircle and the line MaP lies on the same side of the Euler line as A . As in π π Case 1 , since AH is the altitude from A , m∠AP C = 2 . Thus, m∠CAP +m∠ACP = 2 . Construct CH . Since CH is the altitude from C to AB , it meets AB perpendicularly at Hc . It follows that π π π m∠CAHc + m∠ACHc = 2 . However, 2 = m∠CAP + m∠ACP < m∠CAHc + m∠ACHc = 2 . This is a contradiction. Thus, P cannot lie between A and H .

P

B A c

Hc

O G H

Ma

C

Figure 7: P lies past A on ray HA~ . −−→ Case 3: (Refer to Figure 7 above.) Suppose P lies past A on the ray HA . As in the previous two π π π cases, m∠AP C = 2 . Thus, m∠BAP +m∠ABP = 2 . This implies that m∠ABC = m∠BAP + 2 > π 2 . Construct CH . Since CH is the altitude from C to AB , it meets AB perpendicularly at Hc . π −−→ Thus, m∠HcBC = m∠ABC < 2 . This is a contradiction. Thus, P cannot lie past A on ray HA . Therefore, P is coincident with H . By the initial discussion, MaH contains the vertices B and C of 4ABC . Since these vertices must lie on the circumcircle c , and H is on the circumcircle, it

6 follows that H must coincide with either B or C .

Corollary 1. Let 4ABC with orthocenter H be given. Then, H is coincident with vertex B if π and only if m∠ABC = 2 .

Proof. (⇒) Assume that H is coincident with vertex B . It follows immediately from the work in π Proposition 6 that m∠ABC = 2 . π (⇐) Assume that m∠ABC = 2 . Then, BC is the altitude from vertex C to AB , and AB is the altitude from vertex A to BC . Since the altitudes of a triangle coincide at H , it follows that B and H are coincident.

r Proposition 7. Triangle 4ABC is a if and only if g = 3 .

r Proof. ( ⇐ ) If g = 3 , then OH = r . That is, H lies on the circumcircle. Therefore, by Proposition 6 and Corollary 1, 4ABC is a right triangle. ( ⇒ ) If 4ABC is a right triangle, then by Corollary 1, H is coincident with one vertex. Without loss of generality, let that vertex be vertex B . Thus, H is on the circumcirle, so OH = r . Since G r is one-third of the way from O to H , it follows that g = 3 .

A

B O G H

C

r Figure 8: Right triangles occur when g = 3 and H lies on the circumcircle.

To follow Proposition 7, we have the next two propositions which deal with the cases in which r r g > 3 and g < 3 . r Proposition 8. Triangle 4ABC is an obtuse triangle if and only if g > 3 .

Proof. We will begin with the reverse direction. r r ( ⇐ ) Let g > 3 . Then, since OH = 3OG = 3g > 3( 3 ) = r , it follows that the orthocenter H lies outside the circumcircle. Construct the altitude from vertex A . Without loss of generality, assume −−→ π π that H lies past vertex B on ray CB . Since m∠AHB = 2 , it follows that m∠ABH < 2 . Thus, π m∠ABC > 2 . Therefore, 4ABC is obtuse. ( ⇒ ) Let 4ABC be obtuse. Without loss of generality, assume that m∠ABC > π . Construct −−→ 2 the altitude from vertex A . It will intersect side BC either past B on ray CB or past C on −−→ ray BC by the following: Suppose that the altitude from vertex A intersects segment BC . Let π π Ha be its intersection with BC . Then, m∠AHaB = 2 . By assumption, m∠ABC > 2 . Thus, m∠AHaB + m∠ABC + m∠BAHa > π . This is a contradiction. Thus, the altitude from vertex A

7 intersects an extention of segment BC . By the same argument, the altitude from vertex C intersects an extention of segment AB . Now, the extentions of BC and AB must lie outside the circumcircle of 4ABC . Therefore, the orthocenter H , the intersection of the altitudes from vertices A and C , must lie outside the circumcircle. Since OH = 3OG = 3g , and since we now know that OH > r , it r follows that 3g > r or g > 3 . r Proposition 9. Triangle 4ABC is an acute triangle if and only if g < 3 .

Proof. This follows from a process of elimination using Propositions 7 and 8.

The three propositions above are nice because they indicate that the construction cleanly separates acute, right, and obtuse triangles. We will next examine another type of triangles — isosceles triangles.

Proposition 10. If 4ABC is isosceles, one of its vertices lies on the Euler line.

∼ Proof. Assume that 4ABC is isosceles with AB = AC . Let Ma be the midpoint of BC . Then, ∼ ∼ AMa contains the centroid G of 4ABC . Moreover, since AB = AC , BMa = MaC , and AMa is ∼ ∼ shared, it follows that 4AMaB = 4AMaC . Thus, ∠AMaB = ∠AMaC . Since they are supplemen- π tary, m∠AMaB = m∠AMaC = 2 . This implies that AMa is the altitude of 4ABC from point A . Thus, the orthocenter H of 4ABC must lie on AMa . Therefore, AMa coincides with the Euler line.

B' B'' B

O G G' G'' A

C C' C''

Figure 9: A few diﬀerent isosceles triangles.

Proposition 11. If 4ABC is not a right triangle and has a vertex lying on the Euler line, then it is isosceles.

Proof. Assume that the Euler line l of 4ABC intersects vertex A . Since the centroid of 4ABC lies ∼ on l , it follows that l must intersect BC at the midpoint M of BC . Thus, BMa = CMa . Also, the π orthocenter of 4ABC lies on l and is not coincident with A . Thus, m∠AMaB = m∠AMaC = 2 . ∼ Finally, by SAS congruence, 4AMaB = 4AMaC (since side AMa is shared). This implies that AB =∼ AC .

8 3.3 Showing that the Construction is Well-Deﬁned

We are ﬁnally ready to show that the construction is well-deﬁned.

Proposition 12. The mapping F : T → R3 is well-deﬁned.

A D

Mb Me O O' Mc Mf

G G'

C F Ma Md B E

Figure 10: Showing the construction is well-deﬁned.

Proof. To show our construction is well-deﬁned we must show that given two triangles 4ABC and 4DEF , 4ABC =∼ 4DEF if and only if the coordinates (θ, g, r) of 4ABC equal the coordinates (θ0, g0, r0) of 4DEF . The reverse direction is covered since given two sets of equal parameters, we know that the corresponding triangles will be congruent by construction. Thus,we only have to show that two congruent triangles will produce the same parameters. Assume 4ABC =∼ 4DEF with A corresponding to D , B corresponding to E , and C corre- sponding to F . Construct the and circumcenters of the given triangles. Since the triangles are congruent it must be that corresponding vertices lie on the same side of the Euler line with respect to the other vertices. Case i) Without loss of generality let A and B be on the same side of the Euler line. Then, D and E must also lie on the same side of the Euler line. Also, it must be that r = r0 , since otherwise the triangles would have diﬀerent circumcircles. Therefore, OC =∼ O0F in the diagram. Also we know the corresponding medians must be congruent 2CMc 0 2FMf ∼ by simple SAS arguments. Now, GC = 3 and G F = 3 . But CMc = FMf because they are ∼ 0 ∼ 0 corresponding medians. Therefore, GC = G F . By a similar argument, GMa = G Md . So, by SSS ∼ 0 ∼ 0 4CGMa = 4FG Md , which gives us ∠GCMa = ∠G FMd . Also, by a -leg right-triangle ∼ 0 ∼ 0 congruence argument, 4OCMa = 4O FMd . Therefore, ∠OCMa = ∠O FMd . By subtraction, ∠GCO =∼ ∠G0FO0 . So, by ASA congruence, 4GCO =∼ 4G0CO0 and GO =∼ G0O0 . Thus, it must be that g = g0 . It also follows that ∠GOC =∼ ∠G0O0F , so θ =∼ θ0 . We now have to consider the cases in which we have a vertex on the Euler line. First, we will consider the right triangle case. π AC DF 0 Case ii) If we let m∠ABC = 2 = m∠DEF , then r = 2 = 2 = r . Since we have right r 0 ∼ 0 ∼ 0 π triangles, g = 3 = g . Also 4OAB = 4O DE by SSS. So ∠BOA = ∠EO D . If ∠BOA ≤ 2 , then 0 π 0 θ = m∠BOA = θ . Otherwise, ∠BOA > 2 , which means θ = π − m∠BOA = θ . Case iii) If we have congruent isosceles triangles, the arguments for cases i) and ii) hold, except that it does not matter which vertex you choose to form θ as long as it is not the vertex on the Euler line.

9 Case iv) When we have congruent equilateral triangles, r must equal r0 , θ (likewise θ0 ) does not actually exist or have any aﬀect in determining the triangle and g = 0 = g0 .

4 The Topology of Triangle Space

As mentioned in the introduction, one of our goals is to ﬁgure out what triangle space looks like. One could argue that this can be done by considering triangles in the traditional sense: deﬁning a triangle by the of its sides. In either case, you are given three numbers, and those three numbers correspond to a point in R3 . This point corresponds to the triangle deﬁned by the three numbers. The problem with considering triangles in the traditional sense is that every triangle is corresponds to six diﬀerent points (one for each permutation of the three sides). It is not a trivial problem to deﬁne the space in such a way that every triangle is represented only once. By deﬁning a triangle the way we have, we have ensured that every triangle is represented by exactly one ordered triplet. However, not every point in R3 represents a triangle. It will be our next task to determine exactly which values of θ , g , and r give us legitimate triangles. To help us reach our goal, let us ﬁrst examine similar triangles.

Theorem 1. Two triangles 4ABC deﬁned by (θ, g, r) and 4A0B0C0 deﬁned by (θ0, g0, r0) are similar if and only if θ = θ0 , g = kg0 , and r = kr0 for k > 0 .

Proof. (⇐) Let 4ABC be similar to 4A0B0C0 . Let G and G0 be the centroids of and O and O0 the circumcenters of 4ABC and 4A0B0C0 , 0 0 0 respectively. Also, let Ma and Ma be the midpoints of segments BC and B C , respectively. Let 0 0 0 Mb and Mb be the midpoints of AC and A C , respectively. Since the two triangles are similar, AB BMa 0 0 0 AMa it follows that 0 0 = 0 0 = k . Therefore, 4ABMa ∼ 4A B Ma . So, 0 0 = k . Now, G A B B Ma A Ma 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 and G must lie on AMa and A Ma ,respectively. Moreover, GMa = 3 AMa and G Ma = 3 A Ma . GMa AMa BC MbC 0 0 0 BMb So, 0 0 = 0 0 . Also, 0 0 = 0 0 = k . So, 4BCMb ∼ 4B C Mb . So, 0 0 = k . But, G Ma A Ma B C Mb C B Mb 1 0 0 1 0 0 GMb 0 0 0 GMb = BMb and G Mb = B Mb . Thus, 0 0 = k . This implies that 4BMbMa ∼ 4G Mb Ma 3 3 G Mb ∼ 0 0 0 by SSS similarity. Thus, ∠GMbMa = ∠G Mb Ma . Now,

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 m∠O Mb G + m∠G Mb Ma + m∠Ma Mb C = π 0 0 0 m∠GMbMa = m∠G Mb Ma 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 m∠MaMbC = m∠BMbC − m∠GMbMa = m∠B Mb C − m∠G Mb Ma = m∠Ma Mb C 0 0 0 m∠OMbG = m∠O Mb G

∼ 0 0 0 OG GMb Thus, by SAS similarity, 4OMbG = 4O Mb G . This implies that 0 0 = 0 0 = k . So, O G G Mb OG = kO0G0 . But, O0G0 = g0 and OG = g . Thus, g = kg0 .

MbC MaC 0 0 0 Now, we know that 0 0 = 0 0 = k . So, 4MbMaC ∼ 4Mb C Ma by SAS similarity. Mb C Ma C 0 0 0 ∼ ∼ 0 0 0 MMa Therefore, ∠Mb Ma C = ∠MbMaC , ∠MaMbC = ∠Ma Mb C , and 0 0 . Thus, by subtraction, M Ma ∼ 0 0 0 ∼ 0 0 0 0 0 0 ∠OMaM = ∠O Ma Mb and ∠OMbMa = ∠O Mb Ma . This implies that 4OMbMa ∼ 4O Mb Ma . OMb MbMa 0 0 0 OC So, 0 0 = 0 0 = k . Thus, 4OMbC ∼ 4O Mb C . Therefore, 0 0 = k . But, OC = r and O Mb Mb Ma O C O0C0 = r0 . So we know r = kr0 . Now, construct lines OG , O0G0 , and segments OC and O0C0 . We have shown that the segments connecting the centroids to the vertices are proportional by k , and OG = kO0G0 . Thus, 4OGC ∼ 4O0G0C0 by SSS similarity. This implies that ∠GOC =∼ ∠G0O0C0 . So, since ∠GOC = θ and ∠G0O0C0 = θ0 , θ = θ0 .

10 A'

A r/k

b/k r b

θ θ

O g G O g/k G' B B'

a

a/k C

C'

Figure 11: Angle θ is the same in both triangles.

(⇒) Let 4ABC deﬁned by (θ, g, r) and 4A0B0C0 deﬁned by (θ0, g0, r0) be two triangles with the property that r = kr0 , g = kg0 , and θ = θ0 . 0 0 0 First, let Ma be the midpoint of CB . Now, we can see that 4AOG ∼ 4A O G by SAS AG similarity. Thus, A0G0 = k . So,

3 AMa 2 AG AG A0M 0 = 3 0 0 = A0G0 = k a 2 A G

GMa 0 0 ∼ 0 0 0 ∼ 0 0 0 Then, 0 0 = k and GMa = kG M . Also, ∠AGO = ∠A G O and thus ∠OGMa = ∠O G M . G Ma a a 0 0 0 OMa 0 0 Therefore, 4OGMa ∼ 4O G M by SAS similarity. So, 0 0 = k and OMa = kO M . Also, a O Ma a ∼ 0 0 0 0 0 0 ∠OMaG = ∠O MaG . Because O and O lie on the perpendicular bisectors to sides BC and B C respectively, we know,

2 2 2 CMa = (kr) − OMa 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 (C Ma) = r − (O Ma) 2 2 0 0 2 CMa = (kr) − (kO Ma) 2 2 2 0 0 2 CMa = k (r − (O Ma) ) 2 2 0 0 2 CMa = k (C Ma) 0 0 CMa = kC Ma

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Also, BC = 2CMa = 2kC Ma = kB C . Thus, 4ACMa ∼ 4A C Ma by SAS similarity. Thus, ∼ 0 0 0 0 0 0 ∠ACMa = ∠A C Ma and 4ABC ∼ 4A B C by SAS similarity.

Let us now begin looking at the bounds on θ , g , and r .

Proposition 13. If (θ, g, r) represents a triangle, then r > 0 .

Proof. The only acceptable values of r are r > 0 because r = 0 would mean that the circumcircle is only a point, which does not allow for any triangles. Moreover, r < 0 is absurd. Also, if r is bounded

11 above, then we restrict ourselves to triangles with side lengths less than 2r , so r can be any positive number.

That being said, Theorem 1 implies that r is just a variable. Therefore we can get a clear picture of what triangle space looks like by examining cross-sections of R3 parallel to the θg -plane. 1 −1 1 cos[ 2 (θ + sin ( 2 sin θ))] Proposition 14. If (θ, g, r) represents a triangle, then 0 ≤ g < r 1 −1 1 cos[ 2 (θ − sin ( 2 sin θ))] A

θθθ O Gmin G' max

B B' C' C

Figure 12: Note that vertices B0 and C0 are coincident.

Proof. As motivation for this proof, imagine being given a triangle inscribed in a circle. Take the centroid G of the triangle, which lies on the Euler line, and start moving it away from the circumcenter toward the closest edge of the circle. Since G is the intersection of the lines connecting the vertices of the triangle with the midpoints of the opposite sides, it follows that as G approaches the edge of the circle, two vertices of the triangle (say B and C ) begin to come closer together. This is because G is approaching one side of the triangle (say AB ), and as it gets closer and closer to that side, the line connecting vertex A and the midpoint of BC , Ma moves closer and closer to the edge of the circumcircle. Thus, when G reaches side AB , BC and consequently 4ABC disappears. It seems that this point is the limit for OG or g . Therefore, we ﬁrst identify a way to calculate this limit.

Let Ma again be the midpoint of the side opposite vertex A. We want to ﬁnd the value of g so that M lies on the the circumcircle. Now, consider 4OAM . Let A be the vertex of 4ABC a −→ a inscribed in the circle and Ma be the point on ray AG such that AG = 2GMa . Let y = GMa and g = OG .

Then, since OMa and OA are both radii of the circle, it follows that 4OAM is isosceles. Thus, ∼ sin θ sin ∠OAMa ∠OAMa = ∠OMaA . Let α = ∠MaOG and ∠GOA = θ . Now, by the Law of Sines, 2y = g sin α sin OMaA sin ∠OAMa sin θ sin α in 4OAG . Also, y = g = g in 4MaOG . Therefore, 2y = y , which implies sin θ −1 1 π−(θ+α) that sin α = 2 . This in turn implies that α = sin 2 sin θ . Now, 2 = β . If we deﬁne π θ α π θ α γ = ∠OGA , then γ = π − θ − β = π − θ − 2 + 2 + 2 = 2 − 2 + 2 . Finally, again by the Law of sin π − θ − α sin π − θ + α sin π − θ − α Sines, 2 2 2 = 2 2 2 . ∴ g = r 2 2 2 . Replacing α with sin−1 1 sin θ and x r π θ α 2 sin 2 − 2 + 2 π realizing that sin( 2 − φ) = cos φ provides the desired result, 1 −1 1 cos[ 2 (θ + sin ( 2 sin θ))] g < r 1 −1 1 . cos[ 2 (θ − sin ( 2 sin θ))]

12 Now that we have g bounded above, we consider the lower bound. Clearly we need to include g = 0 because we need to include equilateral triangles. We have always looked at our triangles with G on the right side of O . If we look at the triangles we get with G on the left side of O we realize they are the same as the ones with G on the right side. They can be mapped to each other by reﬂecting across the line perpendicular to the Euler line at O . Thus,

1 −1 1 cos[ 2 (θ + sin ( 2 sin θ))] 0 ≤ g < r 1 −1 1 . cos[ 2 (θ − sin ( 2 sin θ))]

The bounds for θ are a lot harder to sort out because they come in cases which depend on g For the following propositions, we will denote the θ value for an with a vertex and G lying on the Euler line on the same side of O as θR . Also, we will denote the θ value for an isosceles triangle with a vertex and G lying on the Euler line on the opposite sides of O as θL .

r −1 3g+r −1 3g−r Proposition 15. If g < 3 , then cos ( 2r ) ≤ θ ≤ cos ( 2r ) .

A

A'

θmax θmin B' O G H B

C'

C Figure 13: The bounds are created by an isoceles triangle on either end.

r Proof. Since g < 3 , every triangle with a vertex on the Euler line is an isosceles triangle. Consider the isosceles triangle with vertex B on the Euler line on the same side of O that G is on. So, θR = m∠GOA . Let Mb be the midpoint of AC . Since this is an isosceles triangle, Mb lies on the π r−3g Euler line and m∠AMbO = 2 . Also, r − g = BG = 2(GMb) . Therefore, OM = 2r . We also know r−3g m∠AOM = π − θR . So cos(π − θR) = − cos θR = 2r . Therefore, 3g − r θ = cos−1( ) . R 2r

A consequence of this isosceles triangle case is that ∠GOA =∼ ∠AOB . Also, ∠GOA =∼ ∠GOC , and both measure θ , so we can think of ∠GOA as θ . By the , we know that

2r2 − (AB)2 ∠AOB = cos−1( ) . 2r2

13 In the appendix, we prove that s p 3r2 − 9g2 + 6rg cos θ AB = 3r2 − 3rg cos θ − 3rg sin θ p . r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ

−1 3g−r When θ = cos ( 2r ) , (after some simpliﬁcation) we see ∂(θ − m∠AOB) 3g = 1 − . ∂θ r r So, since g < 3 , ∂(θ − m∠AOB) > 0. ∂θ This means that as we increase m∠GOA , the diﬀerence m∠GOA − m∠BOA increases. So,

m∠GOA − m∠BOA > 0.

Therefore, A and B must be on the same side of the Euler line. This means that θ is made by ∠GOC , and 3g − r ∠GOC < cos−1( ), 2r otherwise C and B would be on the same side of the Euler line (and B cannot be on both sides of r the Euler line). This proves that θR is the upper bound for θ when g < 3 . Likewise, the lower bound for θ is found in the other isosceles triangle case. That is, when we have an isosceles triangle with a vertex (without loss of generality, C ) on the opposite side of O from G . Let θL be made by ∠GOA . Again, let Mc be the midpoint of AB . Since this is an isosceles π triangle, Mc lies on the Euler line and m∠AMcO = 2 . Also, g + r = CG = 2(GMc) . Therefore, 3g+r OMc = 2r . We also know m∠AOG = θL . So, 3g + r θ = cos−1( ) . L 2r The consequence of this isosceles triangle case is that ∠GOA + ∠AOC = π . Also, ∠GOA =∼ ∠GOB , and both measure θ , so we can think of ∠GOA as θ . By the law of cosines, we know that 2r2 − (AC)2 ∠AOC = cos−1( . 2r2 In the appendix, we prove that s p 3r2 − 9g2 + 6rg cos θ AC = 3r2 − 3rg cos θ + 3rg sin θ p . r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ

−1 3g+r When θ = cos ( 2r ) , (after some simpliﬁcation) we see ∂(θ + m∠AOC − π) 3g − = −(1 + ) . ∂θ r So, ∂(θ + m∠AOC − π) − < 0 . ∂θ This means that as we decrease m∠GOA , the m∠GOA + m∠BOA − π decreases. So,

m∠GOA + m∠COA < π.

14 Therefore, A and C must be on the same side of the Euler line. This means that θ is made by ∠GOB , and 3g + r ∠GOB > cos−1( ), 2r otherwise C and B would be on the same side of the Euler line (and C cannot be on both sides of r the Euler line). This proves that θL is the lower bound for θ when g < 3 . Combining the upper and lower bounds we get, 3g + r 3g − r cos−1( ) ≤ θ ≤ cos−1( ) . 2r 2r

π Note that if we consider the g = 0 case, we have deﬁned θ = 2 which falls between the bounds. r π Proposition 16. If g = 3 , then 0 < θ ≤ 2 .

r Proof. To ﬁnd the upper bound for θ when g = 3 we again look at the isosceles triangle with vertex B on the same side of O as G . We know that in this case, O and Mb are the same point, and π that m∠AOG = 2 . We also know that A , O , and C are collinear, so if we increase ∠AOG we necessarily decrease ∠GOC , and the two angles must sum to π . The right triangle case is the reason we had to add the requirement that θ be the smaller of the two angles if we have two “one-vertex π sides.” In this case, the largest value that the smaller angle can take is 2 . When we go to look at the isosceles triangle with vertex C on the opposite side of O from G , we realize that we cannot make this triangle because two vertices would have to fall on on the Euler line, which is impossible. So if we keep B at the , we can move vertex C arbitrarily close to the Euler line on the opposite side of the circle from B . This means that we can make m∠GOC arbitrarily close to π , r so m∠GOA can be made arbitrarily close to 0 . So when g = 3 π 0 < θ ≤ . 2

r −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 Proposition 17. If g > 3 , then cos ( 2r ) ≤ θ ≤ cos ( 2rg ) .

Proof. Again we consider the isosceles triangle with vertex B on the Euler line on the same side of O that G is on. So, 3g − r m∠GOA = θ = cos−1( ) . R 2r As before we have ∠GOA =∼ ∠AOB . Also, ∠GOA =∼ ∠GOC , and both measure θ , so we can think of ∠GOA as θ . Following the same procedure for the isosceles triangle with θ = θR (from the r g < 3 case), we see, ∂(θ − m∠AOB) 3g = 1 − . ∂θ r r But this time, since g > 3 , ∂(θ − m∠AOB) < 0. ∂θ This means that as we increase m∠GOA , the diﬀerence m∠GOA − m∠BOA decreases! So,

m∠GOA − m∠BOA < 0.

15 A A'

θmax

θmin

O G B' H

B,C

C' Figure 14: The bounds are created by an isoceles triangle and a line.

Therefore, A and B must be on opposite sides of the Euler line. This proves that θR is the lower r bound for θ when g > 3 . r 3 When g > 3 there is no other isosceles triangle to look at. This is because BMb = 2 (r + g) > 3 4r 2 ( 3 ) = 2r , so the midpoint of the side opposite B and therefore the side itself is not contained in the circumcircle. Even though this means that our usual means of ﬁnding the other bound is not possible, it gives us another possibility. Now we set out to ﬁnd where the triangle disappears. To do this, we ﬁnd the angle that forces Ma to land on the circumcircle (also forcing A, MA, and G to be collinear. Therefore, we are interested in the case where OA = r = OMa . This means 4AOMa ∼ 3l is an isosceles triangle, and ∠OAMa = ∠AMaO . If we deﬁne l = AG , then AMa = 2 . By the law 2 2 9l2 of cosines, r = r + 4 − 3rl cos ∠AMaO . After some simple algebra we discover, 3l 2r(cos ∠AMO) = . 2

2 2 2 By the Law of Cosines in 4AOG we know g = r + l − 2rl cos ∠OAMa . Substituting and solving for l2 , we get l2 = 2(r2 − g2) . We again use the law of cosines in 4AOG and get l2 = r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ . Substituting for l2 and solving for θ we get

3g2 − r2 θ = cos−1( ) . 2rg

Thus, 3g − r 3g2 − r2 cos−1( ) ≤ θ ≤ cos−1( ) . 2r 2rg

The nice part about the last upper bound for θ is that it is the inverse function to our upper bound for g . With that in mind, here is a cross-section of our space for r = 1 : r As you see in the picture, we have built in a ﬂipping eﬀect that happens when g crosses the 3 line. This stems directly from our deﬁnition of θ as the angle formed to the one-vertex side. It is a problem we can live with and will deal with shortly, but we do so with the belief that our deﬁnition of θ is the

16 Figure 15: A cross-section of the space when r = 1 . most natural way to eliminate overcounting. First, we must quickly return to the situation where we r ﬁx θ and allow g to vary. If we do this and allow g to cross the 3 threshold, it is not immediately r ∼ clear what happens. Upon reﬂection of the g = 3 case, we realize that (θ, g, r) = (π − θ, g, r). Now that we know where all of our triangles are and what triangle space looks like, it is natural to deﬁne a metric to determine how close two triangles are to being congruent. We would like the metric to have two additional properties: i) Account for the fact that all triangles with g = 0 and the same r are congruent, and r ii) Account for the ﬂipping eﬀect when g crosses 3 . First, we will account for the ﬂipping by deﬁning a new function, ½ θ g ri ¯ i i 3 θ = ri . π−θi gi> 3

Let s and t be triangles such that s = (θ1, g1, r1) and t = (θ2, g2, r2) . Deﬁne q 2 2 2 D(s, t) = (g1θ¯1 − g2θ¯2) + (g1 − g2) + (r1 − r2) .

Attaching the g ’s onto the θ¯ terms accounts for how alike triangles with small g values are. It also leads to two nice propositions dealing with similar triangles, but ﬁrst we will show a result about triangles who have the same r and g values. Deﬁnition 8. A gr -family of triangles is a family of triangles with the same values of g and r .

Proposition 18. If triangles s and t are in the same gr -family, with s = (θ1, g, r) and t = (θ2, g, r) , then D(s, t) = g|θ¯1 − θ¯2| .

Proof. q q 2 2 2 2 2 D(s, t) = (gθ¯1 − gθ¯2) + (g − g) + (r − r) = g (θ¯1 − θ¯2) = g|θ¯1 − θ¯2| .

17 Proposition 19. Let s and t be triangles such that s = (θ, g, r) and t = (θ, kg, kr) . Then q D(s, t) = |k − 1| (gθ¯)2 + g2 + r2

Proof. Begin with the deﬁnition of q D(s, t) = (kgθ¯ − gθ¯)2 + (kg − g)2 + (kr − r)2.

Then factor a (k − 1)2 from each term, and bring it outside the root as a |k − 1| .

0 0 Proposition 20. Given triangles p = (θ1, g, r) , p = (θ1, kg, kr) , q = (θ2, g, r) , q = (θ2, kg, kr) , then D(p0, q0) = kD(p, q).

Proof. q 0 0 2 2 2 D(p , q ) = (kgθ¯1 − kgθ¯2) + (kg − kg) + (kr − kr) = kg|θ¯1 − θ¯2| = kD(p, q).

5 Tracing Theorems

Now that the foundation of our construction has been laid out, we turn our attention to the behavior of triangle families. Several interesting properties were found with great assistance from the animation feature of Geometer’s Sketchpad, which allows us to study the behavior of two families of triangles. We ﬁrst study the family of triangles obtained through varying g , which we call the rθ -family.

B'

C

Ma M' a

B

O G G'

C'

A

Figure 16: rθ -family: the parallel line.

Proposition 21. Let 4ABC be given with circumcenter O and centroid G . If we ﬁx r , θ and move G along the Euler line, we get a family of triangles denoted as the rθ -family. Then the locus of midpoints Ma for side BC forms a line segment parallel to the Euler line.

18 Proof. For a 4ABC determined by θ , g and r in our triangle construction, let 4AB0C0 be the triangle formed by moving G away from O along the Euler ine. 4AB0C0 is determined by θ , 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 g and r . Let Ma be the midpoint of B C and G be the centroid of 4AB C . Then, consider 0 0 0 4AMaMa . By construction, G lies on AMa , and G lies on AMa . Now, we know that AG = 2GMa 0 0 0 0 0 0 and AG = 2G M . Thus, with ∠MaAMa in common, by SAS similarity, 4MaAMa ∼ 4GAG . 0 ∼ 0 0 0 This implies that ∠AGG = ∠AMaMa . Thus, GG k MaMa . Therefore, as G moves away from O on the Euler line, Ma moves along a line parallel to OG .

C

M O G b

B M''

Mc

Mp A

Figure 17: rθ -family: the circle.

Proposition 22. In our rθ -family of triangles, the locus of midpoints Mb for side AC and Mc for side AB forms part of a circle centered at the midpoint M 00 of OA .

Proof. Let O be the circumcenter of 4ABC and let Mb and Mc be the midpoints of sides B and C respectively. Also, let Mp be the midpoint of segment AMc . Now, construct OA and call its 00 00 00 midpoint M . By SAS similarity, 4OAMc ∼ 4M AMP . Thus, M MP is parallel to OMC , which is perpendicular to AB since MC is the midpoint of AB and O is the circumcenter. 00 Now, we know that M MP is the perpendicular bisector of the segment AMC . From this, we 00 ∼ 00 00 ∼ 00 know that AM = MC M . By the same reasoning, we know that AM = MBM . 00 So, M is the circumcenter of 4AMBMC . Deﬁnition 9. For any 4ABC , the circle determined by the midpoints of each side also passes through the feet of its altitudes and the midpoints of the segments joining each vertex with the orthocenter. This circle is known as the nine-point circle, or the Euler circle.

Proposition 23. Recall that the collection of triangles sharing a circumcircle O and centroid G is deﬁned as the gr -family. This family of triangles shares the same nine-point circle, which is formed by the locus of the midpoints of their sides.

Proof. Consider 4ABC with Ma , Mb and Mc as the midpoints of BC , AC , and AB respectively. 0 0 OG 0 OG CG 0 ∼ Extend OG to O such that GO = 2 . Because GO = 2 , GMC = 2 and ∠O GMC = ∠OGC , 0 0 OC r 0 4O GMC ∼ 4OGC . Therefore, O MC = 2 = 2 . By similar logic, O is equidistant to Ma , Mb and Mc . Thus, as θ changes, Ma , Mb , and Mc trace the nine-point circle. Another way to look at this is that since the gr -family of triangles share the same circumcircle and centroid, they should also share the collection of complementary points for the circumcircle, i.e., the nine-point circle.

19 A

Mc

B O G O' H Mb

Ma

C

Figure 18: gr -family: the nine-point circle.

6 The Point

Having examined the loci of certain well-known points in our construction, we now turn our atten- tion to a more obscure –the symmedian point. In the collection of triangle centers, few could be considered well-known to geometers and even fewer to the average geometry student. Occasionally, however, centers which should be a part of mathematicians’ knowledge disappear from the contemporary consciousness. The symmedian point is one such center. Well explored many years ago, the symmedian point has a plethora of useful and fascinating properties. In his work 19th and 20th Century Euclidean Geometry, Ross Honsberger calls it “one of the jewels of modern geom- etry” [Honsberger, pg. 53]. In order to begin our brief study of this geometric gem, we ﬁrst need to understand some established deﬁnitions and theorems. Thus, let us deﬁne the concept of isogonal conjugates.

Deﬁnition 10. Let ∠A be given. Then, the of AP , where P is any point in the plane, is the reﬂection of AP over the angle bisector of ∠A . AP and its reﬂection are called isogonal conjugate lines or simply isogonal conjugates.

A

P

Figure 19: Isogonal conjugate lines.

In Figure 19 above, the middle line is the angle bisector of ∠A , and the two thick black lines are

20 isogonal conjugates. Moreover, as we can see above, one direct consequence of the deﬁnition of an isogonal conjugate is that the gray angles are congruent, and the black angles are congruent.

A

P

C Q

B

Figure 20: Isogonal conjugate points.

Since isogonal conjugates inherently involve angles, one question which naturally arises is how isogonal conjugates relate to triangles. As Theorem 2 below states, they have at least one fascinating property.

Theorem 2. Let P be a point in the plane, and let 4ABC be given. Then the lines isogonal to AP , BP , and CP , meet at a point Q . Points P and Q are called isogonal conjugate points, or isogonal conjugates. [Honsberger, pg. 53]

A proof of this theorem can be found in Ross Honsberger’s work, Episodes in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Euclidean Geometry. We will omit it here. However, Theorem 2 is an important part of this section since it states that isogonal conjugate points, like isogonal conjugate lines, occur in pairs. Surprisingly, O and H , the circumcenter and orthocenter of a triangle, are one such pair. Although this fact is well-known, our proof of it is included below. Before we begin, however, we must state a property of isogonal conjugates which we will use in the proof. A

F

E

D

B P Q C

Figure 21: Proposition 24.

21 Proposition 24. Let AP and AQ be isogonal conjugate lines through vertex A , and let D be a point on AP . Then the line EF connecting the feet of the from D to AB and AC is perpendicular to AQ . [Honsberger, pgs. 64—65]

A proof of Proposition 24 can be found in Honsberger. We will omit it here and move directly to our proof that the circumcenter and the orthocenter are isogonal conjugates.

Proposition 25. The circumcenter and the orthocenter of a triangle are isogonal conjugates.

A

D

P Mb

B

Pa

Ha

C

Figure 22: Isogonal conjugates: the circumcenter and the orthocenter.

Proof. Let 4ABC be given. Construct AHa , the altitude from vertex A to BC . Construct the isogonal conjugate of AHa . It will meet BC at a point Pa . Now, construct the perpendicular bisector of AC . It will meet APa at a point P . Drop a perpendicular from P to AB , and call the intersection of the two D . Construct DMb , where Mb is the midpoint of AC . By Proposition 24, DMb must be perpendicular to AHa . However, by construction, AHa is perpendicular to BC . AD AMb 1 Thus, DMb k BC . By AAA similarity, 4ADMb ∼ 4ABC . So, AB = AC = 2 . Therefore, D is the midpoint of AB , and P must be the circumcenter of 4ABC . Thus, P lies on the isogonal conjugate to the altitude from vertex A . By a similar argument, P will also lie on the isogonal conjugate to the altitude from vertices B and C . Therefore, the circumcenter and the orthocenter of 4ABC are isogonal conjugates.

A

Pb

Pc

P

B Pa C

Figure 23: A .

22 Returning to more general isogonal conjugates, another known and interesting property which we will reference later relates the circumcircles of the pedal triangles of two isogonal conjugate points. Before we state and prove this property, however, we need to deﬁne the concepts of a pedal triangle and a cyclic , and prove a useful fact about cyclic . Deﬁnition 11. Let P be a point inside a given triangle 4ABC . Construct the perpendiculars from P to AB , BC , and AC . Label the points of intersection Pc , Pa , and Pb , respectively. Then, 4PaPbPc is the pedal triangle of P with respect to 4ABC .

The next deﬁnition and lemma deal with certain types of quadrilaterals. Deﬁnition 12. A quadrilateral ABCD is called cyclic if all of its vertices lie on a circle. Lemma 1. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral with right angles at vertices A and C . Then, quadrilateral ABCD is cyclic.

C

D A

B B M

C A D

Figure 24: A generic and a cyclic quadrilateral with right angles.

Proof. Connect B to D . Then, the midpoint M of BD will be the circumcenter of ∆ABD and of ∆CBD . Thus, MA =∼ MD =∼ MB =∼ MC . Thus, ABCD lies on the circle centered at M , and ABCD is cyclic.

Now, let us state and prove the property of isogonal conjugates which relates the circumcircles of the pedal triangles of two isogonal conjugate points. Note that although this fact is known, the following proof is our own. Proposition 26. Let triangle 4ABC be given with isogonal conjugate points P and Q . Then, the midpoint O of the segment PQ is the circumcenter of the pedal triangles of both P and Q . Moreover, both pedal triangles share the same circumcircle. [Honsberger, pgs. 67–69]

Proof. The following proof utilizes Figure 25. Let P and Q be isogonal conjugate points, and let O be the midpoint of segment PQ . Let M be the midpoint of segment AP , and let triangle 4PaPbPc be the pedal triangle determined by the point P . Let I be the intersection of segment PbPc with OM , and let J be the intersection of segment PbPc with AQ . 1 1 We ﬁrst show that OM k AQ . By construction, MP = 2 AP and OP = 2 PQ . Since ∠MPO is common, it follows that 4MPO ∼ 4AP Q . Thus, ∠PMO ∼ ∠P AQ , which indicates that OM k AQ .

23 B

Pc Pa

P I O M Q J L A

Pb

C

Figure 25: Proof that the pedal triangles of points P and Q share the same circumcenter.

Now consider triangles 4APcP and 4APbL , where L is the intersection of PbP with AQ . π By construction, m∠PPcA = 2 = m∠LPbA . Moreover, since P and Q are isogonal conjugates, ∼ ∼ ∠PcAP = ∠PbAL . By angle subtraction, ∠PcPA = ∠PbLA . Thus, by AAA Similarity, 4APcP ∼ 4APbL . π Now, since m∠LPbA = 2 = m∠PPcA , quadrilateral APbPPc is cyclic by Lemma 1. Thus, ∼ π ∠PcAP = ∠PcPbP . Since m∠PcAP + m∠PcPA = ∠PcPbP + m∠PbLA = 2 , it follows that π π m∠PbJL = 2 . This implies that m∠PcIO = 2 since OM k AQ . Now, since quadrilateral APbPPc is cyclic, the points A , Pb , P, and Pc lie on a circle centered at ∼ M, the midpoint of AP . Thus, MPc = MPb . Moreover, since segment MI is common, 4MPcI and 4MPbI both have right angles, congruent , and one congruent leg. They are consequently ∼ congruent. This then indicates that IPc = IPb , making I the midpoint of PbPc .

Therefore, OM is the perpendicular bisector of PbPc . A similar argument shows that O also lies on the perpendicular bisectors to segments PaPb and PaPc , making O the circumcenter of 4PaPbPc . Repeat the argument above for Q . Then, the midpoint O of segment PQ is the circumcenter of the pedal triangles constructed from P and Q . To show the two pedal triangles share not only the same circumcenter, but also the same circum- circle, consider the following argument, which utilizes Figure 26 below. Let points P and Q be isogonal conjugates, and let O be the midpoint of segment PQ . Drop perpendiculars from P , O , and Q to AC , and let Pb , Ob , and Qb be their intersections with π AC , respectively. Since m∠PPbQb = m∠OObQb = m∠QQbOb = 2 , it follows that PPb k OOb k ∼ QQb . Construct PQb and let N be the intersection of PQb and OOb . Then, ∠PNO = ∠PQbQ ∼ PO PN 1 and ∠PON = ∠P QQb . Since ∠NPO is common, 4PNO ∼ 4PQbQ . Thus, = = , PQ PQb 2 and N is the midpoint of segment PQb . By a similar argument, 4QbObN ∼ 4QbPbP . Thus, PN PbOb 1 ∼ = = . This implies that Ob is the midpoint of segment PbQb . Thus, since PbOb = PbQb , PQb PbQb 2 ∼ ∼ ∠PbObO = ∠QbObO , and OOb is common, by SAS congruence, 4OObPb = 4OObQb . This indicates ∼ that OPb = OQb . However, OPb is the radius of the pedal triangle of P , and OQb is the radius of the pedal triangle of Q . Therefore, the pedal triangles of P and Q share the same circumcircle.

Now that we have a basic understanding of isogonal conjugates and some of their properties, we are ready to deﬁne the symmedian point.

24 B

P

A O

N Q

Pb

Ob Qb

C

Figure 26: Proof that the pedal triangles of points P and Q share the same circumcircle.

Deﬁnition 13. The symmedian point K is the isogonal conjugate of the centroid.

Interesting properties of the symmedian include such statements as Proposition 27 below. Proposition 27. The symmedian point is the centroid of its own pedal triangle. [Honsberger, pgs. 72–73]

This proposition is well known. A proof of it can be found in Honsberger. Moreover, utilizing it and Proposition 26, we can immediately prove the following corollary. Corollary 2. The centroid of a 4ABC always lies on the Euler line of the pedal triangle of its symmedian point K .

Proof. Let 4ABC be given. Since the centroid and the circumcenter of a triangle determine its Euler line, it follows from Propositions 26 and 27 that GK , where G is the centroid of 4ABC and K is its symmedian point, is the Euler line of the pedal triangle of K .

Corollary 2 leads to an interesting observation. The locus of symmedian points in a gr -family of triangles form either an entire circle or an arc of a circle centered on the Euler line. Let us state this more formally. Theorem 3. Let Ω be the family of triangles produced by ﬁxing a circumcenter O , a centroid G , a circumradius r , and varying ∠GOA from 0 to 2π . Let g denote the distance between O and G . Let E ⊆ [0, 2π] such that for all φ ∈ E , there exists a triangle 4ABCφ ∈ Ω with m∠GOA = φ . Let Kφ be the symmedian point of 4ABCφ . −−→ 2gr2 Let Kn be the point on the ray OG such that OKn = r2−g2 . Then, for all φ ∈ E , Kφ lies on 2g2r the circle with radius r2−g2 centered at Kn . We call this circle the Carleton Circle and its center Kn the Knights’ Point. r r If g < 3 , every point on the Carleton Circle is the symmedian point of a triangle in Ω . If g = 3 , r then every point except (r, 0) is the symmedian point of a triangle in Ω . If g > 3 , then every point P on the Carleton Circle such that P is strictly contained in the interior of the disc enclosed by the circumcircle of Ω is the symmedian point of a triangle in Ω .

25 r While in the speciﬁc case in which g = 3 a geometric proof of Theorem 3 is apparent, in the general case, such a proof is not obvious. Thus, we will approach the general case from an analytic perspective. However, in order to more clearly understand precisely what Theorem 3 states, let us r begin our exploration with the geometric proof of the case in which g = 3 . r Lemma 2. Let Ω be a gr –family of triangles in which g = 3 . Let Kn lie on segment OH such that OKn = 3KnH . Let the circle centered at Kn with radius KnH be called the Carleton Circle. Then, for every 4ABCφ ∈ Ω , Kφ , the symmedian point of 4ABCφ , lies on the Carleton Circle. Moreover, every point except H on the Carleton Circle is the symmedian point of a triangle in the given Ω .

Note that Lemma 2’s geometric description of the location of Kn and the radius of the Carleton Circle correspond to the analytic description in Theorem 3. This is because by Proposition 7 and r Corollary 1, when g = 3 , H will coincide with one vertex of 4ABCφ , making OH a radius of 2gr2 the circumcircle. Thus, Kn will lie the following distance along the Euler line of 4ABC : r2−g2 = 2g(3g)2 18g3 9g 3r 3 2g2r (3g)2−g2 = 8g2 = 4 = 4 = 4 OH . Moreover, the radius of the Carleton Circle will be r2−g2 = 2g2(3g) 6g3 3g r 1 (3g)2−g2 = 8g2 = 4 = 4 = 4 OH . Now, to prove Lemma 2, we will use the following proposition.

Proposition 28. Let 4ABC be a right triangle with the right angle at vertex B . Then, the sym- median point K is the midpoint of the symmedian from vertex B . [Honsberger, pgs. 59–60]

This fact is commonly known; a proof of it can be found in Honsberger. Let us now prove Lemma 2.

A

Kb K J q

O M Kn B

C

Figure 27: Proof that the symmedian point lies on a circle when 4ABC is a right triangle.

Proof. By Corollary 1 and Proposition 6, one vertex of 4ABCφ must coincide with H . Without loss of generality, assume that B is that vertex. Construct the symmedian from B , and let Kb be the intersection of that symmedian with AC . We will ﬁrst show that Kb lies on the circle centered at M, the midpoint of segment OH . Construct the angle bisector of ∠ABC and label it JB , where J is its intersection with AC . ∼ ∼ Now, since the symmedian is the isogonal conjugate of the median, ∠OBJ = ∠JBKb and ∠KbBA = ∠OBC . Since O is the circumcenter of 4ABC , it follows that 4OBC is isosceles with OB =∼ OC .

26 ∼ π π Thus, ∠ACB = ∠OBC . Now, m∠ABC = 2 . This implies that m∠ACB + m∠CAB = 2 which π π in turn implies that m∠KbBA + m∠CAB = 2 . Thus, m∠AKbB = 2 , and Kb lies on the circle centered at M with radius MO . Note that in this shows that Kb is the altitude from vertex B , and that the circle it lies on is the circumcircle of the pedal triangles of O and H .

Now, by Proposition 28, Kφ is the midpoint of KbB . Construct KφM . By SAS similarity, π 4KφBM ∼ 4KbBO . Thus, m∠MKφB = m∠OKbB = 2 . Therefore, Kφ lies on the circle 3 centered at the midpoint Kn of MB , 4 of the way from O to H. The radius of the circle will be 1 1 2 MB = 4 OH . To show that every point except B on the Carleton Circle is a symmedian point of a triangle in the given gr – family, let J be a point on the Carleton Circle. Since H is on the circumcircle, by Proposition 6, it must coincide with one vertex of every triangle in the given gr – family. Without loss of generality, let B be that vertex. Construct BJ . Then, extend BJ past J to a point Jb such ∼ that JJb = BJ . By the argument above, Jb is the foot of the altitude from B . Construct the line perpendicular to JbB through Jb . This line will intersect the circumcircle at points A and C . By construction, 4ABCφ has symmedian point J . Thus, every point except B on the Carleton Circle 1 centered at Kn is a symmedian point of a triangle in the given gr –family.

To show the general case of Theorem 3, we will ﬁrst think about placing the gr − family of triangles in a coordinate system. We will ﬁnd the x - and y -coordinates of the Knights’ Point Kn and of the symmedian point Kφ of any triangle in that family. Then, we will use the distance formula to ﬁnd the distance between these two points. If that distance is not dependent on φ , then, since Kn is ﬁxed in a gr − family, Kφ will always lie on a circle centered at Kn . The proof below will make use to two propositions, both of which are stated below. We will not include proofs of either here. Proposition 29. Let vectors ~a and ~b be given. Then, ~c = |~b|~a + |~a|~b bisects the angle created by vectors ~a and ~b . [Stewart, pg. 850]

Proposition 30. Let triangle 4ABC with altitude AHa be given. Then, the symmedian point K of 4ABC lies on the line connecting the midpoint Mh of AHa to the midpoint Ma of BC . [Honsberger, pgs. 65–67]

Now, let us prove Theorem 3.

Proof. Let Ω be the gr -family of triangles with circumcenter O , centroid G , and circumradius r given. As we have previously done, let g denote the distance between the circumcenter and the centroid. Let φ denote m∠GOA where A is the chosen vertex in the triangle construction. Choose O to be the origin of the coordinate system and the Euler line OG to be the x -axis. We will ﬁrst ﬁnd expressions for the coordinates of the vertices A , B , and C of any triangle in the gr − family. Our method of ﬁnding them will algebraically mimic the geometric construction described earlier. By construction, O has coordinates (0, 0) , G has coordinates (g, 0) , and H has has coordinates −→ (3g, 0) . Since A lies on the circle with radius r , and since angle φ is the angle between OA and

1The reason that B cannot be a symmedian point is a result of the fact that the symmedian point K of a 4ABC can never fall on the circumcircle of 4ABC . Suppose that K does lie on the circumcircle. Then, either K is coincident with one vertex, say vertex A , or K is not coincident with any vertex of 4ABC . Suppose K is coincident with vertex A . Then, AB and AC are the symmedian lines from vertices B and C . Consequently, BC must be the median from both vertices B and C . However, that would force C to be the midpoint of AC and B to be the midpoint of AB . This would imply that A , B , and C are coincident. This is a contradiction. Now, suppose that K is not coincident with any vertex of 4ABC . Then, K lies outside 4ABC . However, that would force the median of at least one vertex to lie outside of 4ABC . This is a contradiction. Thus, K must always be strictly inside the circumcircle of 4ABC .

27 the x -axis, it follows that A has coordinates (r cos φ, r sin φ) . Thus, we can ﬁnd the equation of the line AG by computing its slope and its y -intercept. The slope of the AG is r sin φ − 0 r sin φ = . r cos φ − g r cos φ − g To ﬁnd the y -intercept b , we use the point (0, g) and the slope: r sin φ 0 = g + b r cos φ − g r sin φ b = −g r cos φ − g

r sin φ r sin φ Thus, the equation of AG is y = x − g or equivalently y = r sin φ(x−g) . r cos φ − g r cos φ − g r cos φ−g

Next, we ﬁnd the coordinates of the midpoint Ma of BC . Since the y -coordinate of G is 0 , and −→ −r sin φ since M lies on the ray AG such that AM = 3 AG , the y -coordinate of M must be . a a 2 a 2 We solve for the x -coordinate using the equation of AG :

r sin φ r sin φ −r sin φ x − g = r cos φ − g r cos φ − g 2 r sin θ −r sin φ r sin φ x = + g r cos φ − g 2 r cos φ − g r sin θ −r sin φ(r cos φ − g) + 2gr sin φ x = r cos φ − g 2(r cos φ − g) −r sin φ(r cos φ − g) + 2gr sin φ r cos φ − g x = ( )( ) 2(r cos φ − g) r sin θ g − r cos φ + 2g x = 2 3g − r cos φ x = . 2

3g−r cos φ −r sin φ Thus, the coordinates of Ma are ( 2 , 2 ) . Let us now ﬁnd the equation of AH . The slope of the AH is r sin φ − 0 r sin φ = . r cos φ − 3g r cos φ − 3g Thus, we now only need its y -intercept d , which we ﬁnd using the point (0, 3g) and the slope: r sin φ 0 = 3g + d r cos φ − 3g r sin φ d = −3g r cos φ − 3g

r sin φ r sin φ r sin φ(x − 3g) The equation of AH is y = x − 3g or equivalently y = . r cos φ − 3g r cos φ − 3g r cos φ − 3g To ﬁnd BC , we use the fact that BC is perpendicular to AH . From this, it follows that the slope r cos φ − 3g of BC is the negative reciprocal of the slope of AH . Thus, the slope of BC must be . r sin φ We now ﬁnd the y -intercept i of BC using its slope and the coordinates of Ma :

28 3g − r cos φ 3g − r cos φ −r sin φ ( )( ) + i = r sin φ 2 2 (3g − r cos φ)2 −r sin φ + i = 2r sin φ 2 −r sin φ (3g − r cos φ)2 i = − 2 2r sin φ −r2 sin2 φ − (3g − r cos φ)2 i = . 2r sin φ

Thus, the equation of BC is as follows:

3g − r cos φ −r2 sin2 φ − (3g − r cos φ)2 y = x + . r sin φ 2r sin φ To ﬁnd the coordinates of B and C , we solve the system of equations

3g − r cos φ −r2 sin2 φ − (3g − r cos φ)2 y = x + . r sin φ 2r sin φ and y2 + x2 = r2. Using Mathematica to solve this complicated system, we see that the two solutions are 54g3 + 12gr2 − 2r(27g2 + r2) cos φ + 6gr2 cos 2φ x = B 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p r 3 csc φ(cos 2φ − 1) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ + . 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) and 54g3 + 12gr2 − 2r(27g2 + r2) cos φ + 6gr2 cos 2φ x = C 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p r 3 csc φ(cos 2φ − 1) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ − . 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

To ﬁnd the y -coordinates of B and C , we plug their x -values into the equation of BC . Doing so, we ﬁnd that

9g2r2 + r4 − 6gr3 cos φ y = − sin φ( B 2r(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p r 3 csc φ(3g − r cos φ) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ + ) 2r(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) r2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) = − sin φ( 2r(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p 3 csc φ(3g − r cos φ) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ + ) 2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p r 3 csc φ(3g − r cos φ) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ = − sin φ( + ) . 2 2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

29 and 9g2r2 + r4 − 6gr3 cos φ y = − sin φ( C 2r(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p r 3 csc φ(3g − r cos φ) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ − ) 2r(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) r2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) = − sin φ( 2r(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p 3 csc φ(3g − r cos φ) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ − ) 2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p r 3 csc φ(3g − r cos φ) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ = − sin φ( − ) . 2 2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

Thus, the coordinates of A , B , and C are as follows:

A = (r cos φ, r sin φ) .

µ 54g3 + 12gr2 − 2r(27g2 + r2) cos φ + 6gr2 cos 2φ B = 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p r 3 csc φ(cos 2φ − 1) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ + , 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p ! r 3 csc φ(3g − r cos φ) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ − sin φ( + ) . 2 2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

µ 54g3 + 12gr2 − 2r(27g2 + r2) cos φ + 6gr2 cos 2φ C = 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p r 3 csc φ(cos 2φ − 1) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ − , 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) √ p ! r 3 csc φ(3g − r cos φ) −27g4 + r4 + 36g3r cos φ − 4gr3 cos φ − 6g2r2 cos 2φ − sin φ( − ) . 2 2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

With the coordinates of the vertices of a generic triangle in Ω , we can now ﬁnd the coordinates of the symmedian point. We will begin by ﬁnding the equation of the symmedian line from vertex A . In order to do so, we need to bisect ∠BAC . However, unlike in non-, this is not a simple matter algebraically. We thus make use of Proposition 29 above. Let us consider segments AB and AC to be vectors with their heads at B and C , respectively. To use Proposition 29 to bisect them, we ﬁrst need to ﬁnd their components. This is easily accomplished by subtracting the coordinates of their tails from the coordinates of their heads. We next ﬁnd the −−→ magnitude of each vector. We will write neither the components nor the magnitudes of vectors AB −→ and AC here as they are algebraically intensive. However, they are in the Mathematica document in the Appendix B . −−→ −→ Our next task is to multiply the components of AB by the magnitude of AC and to multiply the −→ −−→ components of AC by the magnitude of AB . Adding these new scaled vectors by together, we ﬁnd

30 −−→ −→ by Proposition 29 a vector which bisects vectors AB and AC . Again, as this would simply be an exercise in precise copying, we have only included the resulting components in the Appendix B . Now, to ﬁnd the equation of the angle bisector of ∠BAC , we ﬁrst ﬁnd its slope—the y -coordinate over the x -coordinate of the angle bisector. Then, using this slope and the coordinates of vertex A , we can ﬁnd the y -intercept. Thus, we have the equation of the angle bisector of ∠BAC . As discussed previously, transformations such as reﬂections are signiﬁcantly more diﬃcult alge- braically than they are geometrically. Thus, to ﬁnd a point on the symmedian line from vertex A, we ﬁrst ﬁnd the equation of the line through G ,((g, 0) in our coordinate system) perpendicular to the angle bisector of ∠BAC . This appears in Appendix B . Then, we ﬁnd the x -coordinate of the intersection J of this new perpendicular line (which we will now refer to as GJ ) with the angle bisector. This value also appears in Appendix B . Next, we ﬁnd the point L on GJ such that LJ = GJ . We do this by subtracting g from the x -value of J then adding that diﬀerence to the x -value of J . To ﬁnd the y -value of L , we evaluate the equation of GJ at the x -value we just computed. Thus, we now have the coordinates of L . L will be a point on the symmedian line from vertex A by the following geometric argument:

A

D O L G J H B E

C

Figure 28: Constructing a point on the symmedian line from vertex A .

Let 4ABC be given with centroid G . Construct the angle bisector of ∠BAC . Then, construct the line through G perpendicular to the angle bisector of ∠BAC . We have two cases: Case 1. Suppose that AG is not the angle bisector of ∠BAC . Then, the perpendicular line through G will meet the angle bisector at a point J . Now, construct the point L on GJ such that π LJ = GJ . Then, since m∠LJA = m∠GJA = 2 and segment AJ is common, it follows from SAS congruence that 4AJG =∼ 4AJL . Thus, ∠GAJ =∼ ∠LAJ , which implies that L is a point on the symmedian line from vertex A . Case 2. Suppose that AG is the angle bisector of ∠BAC . Then, the line through G perpendicular to AG will intersect AG at G . Then, G , J , and L will be coincident, and G will trivially be a point on the symmedian line from vertex A . Now, using the coordinates of vertex L and vertex A , we can ﬁnd the equation of the symmedian line from vertex A . Its equation simpliﬁes nicely to the following.

(−2gr2 + 3g2x + r2x − 2grx cos φ) sin φ y = . (3g2 + r2) cos φ − gr(3 + cos 2φ)

31 Shortly after setting out to apply the method we employed to ﬁnd the symmedian from A to ﬁnd the symmedian from B , one realizes that given the coordinates of vertices B and C , the algebra is practically impossible to do by hand and takes a long time for even a program such as Mathematica to complete. Thus, we will use Proposition 30 above and ﬁnd the equation of the line connecting the midpoint of side BC to the midpoint of segment AHa , where Ha is the intersection of the altitude from A and BC . Thus, we ﬁrst ﬁnd where AH intersects BC . Recall that the equation of AH is

r sin φ(x − 3g) y = , r cos φ − 3g and that the equation of BC is

3g − r cos φ −r2 sin2 φ − (3g − r cos φ)2 y = x + . r sin φ 2r sin φ Thus, we solve the system of equations above for x .

r sin φ(x − 3g) 3g − r cos φ −r2 sin2 φ − (3g − r cos φ)2 = x + r cos φ − 3g r sin φ 2r sin φ r2 sin2 φ (3g − r cos φ)3 −r2 sin2 φ(x − 3g) = (3g − r cos φ)2x − (3g − r cos φ) − 2 2 ... = ... 9g(3g2 + r2) − r(27g2 + r2) cos φ x = . 2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

To ﬁnd the y -coordinate of this point, we evaluate the equation of AH at the given value of r(9g2−r2) sin φ x above. Doing this, we ﬁnd that the y -coordinate of HA is 2(9g2+r2−6gr cos φ) . We now ﬁnd the midpoint of AHa by adding the x -coordinates of A and Ha and dividing by 2 .

1 9g(3g2 + r2) − r(27g2 + r2) cos φ ( + r cos φ) 2 2(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) 27g3 + 3gr2 − 9g2r cos φ + r3 cos φ − 6gr2 cos2 φ + 6gr2 sin2 φ = . 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

We ﬁnd its y -coordinate by plugging this value into the equation of AH . Doing this, we ﬁnd that the y -value of the midpoint of AHa is as follows:

r(27g2 + r2 − 12gr cos φ) sin φ . 4(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

Thus, we now have all the information we need to ﬁnd the equation of the line MaHa . We ﬁrst ﬁnd its slope.

r(27g2+r2−12gr cos φ) sin φ r sin φ 4(9g2+r2−6gr cos φ) − (− 2 ) 27g3+3gr2−9g2r cos φ+r3 cos φ−6gr2 cos2 φ+6gr2 sin2 φ 3g−r cos φ 4(9g2+r2−6gr cos φ) − ( 2 ) r(15g2 + r2 − 8gr cos φ) sin φ = . r(15g2 + r2) cos φ − g(9g2 + 3r2 + 4r2 cos(2φ))

32 Next we ﬁnd j , the y -intercept of MaHa , by using its slope and the point Ma with coordinates 3g−r cos φ −r sin φ ( 2 , 2 ).

1 r(15g2 + r2 − 8gr cos φ) sin φ 3g − r cos φ − r sin φ = ( )( ) + j 2 r(15g2 + r2) cos φ − g(9g2 + 3r2 + 4r2 cos(2φ)) 2 1 r(15g2 + r2 − 8gr cos φ) sin φ 3g − r cos φ j = − r sin φ − ( )( ) 2 r(15g2 + r2) cos φ − g(9g2 + 3r2 + 4r2 cos(2φ)) 2 2gr(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) sin φ j = . −r(15g2 + r2) cos φ + g(9g2 + 3r2 + 4r2 cos 2φ)

Thus, we see that the equation of MaHa , the line joining the midpoint of AHA to the midpoint of BC is as follows:

r(15g2 + r2 − 8gr cos φ) sin φ y = x r(15g2 + r2) cos φ − g(9g2 + 3r2 + 4r2 cos(2φ)) 2gr(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) sin φ + −r(15g2 + r2) cos φ + g(9g2 + 3r2 + 4r2 cos 2φ) r(−18g3 − 2gr2 + 15g2x + r2x + 4gr(3g − 2x) cos φ) sin φ = . −9g3 − 3gr2 + 15g2r cos φ + r3 cos φ − 4gr2 cos2 φ + 4gr2 sin2 φ

By Proposition 30, the symmedian point Kφ of 4ABCφ lies on MaHa . Since the symmedian point also lies on the symmedian line from vertex A , it follows that these two lines intersect at Kφ . To ﬁnd the coordinates of Kφ , we solve the system of these two equations for x .

(−2gr2 + 3g2x + r2x − 2grx cos φ) sin φ (3g2 + r2) cos φ − gr(3 + cos 2φ) r(−18g3 − 2gr2 + 15g2x + r2x + 4gr(3g − 2x) cos φ) sin φ = . −9g3 − 3gr2 + 15g2r cos φ + r3 cos φ − 4gr2 cos2 φ + 4gr2 sin2 φ

Thus,

2gr((9g3 + 6gr2) cos φ − r(9g2 + r2 + 6g2 cos 2φ − gr cos 3φ)) x = . (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) To ﬁnd the y -coordinate of the symmedian point, we substitute this value of x into the equation of the symmedian from vertex A . Doing this, we see that

2g2r(9g2 + r2 − 12gr cos φ + 2r2 cos 2φ) sin φ y = . (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) Thus, the coordinates of the symmedian point are as follows:

2gr((9g3 + 6gr2) cos φ − r(9g2 + r2 + 6g2 cos 2φ − gr cos 3φ)) K = ( , φ (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) 2g2r(9g2 + r2 − 12gr cos φ + 2r2 cos 2φ) sin φ ) . (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

33 In order to prove that the symmedian point is always a ﬁxed distance from the point Kn lying −−→ 2gr2 −−→ on ray OG such that OKn = r2−g2 , we ﬁrst recognize that OH spans the Euler line, which, in our construction, is the x -axis. Since O is deﬁned to be the origin, and H lies on the positive x -axis, 2gr2 Kn must have coordinates ( r2−g2 , 0) . We use the distance formula to ﬁnd the distance between these two points.

Ãµ ¶ 2gr((9g3 + 6gr2) cos φ − r(9g2 + r2 + 6g2 cos 2φ − gr cos 3φ)) 2gr2 2 − (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) r2 − g2 µ ¶ ! 1 2g2r(9g2 + r2 − 12gr cos φ + 2r2 cos 2φ) sin φ 2 2 + − 0 (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) s 4g4r2 = (g2 − r2)2 s 4g4r2 = (−1)2(r2 − g2)2 2g2r = . r2 − g2

Thus, the distance between Kn and Kφ is not dependent on φ , which implies that Kφ will 2g2r always lie on the circle of radius r2−g2 centered at Kn . Additionally, it is nice to note that since r and g are distances, they are always strictly greater than zero. Moreover, since g cannot equal r , it 2g2r follows that r2−g2 > 0 and is always deﬁned. r Let us now turn our attention to the second half of Theorem 3. We have three cases: g < 3 , r r g = 3 , and g > 3 . r Case 1. Let g < 3 . To show that every point on the Carleton Circle is the symmedian point of a triangle in Ω , we ﬁrst reexamine the coordinates of the symmedian point. They are copied below for easy reference.

2gr((9g3 + 6gr2) cos φ − r(9g2 + r2 + 6g2 cos 2φ − gr cos 3φ)) K = ( , φ (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) 2g2r(9g2 + r2 − 12gr cos φ + 2r2 cos 2φ) sin φ ) . (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)

Let 2gr((9g3 + 6gr2) cos φ − r(9g2 + r2 + 6g2 cos 2φ − gr cos 3φ)) A(φ) = , (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) and let 2g2r(9g2 + r2 − 12gr cos φ + 2r2 cos 2φ) sin φ B(φ) = . (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) Now, by deﬁnition, K(φ) = (A(φ),B(φ)) . We will show that K(φ) is continuous. Notice that g2 − r2 6= 0 since g 6= r .2 Moreover, 9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ ≥ 9g2 + r2 − 6gr = (3g − r)2 > 0 since r 2 2 2 2 g 6= 3 . Thus, (g − r )(9g + r − 6gr cos φ) 6= 0 . Since the numerators of both A(φ) and B(φ) are 2If g were equal to r , then this would force all three of the vertices of a 4ABC to be coincident with G . However, a point is not a triangle.

34 combinations of continuous functions, it follows that both A(φ) and B(φ) are continuous, making K(φ) = (A(φ),B(φ)) continuous. Now, in Proposition 15, we saw that every triangle in a given gr -family (up to congruence) falls within certain bounds on φ . We will use these bounds for φ , so they are copied below for easy reference.

3g + r 3g − r cos−1( ) ≤ φ ≤ cos−1( ) . 2r 2r

−1 3g+r −1 3g+r 2gr Setting φ = cos ( 2r ) , we ﬁnd using Mathematica that K(cos ( 2r )) = ( r−g , 0) . Similarly, −1 3g−r −1 3g−r 2gr setting φ = cos ( 2r ) , we ﬁnd that K(cos ( 2r )) = ( r+g , 0) . −1 3g+r −1 3g−r Since the interval [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )] is a connected set and K(φ) is continuous, it fol- lows from the fact that continuous functions map connected sets to connected sets that the set −1 3g+r −1 3g−r 3 −1 3g+r 2gr K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )]) is connected. Moreover, K(cos ( 2r )) = ( r−g , 0) and −1 3g−r 2gr K(cos ( 2r )) = ( r+g , 0) . These are the two points of intersection of the Carleton Circle with the Euler line. Since in the ﬁrst part of the proof we showed that for all φ , K(φ) lies on the Car- −1 3g+r −1 3g−r leton Circle, it follows that the only way K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )]) can be a connected set is if it encompasses minimally either the upper or lower half of the Carleton Circle (including the inter- −1 3g+r −1 3g−r sections of the Carleton Circle with the Euler line). In other words, K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )]) 2gr2 2 2 4g4r2 must be at least {(x, y) | (x − r2−g2 ) + y = (r2−g2)2 ∧ either y ≥ 0 or y ≤ 0} . To show that −1 3g+r −1 3g−r K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )]) encompasses only one half of the Carleton Circle, we use Mathematica to take the derivative of A(φ).

6g2r(27g4 + 36g2r2 + r4 − 4gr(18g2 + 5r2) cos φ + 2r2(15g2 + r2) cos 2φ − 4gr3 cos 3φ) sin φ A0(φ) = . (r2 − g2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ)2

Setting A0(φ) equal to 0 , we ﬁnd the following critical points of A(φ) in [0, 2π]:

φ = 0 φ = π 3g + r φ = ± cos−1( ) 2r 3g − r φ = ± cos−1( ) 2r 3g2 + r2 φ = ± cos−1( ) 4gr

−1 3g±r −1 3g+r −1 3g−r −1 3g2+r2 Certainly ± cos ( 2r ) 6∈ (cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )) . Moreover, for ± cos ( 4gr ) to exist, 3g2+r2 −1 ≤ 4gr ≤ 1 . Thus,

3See Munkres, pg 150.

35 3g2 + r2 ≤ 1 4gr 3g2 + r2 ≤ 4gr 3g2 + r2 − 4gr ≤ 0 (3g − r)(g − r) ≤ 0

This implies that either

1. 3g − r ≤ 0 ∧ g − r ≥ 0 or 2. 3g − r ≥ 0 ∧ g − r ≤ 0 .

However, g − r ≥ 0 → g ≥ r , which cannot occur. Moreover, 3g − r ≥ 0 → 3g ≥ r , which r −1 3g2+r2 contradicts our assumption that g < 3 . Thus, ± cos ( 4gr ) is not a valid critical number for r g < 3 . −1 3g+r −1 3g−r Finally, recall that cos ( 2r ) and cos ( 2r ) were found by constructing the two isosceles triangles in a gr -family and measuring the positive ∠GOP where P is one of the two vertices of 4ABC not on the Euler line of the gr -family. Since one vertex of 4ABC on the Euler line always forces the remaining two vertices to lie on opposite sides of the Euler line, it follows that m∠GOP ∈ −1 3g+r −1 3g−r −1 3g+r −1 3g−r (0, π) . Thus, [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )] ⊂ (0, π) . This implies that 0, π 6∈ [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )] . −1 3g+r −1 3g−r Therefore, A(φ) is monotone on [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )] . This in turn indicates that −1 3g+r −1 3g−r K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )]) can only be one half of the Carleton Circle. To determine whether that half is the upper of lower half, we ﬁnd the derivative of B(φ).

0 6g2r(3g2(9g2+7r2) cos φ+r(−4g(9g2+2r2) cos 2φ+r(15g2+r2) cos 3φ−2g(9g2+r2 cos 4φ))) B (φ) = (g2−r2)(9g2+r2−6gr cos φ)2 .

0 −1 3g+r 0 −1 3g+r 6g2 Evaluating B at φ = cos ( 2r ) , we ﬁnd that B (cos ( 2r )) = r−g > 0 . Thus, at φ = −1 3g+r −1 3g+r −1 3g−r cos ( 2r ), B(φ) is increasing, which implies that K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )]) is the upper half −1 3g+r −1 3g−r 2gr2 2 2 of the Carleton Circle. In other words, K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )]) = {(x, y) | (x − r2−g2 ) + y = 4g4r2 (r2−g2)2 ∧ either y ≥ 0} = C1 . −1 3g+r −1 3g−r Thus, if (x, y) ∈ C1 , it follows that there exists a 4ABCφ in Ω , φ ∈ [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )] , with symmedian point (x, y) . If (x, y) is a point on the lower half of the Carleton Circle, then by it will be the symmedian point of 4ABC−φ where (x, −y) is the symmedian point of −1 3g+r −1 3g−r 4ABCφ , φ ∈ [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2r )] . Therefore, every point on the Carleton Circle is the symmedian point of a triangle in Ω . r Case 2. Let g = 3 . This case was covered in Lemma 2. r 2gr2 2 2 4g4r2 2 2 Case 3. Let g > 3 . To show that for all (x, y) ∈ {(x, y) | (x− r2−g2 ) +y = (r2−g2)2 ∧ x +y < r2} , there exists a triangle in Ω with symmedian point (x, y) , we follow a method similar to that of Case 1. r Now, for the case in which g > 3 , Proposition 17 states that every triangle in a given gr -family (up to congruence) falls within the following bounds on φ : 3g − r 3g2 − r2 cos−1( ) ≤ φ < cos−1( ) . 2r 2rg

36 −1 3g−r 2gr As in Case 1, we will use these bounds. We saw earlier that K(cos ( 2r )) = ( r+g , 0) . Using Mathematica, we ﬁnd that Ã s ! 3g2 − r2 3g2 + r2 1 9g2 r2 K(cos−1( )) = , − r 10 − − . 2rg 4g 4 r2 g2

−1 3g2−r2 Since the y -coordinate of K(cos ( 2gr )) involves a square root, we must verify that −1 3g2−r2 cos ( 2gr ) is actually in the domain of K(φ) . To do this, we note that

s s 1 9g2 r2 1 9g4 + r4 − r 10 − − = − r 10 − 4 r2 g2 4 g2r2 s 1 9g4 + r4 + 6r2g2 − 6r2g2 = − r 10 − 4 r2g2 s 1 (3g2 + r2)2 − 6r2g2 = − r 10 − 4 r2g2 s 1 (3g2 + r2)2 6r2g2 = − r 10 − ( − ) 4 r2g2 r2g2 s 1 (3g2 + r2)2 = − r 16 − . 4 r2g2

(3g2 + r2)2 We need to show that ≤ 16 . Thus, we examine the conditions under which this r2g2 inequality holds.

(3g2 + r2)2 ≤ 16 r2g2 (3g2 + r2)2 ≤ 16r2g2 3g2 + r2 ≤ 4rg 3g2 − 4gr + r2 ≤ 0 (3g − r)(g − r) ≤ 0

This implies that either

1. 3g − r ≤ 0 ∧ g − r ≥ 0 or

2. 3g − r ≥ 0 ∧ g − r ≤ 0 .

In the ﬁrst case, g − r ≥ 0 → g ≥ r , which is a contradiction. In the second, 3g − r ≥ 0 → g ≥ r , which holds by assumption, and g − r ≤ 0 → g ≤ r , which is true. Thus, we see that q3 1 9g2 r2 r − 4 r 10 − r2 − g2 will be a real number for all g ≥ 3 .

37 Now, again by the preservation of connectedness under continuous functions, since −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )] is connected, K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )]) is connected. This implies −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 2gr2 2 2 4g4r2 that K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )]) minimally contains {(x, y) | (x − r2−g2 ) + y = (r2−g2)2 ∧ y ≤ 0} . However, from Case 1, we know that A(φ) has the following critical points in [0, 2π]:

φ = 0 φ = π 3g + r φ = ± cos−1( ) 2r 3g − r φ = ± cos−1( ) 2r 3g2 + r2 φ = ± cos−1( ) 4gr

3g+r r+r −1 3g+r Since 2r > 2r = 1 , we see that ± cos ( 2r ) are not real numbers, and thus are not valid −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 critical points. By construction [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )) ⊆ (0, π) . This implies that 0, π 6∈ −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 −1 3g2+r2 [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )] . Moreover, by the following argument, cos ( 4gr ) ∈ (0, π):

A

O G

Ma

−1 3g2−r2 −1 3g2+r2 Figure 29: The angles cos ( 2rg ) and cos ( 4gr ).

∗ r This proof utilizes Figure 29 above. Let Ω be a gr -family of triangles in which g > 3 . Then, it follows that there exists an ∠GOA such that the midpoint Ma of BC lies on the circumcircle of ∗ −1 3g2−r2 Ω . As discussed in Proposition 17, the measure of this angle is cos ( 2gr ) . We will show that −1 3g2+r2 m∠GOMa = cos ( 4gr ). −1 3g2−r2 To begin, construct the segment AMa where m∠GOA = cos ( 2gr ) . Then, by the law of cosines,

38 3g2 − r2 AG2 = r2 + g2 − 2gr cos (cos−1( )) 2gr 3g2 − r2 = r2 + g2 − 2gr 2gr = r2 + g2 − 3g2 + r2 = 2r2 − 2g2 .

√ p 2 2 2 2 2(r −g ) So, AG = 2(r − g ) . Now, by Proposition 4, AG = 2GMa . Thus, GMa = 2 . To ﬁnd m∠GOMa , we again use the law of cosines.

2 2 2 GM = g + r − 2gr cos(m∠GOMa) Ãp !2 2(r2 − g2) = g2 + r2 − 2gr cos(m∠GOM ) 2 a r2 − g2 = g2 + r2 − 2gr cos(m∠GOM ) 2 a 2 2 2 2 r − g = 2g + 2r − 4gr cos(m∠GOMa) 2 2 −r − 3g = −4gr cos(m∠GOMa) 3g2 + r2 = cos(m∠GOM ) 4gr a 3g2 + r2 cos−1( ) = m∠GOM . 4gr a

r Now, notice that the only instance in which m∠GOA can equal π occurs when g = 3 . Thus, r since g > 3 , it follows that m∠GOA < π . However, m∠GOA < π indicates that Ma and A are ∗ on opposite sides of the Euler line of Ω . Consequently, ∠GOMa ∈ (0, π). −1 3g2+r2 −1 3g−r Now that we have established that both cos ( 4gr ) and cos ( 2r ) lie in the interval (0, π), we can state the following:

(3g + r)(g − r) < 0 3g2 − 2gr − r2 < 0 3g2 − 2gr < r2 6g2 − 2gr < 3g2 + r2 2g(3g − r) < 3g2 + r2 3g2 + r2 3g − r < 2g 3g − r 3g2 + r2 < 2r 4gr 3g − r 3g2 + r2 cos−1( ) > cos−1( ) . 2r 4gr

39 −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 Since cos ( 2r ) ≤ cos ( 2rg ) , we have now established that there are no critical points 2 2 2 2 of A(φ) on (cos−1( 3g−r ), cos−1( 3g −r )) . Thus, A(φ) is monotone on [cos−1( 3g−r ), cos−1( 3g −r )] . 2r q 2rg 2r 2rg −1 3g2−r2 1 (3g2+r2)2 −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 Since B(cos ( 2rg )) = − 4 r 16 − r2g2 , this implies that K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )]) is −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 an arc of the Carleton Circle lying below the Euler line. Thus, K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )]) = 2gr2 2 2 4g4r2 {(x, y) | (x − r2−g2 ) + y = (r2−g2)2 ∧ y ≤ 0} . Now, as discussed in a footnote in the proof of Lemma 2, the symmedian point of a given 4ABC can never fall on the circumcircle of 4ABC . Using Mathematica,³ we ﬁndq the intersections´ of 3g2+r2 1 9g2 r2 the circumcircle of Ω with the Carleton Circle to be the points , r 10 − 2 − 2 and ³ q ´ ³ 4gq 4 r ´ g 3g2+r2 1 9g2 r2 −1 3g2−r2 3g2+r2 1 9g2 r2 4g , − 4 r 10 − r2 − g2 . Thus, K(cos ( 2rg )) = 4g , − 4 r 10 − r2 − g2 is not ac- tually a valid symmedian point even though it is in the domain of K . With this in mind, we −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 restrict our original interval to [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )) . Since [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )) ⊆ −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )] , it follows that K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg ))) ⊆ −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )]) . Therefore, K([cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg ))) will be the connected 2gr2 2 2 4g4r2 2gr 3g2+r2 set {(x, y) | (x − r2−g2 ) + y = (r2−g2)2 ∧ g+r ≤ x < 4g ∧ y ≤ 0} = C2 . −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 Thus, if (x, y) ∈ C2 , it follows that there exists a 4ABCφ in Ω , φ ∈ [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )) , with symmedian point (x, y) . If (x, y) is a point on the reﬂection of C2 over the Euler line of Ω , then by symmetry it will be the symmedian point of 4ABC−φ where (x, −y) is the symmedian point −1 3g−r −1 3g2−r2 of 4ABCφ , φ ∈ [cos ( 2r ), cos ( 2rg )) . 2gr2 2 2 4g4r2 Therefore, every point on the arc of the Carleton Circle {(x, y) | (x − r2−g2 ) + y = (r2−g2)2 ∧ 2gr 3g2+r2 g+r ≤ x < 4g } is the symmedian point of a triangle in Ω . Finally, to ensure that we have not missed any points on the Carleton Circle which fall within 3g2+r2 the circumcircle, we recall from above that the intersections of the two occur at x = 4g . 3g2+r2 This implies that for any x > 4g , if (x, y) is a point on the Carleton Circle, then (x, y) will lie outside the circumcircle of Ω . Thus, we have discussed all points on the Carleton Circle which could be symmedian points. For all points (x, y) on the Carleton Circle and inside the circumcircle of Ω , there exists a 4ABC ∈ Ω with symmedian point (x, y).

It is indeed interesting that the symmedian points of a gr –family of triangles form a complete circle or a segment of a circle. To extend on this idea, we have the next corollary.

Corollary 3. Every point on GK traces a circle as φ varies.

Proof. Let triangle 4ABC be given with centroid G , circumcenter O , symmedian point K , and −−→ −−→ Knights’ Point K . Consider the vector GK . Vector GK spans the line GK . Thus, for all n −−→ −−→ points P on GK , GP = aGK , where a ∈ R . Let K1 and K2 be the intersections of the Carleton Circle with the Euler line of 4ABC . Then, let P and P be two points on the Euler −−→ −−→ −−→ −−→ 1 2 line such that GP = aGK and GP = aGK . Now, since a = GP = GP1 , and angle ∠KGK is 1 1 2 2 GK GK1 1 common, it follows that 4KGK1 ∼ 4P GP1 . By the same argument, 4KGK2 ∼ 4P GP2 . Thus, PP1 = GP = PP2 . Moreover, P P = GP − GP = aGK − aGK = a(GK − GK ) = aK K . KK1 GK KK2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 This implies that P1P2 = a . Thus, by SSS similarity, 4PP P ∼ 4KK K . Since K lies on the K1K2 1 2 1 2 π π circle with K1K2 , m∠K1KK2 = 2 . Thus, m∠P1PP2 = 2 . This implies that P lies on the circle with diameter P1P2 . We will call this circle the Carleton a –Circle.

40 A

P K

O G K2 Pn K P K1 n 1 B P2

C

Figure 30: Every point on GK lies on a circle centered on the Euler line of a given gr –family of triangles.

Now, the center Pn of the Carleton a Circle is the point located halfway between P1 and P2 . P1P2 aK1K2 So, GPn = GP1 + P1Pn = aGK1 + 2 = aGK1 + 2 = aGK1 + aK1Kn = aGKn . If we consider the Euler line of triangle 4ABC to be the x -axis and O to be the origin, then OPn = g + GPn = 2gr2 2gr2 2gr2 g + aGKn = g + a( r2−g2 − g) = g + a r2−g2 − ag = (1 − a)g + a r2−g2 . Now, by the proof of Theorem 3, we know that every point on the Carleton Circle which lies inside the circumcircle of 4ABC corresponds to a symmedian point of some triangle in the gr –family of −−−→ −−→ −−−→ −−−→ −−→ 4ABC . Deﬁne the function h : GKφ ⇒ GPφ such that h(GKφ) = aGKφ = GPφ . Now, K(φ) is a continuous function, or, simply put, the coordinates of Kφ are continuous. Moreover, the components −−−→ of GKφ are found through subtraction of g and 0 from

2gr((9g3 + 6gr2) cos φ − r(9g2 + r2 + 6g2 cos 2φ − gr cos 3φ)) (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) and 2g2r(9g2 + r2 − 12gr cos φ + 2r2 cos 2φ) sin φ , (g2 − r2)(9g2 + r2 − 6gr cos φ) −−−→ respectively. Thus, the components of GKφ are continuous. Since the function h just multiplies the −−−→ vector GKφ by a real number, it follows that h must be continuous. Thus, since continuous functions map connected sets to connected sets, by an argument similar to that in the proof of Theorem 3, if r r g < 3 , then P will trace the entire Carleton a –Circle. If g = 3 , P will trace the entire Carleton a –Circle except for the farthest intersection of the Carleton a –Circle with the Euler line of the gr – r family. If g > 3 , then P will trace an arc whose endpoints correspond to the places at which the Carleton Circle meets the circumcircle of the gr –family.

Finally, the center Pn of the Carleton a –Circle is the point located halfway between P1 and P1P2 aK1K2 P2 . So, GPn = GP1 + P1Pn = aGK1 + 2 = aGK1 + 2 = aGK1 + aK1Kn = aGKn . If we consider the Euler line of triangle 4ABC to be the x -axis and O to be the origin, then 2gr2 2gr2 2gr2 OPn = g + GPn = g + aGKn = g + a( r2−g2 − g) = g + a r2−g2 − ag = (1 − a)g + a r2−g2 .

41 7 The Sum of

Now that we have examined what happens to certain points when we vary ∠GOA in a gr –family, let us turn to another interesting property that naturally emerges from our construction.

Proposition 31. For any point P on 4ABC ’s plane, deﬁne function D = PA2 + PB2 + PC2 . Then D has constant values for the gr -family of triangles, and the locus of points sharing constant D -values forms circles centered at the centroid G .

Proof. To show this is acutally true, we build upon the coordinate system we placed 4ABC in. Following our previous deﬁnitions, point A ’s polar coordinates are ( r cos φ , r sin φ ). Set point P ’s polar coordinates to be (x, y) = (s cos β, s sin β) . Next we just need to prove D is independent of φ . Recall in the previous section we have found the coordinates for the three vertices of 4ABC . Here, we place them into function D . After simpliﬁcation, we get the following results:

D = 3(r2 + s2 − 2gs cos β) .

Notice in this case the function D is indeed independent of φ . If we convert it into Cartesian coordinates and treat D as a constant D , we get an equation of circles centered at G(g, 0) for any D > 3r2 + 3g2 :

D (x − g)2 + y2 = , 3 − r2 − g2 which completes our proof.

8 Conclusion

We have achieved our objective of ﬁnding a natural way to relate triangles. We created a construction based on the Euler line, an element intrinsic to a triangle. Using that construction, we parameterized triangles and grouped them into families. Then, we bounded the construction, enabling us to visualize triangle space. In order to algebraically conceive of distances between triangles and to account for certain peculiarities in our space, we created a metric. Then, we looked at the loci of certain triangle centers and special points in our triangle families, discovering for example that a gr –family has a constant Nine-Point Circle. We also looked at the symmedian point in a gr –family and proved that it will always lie on a circle (the Carleton Circle) centered at the Knights’ Point on the Euler line of that family. Finally, we noticed that given a point in the plane, the sum of squares of distances from that point to the vertices of any triangle in a gr -family is constant. While the work here is a basis for this way of conceiving triangles, it is certainly not exhaustive. Euclidean Geometry has been a branch of mathematics for thousands of years. Despite this, there is clearly still much to discover.

42 Bibliography

[Altshiller Court] Altshiller Court, Nathan. College Geometry: An Introduction to the Modern Ge- ometry of the Triangle and the Circle. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc., 1952.

[Honsberger] Honsberger, Ross. Episodes in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Euclidean Ge- ometry. Washington: Mathematical Association of America, 1995.

[Kimberling] Kimberling, Clark. “Triangle Centers.” Encyclopedia of Trian- gle Centers - ETC. University of Evansville. 12 Mar. 2007. http://faculty.evansville.edu/ck6/tcenters/index.html.

[Mueller] Mueller, William. “Centers of Triangles of Fixed Center: Adventures in Under- graduate Research.” Mathematics Magazine. Vol. 70, No. 4 (Oct., 1997), pp. 252-262.

[Munkres] Munkres, James R. Topology. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2000.

[Stewart] Stewart, James. Calculus. 5th ed. Australia: Brooks/Cole, 2003.

43 9 Appendix A

In this appendix, we ﬁnd explicit representations for the lengths of the sides of the triangle in our construction.

A

r

θθθ O g G H B

M

C

Figure 31: Finding Side Lengths.

First, we will ﬁnd the length of BC . Using Law of Cosines on 4AOG : 3p AG2 = r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ ⇒ AM = r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ 2 Using the Law of Sines on 4AOG : sin ∠OAG sin θ gsinθ = p ⇒ sin ∠OAG = p g r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ

r − g cos θ ⇒ cos ∠OAG = p r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ Now: OM 2 = AM 2 + AO2 − 2(AM)(AO) cos ∠OAG 9 p r − g cos θ ⇒ OM 2 = (r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ) + r2 − 3r r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ · 4 r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ 1 ⇒ OM 2 = (r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos β) 4 1p ⇒ OM = r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ 2 1 ⇒ BM 2 = r2 − ( r2 − 9g2 + 6rg cos θ) 4 3 ⇒ BM 2 = (r2 − 3g2 + 2rg cos θ) 4

44 1p ⇒ BM = 3(r2 − 3g2 + 2rg cos θ 2 BC = 2BM p ∴ BC = 3(r2 − 3g2 + 2rg cos θ) Next, we will ﬁnd the length of AB : OG2 = OM 2 + MG2 − 2(OM)(MG) cos ∠OMG r2 9g2 6rg cos θ r2 g2 2rg cos θ 1p p g2 = + − + + − − r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ·cos ∠OMG 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 r2 + 3g2 − 4rg cos θ ⇒ cos ∠OMG = p r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ)(r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ) Ã ! r2 + 3g2 − 4rg cos θ ⇒ ∠OMG = cos−1 p r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ)(r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ) Ã ! π r2 + 3g2 − 4rg cos θ ⇒ ∠AMB = − cos−1 p 2 r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ)(r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ) " Ã !# r2 + 3g2 − 4rg cos θ ⇒ cos ∠AMB = sin cos−1 p r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ)(r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ) Using a right triangle: 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 x2 = (r + g − 2rg cos θ)(r + 9g − 6rg cos θ) − (r + 3g − 4rg cos θ) 2 2 2 2 (x2) = 4r g sin θ

⇒ x2 = 2rg sin θ 2rg sin θ ⇒ cos ∠AMB = p (r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ)(r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ) ⇒ AB2 = AM 2 + BM 2 − 2(AM)(BM) cos ∠AMB µ ¶ 9 9 3 3 p rg sin θ ⇒ AB2 = r2 − rg cos θ + r2 + rg cos θ − 3 3(r2 − 3g2 + 2rg cos θ) · 4 2 4 2 r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ p 3r2 − 9g2 + 6rg cos θ ⇒ AB2 = 3r2 − 3rg cos θ − 3rg sin θ · p r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ s p 3r2 − 9g2 + 6rg cos θ ∴ AB = 3r2 − 3rg cos θ − 3rg sin θ · p r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ Finally, we will ﬁnd the length of AC : π ∠AMC = + ∠OMG 2 " # r2 + 3g2 − 4rg cos θ cos ∠AMC = sin cos−1 p (r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ)(r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ) 2rg sin θ ⇒ cos ∠AMC = p (r2 + g2 − 2rg cos θ)(r2 + g2 − 6rg cos θ) s p 3r2 − 9g2 + 6rg cos θ ∴ AC = 3r2 − 3rg cos θ + 3rg sin θ · p r2 + 9g2 − 6rg cos θ

45