1. Course Credit – Native credit - William & Mary: APSC 623; Virginia Tech: MSE 5234; VCES/CGEP credit is also available

2. General Information

Course Meetings: Mon & Wed, 12:30 – 1:45 Prerequisites: undergraduate background in physical science Office Hours: TBD Skype: jlabkelley Contact: 757-269-5736; FAX: 757-269-5755; [email protected]; [email protected]

3. Texts and other materials

Primary texts: “: An Introduction” John B. Hudson and “Physical of Surfaces” 6th edn. Adamson & Gast (e-book). Supporting Texts: “Prin. of & Surface Chemistry” 3rd edn. Hiemenz & Rajagopalan ; “Colloid Dispersions” Morrison and Ross; “Chemistry of the Solid-Water Interface” Werner Stumm; “ and Interfaces in Life Sciences” William Norde; “The Materials Science of Thin Films” 2nd edn. Milton Ohring; “Electrochemistry”: Hamann, Hamnett & Vielstich.; “Physics of Surfaces and Interfaces” H. Ibach. Course Documents: on Blackboard or Scholar for download Course Sessions: all course sessions are Centra-saved and available for viewing on the course website

4. Course Description

Fundamental and applied aspects of solid/liquid/vapor surfaces and interfaces including metals, oxides, polymers, microbes, water and other materials. Their structure and defects, thermodynamics, reactivity, electronic and mechanical properties. Applications depend on class interests, but have previously included microelectronics, soils, catalysis, colloids, composites, environment-sensitive mechanical behavior, UHV single crystal studies, materials durability, batteries & fuel cells, vacuum science & technology, and surface bioactivity. A student who successfully completes the course can:

• Describe a science or technology situation in terms of its surfaces/interfaces aspects and mechanisms

• Analyze surface/interface phenomena quantitatively (mathematically)

• Set forth in detail a program of experimental studies to address surface/interface issues

• Analyze and interpret results of surface/interface experiments in terms of mechanisms and impacts

• Set forth strategies based on surface/interface science to achieve science or technology goals

5. Course Responsibilities

Attendance at all classes is required and assumed. If you wish to be absent for a class, please contact me in advance. All work must be original for this class. All assignments must be completed in order to pass the course. There will be at least two exams during the semester and a final. All examinations will be open notes and open book.

You must provide means of reaching you by e-mail. You are responsible to read your e-mail at least daily.

6. Course Grading

Course grades will be determined on the basis of : final exam (35%), exams during the semester (35%), homework (15%) and class participation (15%).

7. Outline of the Material

1. Structure – Free surfaces of solids and liquids; internal interfaces = grain boundaries; dissimilar materials. 1.1) Atomic and molecular determinants; 1.2) Modifications of bulk: relaxation, reconstruction, defects, ad-structures; 1.3) Attached (sorbed) species structures; 1.4) Description and nomenclature; 1.5) Surface-dominated materials: nanoparticles/colloids, intercalates, emulsions, micelles; nanofibers; membranes/thin films; 1.6) Surface melting, adjacent bulk effects.

2. Energetics – 2.1) Approaches: classical thermodynamics, statistical thermodynamics, atomistic models; 2.2) Experimental measurements: solids, liquids, interfaces; 2.3) Diffusion: mobility at surfaces and interfaces; 2.4) Vibrations- surface phonons; 2.5) Applications: solutions (segregation); nanoparticle formation and stability (ripening).

3. Electronic and Magnetic properties – 3.1) Approaches: band structure in 2 & 3 dimensions, local cluster models, plasmons, band-bending, surface magnetic anisotropy; 3.2) measurements; 3.3) applications: work function, field & thermionic emission, sensors; storage media

4. Adsorption I – Gas/vacuum interactions with solid surfaces 4.1) Kinetic theory picture; 4.2) Energetics: atomistic picture,;classical and statistical thermodynamics; 4.3) Physisorption and sticking; chemisorption and bonding; 4.4) Measurements – energetics, uptake, kinetics, surface area, porosity, acidity; 4.5. Applications – separations, catalysis

5. Adsorption II – Liquid interactions with solids 5.1) non-electrolytes- small molecules, polymers; 5.2) Water – ions, double layer model, surface complexes, proteins 5.3) Surface electrochemistry – electrochem refresh; stability analyses: potential/pH diagrams; electrode processes: voltammetry; 5.4) Nanoparticles/colloids – intraparticle forces, dispersion stability; 5.5) Biosurfaces, proteins 5.6) Self-assembled monolayers, LB films; 5.7) Emulsions, micelles, foams

++++++++++++ Applications and Technologies per Class Interests ++++++++++++++

A-1. Vacuum Science and Technology (Lafferty)

A-2. Thin Film Deposition (Ohring)

A-3. Electrochemistry: Fuel Cells and Batteries, Electroplating/polishing

A-4. Geochemistry and environmental chemistry

A-5 Surface-sensitive mechanical behavior

A-6 Biomedical materials

A-7 Composites

A-8 Nanomaterials