ޣGrant́ińAid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas(Research in a proposed research area)ޤ Science and Engineering

 Title of Project㧦New Polymeric Materials Based on Element-Blocks   Yoshiki Chujo ( Kyoto University, Graduate School of Engineering, Professor )

 *UDQWLQ$LGIRU6FLHQWLÀF ޣPurpose of the Research Projectޤ structures, non-bonding interaction of the polymers are studied, respectively. In A04 (Research in a proposed research area) The main purpose of this research project is (Development of New Ideas and Collaboration), to establish new and innovative polymeric theoretical analysis of the element-block materials based on “element-blocks”. Recently,

polymers is studied to gain new ideas. Co- Research on Innovative Areas organic-inorganic hybrids that have effectively llaboration based on new seeds and challenging combined properties of organic and inorganic ideas of element blocks is encouraged in this materials and organic polymer materials group. hybridized with various inorganic elements at

the molecular level have been extensively

studied as new functional materials, such as

electronic device materials. In this research

project, such concept of hybridization is applied

to element blocks. New element blocks with a

variety of elements are synthesized by several

approaches including organic, inorganic, and

organometallic reactions, which are polymer-

ized, and the polymer integration is studied

with respect to the regulation of interface and

higher ordered structures in the solid states.

Based on this strategy, we develop new

innovative element-block polymer materials

and establish the new theory of polymeric Figure 2. Structure of research group. materials based on element-blocks (Figure 1).    ޣExpected Research Achievements and  Scientific Significanceޤ  In this project, not only the development of  individual functional materials based on the  idea of element-blocks, but also the establish-  ment of a new theory concerning element-  blocks, which can provide new ideas of  molecular design and methodology of material  synthesis are expected.   ޣKey Wordޤ Figure 1. Strategy of research project  Element-blocks: Building units of polymers with a variety of elements ޣ ޤ Content of the Research Project This research group is composed of four ޣTerm of Projectޤ FY2012-2016 sub-groups which promote the research by close collaboration between them (Figure 2). A01 (Exploration of New Element-Blocks) deals ޣBudget Allocationޤ 1,161,100 Thousand Yen with design and synthesis of new element- blocks, while in A02 (Polymer Synthesis Based ޣHomepage Address and Other Contact on Element-Blocks) and A03 (Regulation of Informationޤ Interface and Higher Ordered Structures), polymerization of the element-blocks, and their http://element-block.org nano-sized interface structures, higher ordered

-31- ޣGrant́ińAid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area)ޤ Science and Engineering

Title of Project㧦New Developments in Astrophysics Through Multi-Messenger Observations of Gravitational Wave Sources

Takashi Nakamura ( Kyoto University, Graduate School of Science, Professor )  ޣPurpose of the Research Projectޤ One hundred years ago, Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity predicted the exis- tence of gravitational waves (GW). However, their effects are expected to be extremely subtle, and as a result they have not yet been detected. Now, a new generation of GW detectors are coming online in the US, Europe, and Japan. They should be ready to detect strong sources of gravitational waves – like the collapse of a heavy star into a supernova and , or the coalescence of a binary – as early as 2016. Such powerful GW sources Once gravitational waves are observed, signals should also emit a wide variety of other “mes- from other messengers are expected. In the case sengers”: X-rays, gamma-rays, visible and of the coalescence of a neutron star binary, gra- infrared light, radio waves, and neutrinos. The vitational wave data analysis will roughly goal of this new innovative area is to enable suggest the arrival direction. A rapid follow-up both coincident and follow-up observations of of X-ray and/or gamma-ray observations will these messengers through collaborative efforts narrow down the arrival direction, while optical in Japan, and by doing so to thereby extend follow-ups should allow identification of the man’s understanding of the universe via: (1) host galaxy. In case of a supernova in our own confirmation of Einstein’s 100-year-old predic- galaxy, coincident detection of neutrinos would tion, and (2) observationally establishing the give certain confirmation of a gravitational origin of the substances which comprise both wave signal. These simultaneous measure- humans and the world around them. ments – the only known techniques to look into ޣ ޤ Content of the Research Project the very heart of a collapsing star – will provide To conclusively demonstrate the observation of vital knowledge of these astronomical objects. gravitational waves, we need not only detection ޣKey Wordsޤ of the gravitational waves themselves but also General Relativity: General theory of gravity (which includes Newton’s gravity), proposed by A. Einstein at 1915. Based on this theory, there are many ideas regarding what happens in strong gravity fields, but experimental data is lacking. Gaining observational GW data will likely provide the key to creating a modern, 21st century unified theory which includes gravity. Gravitational Wave : Wave in the gravity field which was predicted by Einstein according to counterpart observations. Our innovative re- general relativity. Gravitational waves should search area consists of three categories of ob- propagate at the speed of light and distort servations as well as two types of gravitational space-time, but the direct measurement of this wave study: X-ray/gamma-ray (A01), opti- propagation has not yet been established. cal/radio (A02), neutrino (A03), gravitational wave data analysis (A04), and theoretical GW ޣTerm of Projectޤ FY2012-FY2016 research (A05). We wish to probe the inside of  gravitational wave sources with the cooperation ޣBudget Allocationޤ910,500 Thousand Yen of these research projects.   ޣHomepage Address and Other Contact ޣExpected Research Achievements and ޤ Scientific Significanceޤ Information http://www.gw.hep.osaka-cu.ac.jp/gwastro -32- ޣGrant́ińAid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas(Research in a proposed research area)ޤ Science and Engineering

Title of Project㧦Development of Molecular Robots equipped with sensors and intelligence  Masami Hagiya ( The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Information Science and , Professor ) 

ޣPurpose of the Research Projectޤ Some additional projects will also be recruited *UDQWLQ$LGIRU6FLHQWLÀF This project aims to establish the field of for the purpose of reinforcing necessary molecular robotics by means of promoting the elements to realize the prototypes and also to (Research in a proposed research area) engineering of molecular devices up to the level search for their possible applications. of molecular systems. Molecular robotics

requires the systematic integration of scientific Research on Innovative Areas and technological accomplishments of various fields, especially those of chemistry and DNA . The methodologies of systems science, such as control theory and numerical simulation, play an important role in the design and implementation of molecular robots. To achieve this aim, we focus on a revolutionary way of artifact production, a bottom-up methodology in which material Figure 1 Architecture of Molecular Robots molecules are programmed so that they become  a desired product by a self-assembling process. ޣExpected Research Achievements and Artifacts will be more useful if they provide Scientific Significanceޤ not only atomic-level resolution of shape but The evolutionary process of the molecular also advanced functions such as self-repair and robot will be something similar to that of the self-reconfiguration at the molecular level. evolution of living organisms. Many Such artifacts will be expected to make a large technological hurdles await us, but when these impact on solving problems in healthcare, food hurdles are overcome, new possibilities will and . arise. Ultimately, the process moves toward  hybridization of molecular and electric ޣContents of the Research Projectޤ (Fig.2). A robot is an artifact that can exhibit intelligent  behaviors by means of multiple sensing  -processing-actuating cycles. It requires the  facilities of sensors, actuators, and intelligence  as well as a body to integrate these facilities. In  molecular robots, those elements must be  realized in the form of functional molecules  (Fig.1). To achieve this, it is necessary not only  to develop each element, but also to develop  technology to integrate and organize the Figure 2 Evolution of Molecular Robots elements into one consistent system. All the component elements of the molecular robot ޣKey Wordsޤ must be assembled by bottom-up self-assembly, Molecular Robotics: Methodology to integrate and behaviors of the robot must be controlled and program molecular devices as a system based on chemical reactions. To realize this concept, the project is divided ޣTerm of Projectޤ FY2012-2016 into four subprojects: (A01) subproject aiming  at developing molecular sensing devices; (B01) ޣBudget Allocationޤ1,038,800 Thousand Yen subproject aiming at developing methodology to  implement molecular control circuits; (C01) ޣHomepage Address and Other Contact subproject to develop a micron-sized Informationޤ amoeba-like prototype; and (D01) subproject to http://molbot.org/shin-gaku/ develop a millimeter-sized slime-like prototype.

-33- ࠙Grant̺in̺Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas(Research in a proposed research area)ࠚ Science and Engineering

Title of Project㸸Nuclear Matter in Neutron Stars Investigated by Experiments and Astronomical Observations   Hirokazu Tamura ( Tohoku University, Graduate School of Science, Professor )

 ࠙Purpose of the Research Projectࠚ the crust of the neutron stars. (C) Both of the and the radius of the Neutron stars are extremely dense stellar neutron star would strongly restrict and/or objects whose core part is made only of baryons confirm the EOS. However, direct measurement (neutrons and other particles) without electrons. of the radius has not been achieved yet. Using Our project aims at revealing this unknown X-ray observatory satellites such as ASTRO-H matter by combining experiments on the earth with new X-ray detectors, we will obtain direct and astronomical observations from the space data on the radius for several samples. through theoretical studies. (D) The theory group studies related subjects on As illustrated in Fig. 1, we experimentally nuclear/hadron physics, cold atomic systems, study strangeness nuclear physics at J-PARC, and astronomical physics to analyze/interpret neutron-rich nuclei at RIBF in RIKEN, ultra- results of (A), (B), (C). The best EOS will be con- cold atomic gas, and also observe neutron stars structed from (A) and (B), and then confirmed using X-ray satellites such as ASTRO-H. Then by the radius data (C). Exotic neutron-star we combine those results through theoretical matter such as various baryonic superfluid and studies to uniquely determine the equation of pasta- like matter will be also investigated. state (EOS) of nuclear matter. Then various  types of matter in the neutron stars and the ࠙ structure of the neutron stars will be revealed. Expected Research Achievements and Scientific Significanceࠚ As mentioned above, we will be able to uniquely establish the EOS of nuclear matter, which has been one of the dreams in nuclear physics. Then the structure of the neutron stars and various types of matter inside them will be understood, and the long-standing questions such as existence of strange hadronic matter and superfluid neutron matter will be answered. The mechanism of production and cooling of neutron stars will be also elucidated. Furthermore, this project will lead to a creation of a new type of science for matter beyond atomic/molecular physics, condensed matter physics, chemistry, and plasma physics. Figure 1: Image of the project. ࠙Key Wordsࠚ ࠙Content of the Research Projectࠚ Neutron star: Extremely dense stellar object (A) In order to investigate the high density which remains after supernova explosion. region in the central part of the neutron stars, Nuclear Matter: Matter in a nucleus consisting where strange quarks are expected to appear, of baryons (such as neutrons) without electrons. we study strangeness nuclear systems (hyper- nuclei) and determine the hyperon-nucleon ࠙Term of Projectࠚ FY2012-2016 interactions to be used as an input for the EOS. (B) In order to understand low/medium density ࠙Budget Allocationࠚ1,079,300 Thousand Yen neutron matter in the outer region of the

neutron stars, we investigate properties of ࠙Homepage Address and Other Contact neutron-rich nuclear matter and thin neutron Informationࠚ matter through various studies of neutron-rich unstable nuclei. We also investigate laser- http://lambda.phys.tohoku.ac.jp/nstar/ cooled ultra-cold Fermi gas systems, of which [email protected] properties are similar to thin neutron matter in

-34- ޣGrant́ińAid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas(Research in a proposed research area)ޤ Science and Engineering

Title of Project㧦A multifaceted approach toward understanding the limitations of   Osamu Watanabe ( Tokyo Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Information Science and Engineering, Professor ) *UDQWLQ$LGIRU6FLHQWLÀF  (Research in a proposed research area) ޣPurpose of the Research Projectޤ computational limits from different view point. By intensively collaborating each other, we will The goal of this project is to establish explore the potential of various technique for

strong mathematical foundations for Research on Innovative Areas bounding the limits of computation. understanding the limits of computation. In Specifically, for typical techniques for analyzing particular, we will develop  various computational lower bounds, we shall (i) give fundamental results that would suggest the new interpretation as to how and why through next step toward  UHVROYLQJ WKH 313 the discussion by researchers with different conjecture. scientific viewpoints, (ii) derive new Mathematics has traditionally been relationships between these techniques and regarded as the “language” of the sciences. In obtain new applications, and (iii) apply this recent times Computation has become another knowledge to get innovative results, pushing “language” common to various scientific fields. the frontier of our understanding of the limits of Although computation is pervasively in computation. This is our research framework our daily lives, our understanding of of this project. computation is still partial. One typical

example is the limit of the efficiency of ޣExpected Research Achievements and algorithms. For solving a given computational Scientific Significanceޤ problem, there are various algorithms, and We believe that the above explained designing efficient algorithms is one of the research framework is strong enough to obtain important subjects in . On many fundamental results, from which we may the other hand, one can easily expect that there see new steps toward the P ҁ 13FRQMHFWXUH  should be a limit; for any problem, there should Such results must reveal some aspects of be a theoretical limit of improving its computation; thus, although these are purely algorithmic efficiency. Unfortunately, however, mathematical, they may lead some novel we have not been able to understand such algorithms, new computational concepts, and limits for most of the problems around us. An even new areas for computation. important question on the limits of computation

is the P13FRQMHFWXUH  2XUgoal is to develop ޣKey Wordsޤ techniques and theories for pushing the frontier 13 SUREOHP $ FRPSXWDWLRQDO SUREOHP VXFK of our understanding of the inherent limitations that for each given input, checking its solution of algorithms, thereby advancing our candidate is relatively easy. This type of understanding of computation. problem can be found in almost all fields of the  sciences. ޣContent of the Research Projectޤ Pҁ13 FRQMHFWXUH $ FRQMHFWXUH FODLPLQJ WKDW The 1990’s saw various new techniques WKHUHLVVRPH13SUREOHP such that no efficient and exciting results on the limits of computation. algorithm can compute its solutions. Throughout the 2000's, these techniques were

continually sharpened. Based on these efforts, ޣTerm of Projectޤ FY2012-2016 we may soon enter the stage of expecting some

big breakthrough results toward understanding ޣ ޤ the limits of computation. In this project, we Budget Allocation 536,500 Thousand Yen will investigate these techniques and relationships among them and derive some ޣHomepage Address and Other Contact multiple theories suggesting the next steps Informationޤ toward a big breakthrough. Motivated by this KWWSZZZDOLFVVDLWDPD-XDFMSHOFHQ goal, world leading experts on various aspects of [email protected] are uniting to form a research cloud consisting of nine groups investigating

-35- ޣGrant́ińAid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas(Research in a proposed research area)ޤ Science and Engineering

Title of Project㧦Chemical conversion of solar energy by artificial photosynthesis: ᴾ a breakthrough by fusion of related fields toward realization of practical processes

Haruo Inoue ( Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Applied Chemistry, Professor )

ޣPurpose of the Research Projectޤ electrons from water) 4) Development of artificial photosynthetic “Energy crisis” in global scale in near future is system with efficient photochemical reduction now becoming to be accepted to be inevitable. of carbon dioxide (A04 group): (Efficient It is anticipated that fossil oil shall be photochemical reduction of carbon dioxide into consumed up within ca. 60 years. It should be CO, formic acid, and alcohol) most required to realize a renewable energy ޣExpected Research Achievements and system, artificial photosynthetic one. It Scientific Significanceޤ enables to convert solar energy into chemical In this project, a forum on artificial energy (fuel) which can be utilized in a desired photosynthesis among the leading scientists amount at a desired time. The artificial will be organized to realize chemical photosynthesis has been a “dream of human conversions of solar energy with water as being,” but now is becoming the most crucial electron donor and to develop them into issue to be realized for the sustainable society. practical processes through multiple-cross- For getting to its realization, however, much fertilization among all the related area with breakthrough in the corresponding science and all-Japan members of the project team. technology should be further required, though International open-innovation on artificial many Japanese scientists in the artificial photosynthesis will be created. Each leading photosynthesis-related fields have been leading scientist is situated on the crossing point of the their edges. On the basis of those pioneering vertical axis of each sub-group with distinct achievements, this project challenges to realize object and the horizontal one of fundamental artificial photosynthesis through a discipline with characteristic methodology. It multiple-cross-fertilization among all the induces the multiple-cross-fertilization among corresponding fields with all members of the the discipline and the methodology to focus on project. the targeting object, which will promisingly ޣContent of the Research Projectޤ lead to establish artificial photosynthesis with To realize artificial photosynthesis, establishing water as electron donor. redox reaction systems with water as electron donor should be indispensable. Research strategy of 1) learning and understanding natural photosynthesis, 2) mimicking , and exceeding nature will be adopted to organize the project team with the following four sub-groups. 1) Development of artificial photosynthetic system with efficient light harvesting devices (A01 group): (Learning and understanding natural light harvesting system to lead to artificial one which can be effectively coupled ޣKey Wordsޤ with catalytic center) Artificial photosynthesis: Solar energy and 2) Development of artificial photosynthetic water store the energy in chemical substances system with efficient photocatalytic oxidation of such as hydrogen and alcohol. water (A02 group): (Learning, understanding, Renewable energy: Energy which can be and being inspired by the structure and continuously supplied by nature. mechanism of PSII in natural photosynthesis to establish artificial system of photocatalytic ޣTerm of Projectޤ FY2012-2016 oxidation of water) ޣBudget Allocationޤ750,700 Thousand Yen 3) Development of artificial photosynthetic ޣHomepage Address and Other Contact system with efficient hydrogen evolution (A03 Informationޤ group): (Efficient hydrogen formation by http://artificial-photosynthesis.net/ -36- ޣGrant́ińAid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas(Research in a proposed research area)ޤ Science and Engineering

Title of Project㧦 Plasma Medical Innovation   Masaru Hori ( Nagoya University, Graduate School of Engineer, Professor )

ޣPurpose of the Research Projectޤ ޣContent of the Research Projectޤ

Plasma consists of a variety of reactive species For creation of the field “Plasma Medical *UDQWLQ$LGIRU6FLHQWLÀF (ions, electrons, radicals and emitting photons). Innovation” and leading the worldwide research In discharge plasmas, these reactive species are activities, it is of key significance to establish (Research in a proposed research area) generated via ionization and dissociation of following schemes to evolve the novel academic gaseous molecules through collisions with field via utilizing unique scientific achievements

accelerated electrons. Due to enhanced reactivity gained in the “advanced plasma-process science”, Research on Innovative Areas of these reactive species, plasma has been which has lead the industries worldwide, for employed as major tools for material processes development of medical science and molecular including formations of ultrafine structures and biology. functional layers, which are indispensable as key 1) Development of unique plasma sources and manufacturing technology for advanced industries diagnostic technologies through establishment and eventually have taken a role as core of methodologies to study the interactions based technology to support the state-of-the-art on plasma science. advancement of scientific frontiers. 2) To study the interactions on the atomic and the Mean while, in the last decade, technological molecular scales based on molecular biology for progress has been made to generate non-thermal theoretical systematization. low-temperature plasma in atmospheric-pressure 3) Evolution of the novel academic field via systematic research activities that cover gas and in liquid, in which the gas temperature is interaction studies and experiments on animals, maintained at a room temperature. Recently the evaluation of side effects (toxicity), and non-thermal plasmas have been applied to establishment of international guidelines to medical treatments, in which remarkable effects assure safety as medical treatments. have been found in apoptotic behaviors of cancer Systematization as the plasma medical cells, skin-disease therapy and wound healing, science shall be attained via collaborative studies and thus the plasma is expected to bring in 1) and 2). Furthermore, innovative medical significant innovations in medical science and technologies with novel plasma sources and technologies. diagnostic systems shall be developed through The goal of our research project is to create systematic research activities via 3) together with “Plasma Medical Innovation” as a novel academic 1) and 2). field for development of innovative technologies in medical treatments through establishment of ޣExpected Research Achievements and scientific basis involved in plasma interactions Scientific Significanceޤ with biomolecules, cells and living bodies. In The achievement of our goal is expected to particular, our research project is to place special contribute significantly to a) enhancement and emphasis on studies and systematization of the promotion of academic level of our nation and interactions based on “plasma science” and moreover b) substantial promotion of “the life “molecular biology”. innovation” through medical innovations and evolutions that are attained via development of the novel medical technologies alternative to the conventional ones.

ޣKey Wordsޤ plasma medicine, molecular biology, plasma interactions with living body, life innovation

ޣTerm of ProjectޤFY2012-2016 ޣBudget Allocationޤ1,131,800 Thousand Yen

ޣHomepage Address and Other Contact Figure 1. Outline of our projects: Our goal is to create a new Informationޤ academic field that merges molecular biology, cellular http://plasmamed.jp biology and clinical medicine with plasma science. [email protected]

-37- ޣGrant́ińAid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas(Research in a proposed research area)ޤ Science and Engineering

Title of Project : Stimuli-responsive Chemical Species for the Creation of Functional Molecules  㗻 ౮ ⌀  Yohsuke Yamamoto ( Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Science, Professor )

 ޣPurpose of the Research Projectޤ scientific research project, we have set up the Recent developments in the field of “elemental following four sub-projects. science” based on the efficient utilization of the A01: Stimuli-Responsive Chemical Species for intrinsic character of each element are the Development of Functional Reagents. remarkable. A variety of fascinating compounds Highly polarized chemical bonds using having unusual bonding schemes and structures main-group elements are to be designed and have been spectroscopically characterized or prepared. The stimuli-responsive chemical even isolated owing to the creative design of bonds are expected to activate inert small ligands and substituents. Representative molecules such as CO2. examples include those containing silicon-silicon A02: Stimuli-Responsive Chemical Species for triple bonds, S-single bonds, five- and the Development of Functional Materials. six-coordinate carbons, and nucleophilic borons. Compounds with unusual S-bonds such as A notable point is that most of them are highly silicon-silicon triple bonds and S-single bonds stimuli-responsive molecules and are thus are to be designed and synthesized using kinetic readily converted to high-energy species that stabilization methods. possess high potential for molecular functions. A03: Stimuli-Responsive Chemical Species for In this project, we aim to establish the the Development of Functional Catalysts. New fundamentals and explore applications of such types of molecular catalysts are to be developed “stimuli-responsive chemical species” through and new ligands designed utilizing joint studies between leading chemists in electronically flexible main-group elements. various research fields including organic, A04: Stimuli-Responsive Chemical Species for inorganic, materials, theoretical, and biological the Elucidation of Enzymatic Processes. The chemistry, with the goal of creating new types of discovery of new stimuli-responsive chemical functional molecules. species and their application for the elucidation of enzyme reactions are to be explored using ޣContent of the Research Projectޤ methods of advanced structural biochemistry The valence shell of main group elements of the and quantum chemical calculations. third and lower rows of the periodic table is distant from the nuclei and high in energy. In ޣExpected Research Achievements and addition, the size of the s-orbital and the Scientific Significanceޤ p-orbitals is very different. Thus, the The invention of new functional molecules is hybridization of these orbitals is generally one of the utmost important tasks of chemistry. difficult. This partially contributes to the With the clear-cut concept of “stimuli-responsive transition metal-like properties of such elements. chemical species”, it is highly anticipated that Innovative functional molecules are to be the newly discovered reactions, properties, and created by joint research involving main-group functions will provide the basis for element and transition metal chemistry. Indeed, breakthroughs in socially important issues main group elements of the third row and including renewable energy and environmental transition metals are known to play important problems. cooperative roles at the active sites of enzymes in essential biological processes. ޣKey Wordsޤ Molecular compounds with new functionality Stimuli-responsive Chemical Species, High-energy Species, Functional Molecules㧚 derived from characteristics inherent to each element are targets in this Scientific Research ޣTerm of Projectޤ FY2012-2016 on Innovative Areas project. New reactions, molecules with new functions, and new catalysts ޣBudget Allocationޤ1,118,200 Thousand Yen are to be developed through joint research studies, and the elucidation of enzyme reaction ޣHomepage Address and Other Contact mechanisms and the development of artificial Informationޤ enzymes are to be achieved. To advance the http://www.strecs.jp

-38- ޣGrant́ińAid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas(Research in a proposed research area)ޤ Science and Engineering

Title of Project : Interdisciplinary Study on Environmental Transfer of Radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident  Yuichi Onda ( University of Tsukuba, Faculty of Life and Environmental

Sciences, Professor ) *UDQWLQ$LGIRU6FLHQWLÀF

 (Research in a proposed research area) ޣPurpose of the Research Projectޤ radionuclides on the ocean. They will study the Massive earthquake attacked the eastern distribution factor and condition of radioactive

Japan on March 11 2011. It triggered violent materials in sea and seafloor and also Research on Innovative Areas tsunami that damaged the Fukushima Nuclear understand the migration and concentration of Power Plant. A large amount of gamma-emitting radionuclides in marine ecology. radionuclides were released into its surrounding Group A03 will be focusing on the effect of area and also circulated globally with radionuclides on the land. They will find out the atmospheric diffusion process. After more than a migration process of radionuclides associated year since the accident, an interdisciplinary with water and sediment and also the study on falloutradionuclides for long–term radioactive migration in terrestrial plants and estimation will become more important than the ecosystem. investigation for basic countermeasures such as Group A04 will focus on the chemical forms of short-term estimation and decontamination. migrated radionuclides and the development of With the variety of circulation and interaction the measurement technology for various processes, transfer of fallout radionuclides will chemical forms. become a serious issue in the future. The forms  of transfer include entrainment from the ground ޣExpected Research Achievements and

surface, sediment transfer with associated Scientific Significanceޤ radionuclides to rivers and reservoirs, and We will launch a cross-sectional team, which radionuclide migration to forests, crops, marine consists of related but different study fields with and terrestrial ecosystems. geoenvironmental researchers as a core, to Radioactive contamination is a complex and understand current contamination status and to unprecedented problem that will not be resolved construct a model for transfer and diffusion by a single tackle in each field. Based on the processes of radionuclides. Scientific insights many fields of geoenvironmental sciences, and foundation for modeling which require establishment of a new and cross-sectional study long-term measures will be established through area with radiochemical and nuclear gauging various interdisciplinary studies. With this technology is required. interdisciplinary study on environmental Researchers join this project with their wisdom transfer of radionuclides from the Fukushima in the long-term radionuclide migration in the Daiichi NPP Accident, we aim at strengthening environment and the estimation of academic levels of geoenvironmental sciences of environmental dynamics. Through these our country, which in turn will contribute to the studies we will try to establish the formation of society.

the world’s leading new research area.  ޣKey Wordsޤ ޣContent of the Research Projectޤ Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, Cs-137, Land, We broadly have four parts in this research Ocean, Life, Atmospheric circulation, area (A01-A04) and will deepen each study and Entrainment offer feedback to each other through collaboration. ޣTerm of Projectޤ FY2012-2016

Group A01 will focus on the impact of radionuclides on the atmosphere to elucidate the ޣBudget Allocationޤ 923,800 Thousand Yen atmospheric circulation modeling of the fallout

radionuclides, migration process, atmospheric ޣHomepage Address and Other Contact deposition, diffusion process and the interaction Informationޤ of land surface. http://isetr.suiri.tsukuba.ac.jp/ Group A02 will focus on the effect of