Chemistry (Honors) TDC-I, Paper-II, Group-B, Unit-I

Dr. Abhishek Dubey Assistant Professor Department of , Ram Jaipal College, Chapra References

1. by Jonathan Clayden, Nick Greeves, and Stuart Warren Publisher: Oxford University Press

2. Wikipedia


 Hyperconjugation was first described by Baker and Nathan in 1935 to describe the abnormal behavior of alkyl substituted compounds.

 Hyperconjugation is the donation of bond into an adjacent empty or partially filled p-orbital, which result in an increased stability of the .

 Unlike the normal conjugation wherein, the pi electrons get delocalized in p-orbitals, here σ electrons move to p orbitals. It involves the delocalisation of C-H σ electrons. Hyperconjugation depends on the presence of α- . With the increase in number of such , the releasing effect of alkyl group also increase. For example;  The contributing structures involving σ electrons of C-H bond do not show any between C and H. Hyperconjugation, therefore, is also called no bond . This does not indicate that hydrogen is completely detached from the structure, but some degree of ionic character in the C-H bond and some character between C-C bond.

 Hyperconjugation exists in the having the following framework, i.e either or carbocations or free radicals having at least one α-H , but not in carbanions.

carbocation free Consequences and Applications of Hyperconjugation

1. Stability of alkenes  Overlap of σ orbital of C-H bond with pi orbital of adjacent C-C gives rise to canonical structures.  Delocalization of electrons occurs over three nuclei and thus stabilizes the alkene.

 In general, greater the number of alkyl groups (containing hydrogens) attached on the double bonds greater is the stability of alkene. This is because of increase in the number of contributing no bond resonance structures. Therefore, 2- is more stable than 1-butene. In 2-butene, there are six hydrogens involved in hyperconjugation whereas there are only two hydrogens involved in case of 1-butene. Hence the contributing structures in 2-butene are more hence is more stable than 1-butene. With the increase in the number of methyl groups on the double bonds, the stability of alkenes increases as shown below.  Important condition for hyperconjugation to take place in alkenes is that the alkyl group attached to the double bond must have minimum one . For example, in case of the following alkene containing a tert-butyl group on doubly bonded , the hyperconjugation is not possible.

 The effect of hyperconjugation is stronger than the . It is because, in inductive effect there is partial delocalization of charges, but in hyperconjugation there is total transfer/delocalization of charges. 2. Stability of carbocations :

 Carbocations have an electron deficient (positively charged) carbon.

 The empty p-orbitals of the sp2 carbon can overlap with σ orbitals of C-H bond of adjacent alkyl group (α C-H bond).

 This overlap permits individual electrons to help bind together three nucleus: 2 carbon and 1 hydrogen.

 The positive charge thus get dispersed over large volume of space and is stabilized.

 The more the number of alkyl groups on the carbocations, more is the number of α C-H bonds and hence more are the possibilities for hyperconjugation which makes the carbocations more stable.

 The order of stability of the carbocations is: 3. Stability of free radicals:

 The stability of free radicals is influenced by hyperconjugation just as in case of carbonium ions. One of the two σ-electrons of the α-C-H bond can be decolalized into the p-orbitals of carbon containing an odd electrons.

 Due to hyperconjugation, the stability of free radicals also follow the same order as that of carbonium ions i.e.,

30 alkyl radical> 20 alkyl radical > 10 alkyl radical > methyl radical 4. moment & :

 The dipole moment of the molecules is greatly affected due to hyperconjugation since the contributing structures show considerable polarity. The bond lengths are also altered due to change in the during hyperconjugation. The single bond might develop partial double bond character and vice versa

 E.g. The experimental dipole moment of nitro is higher than the calculated value because of hyperconjugation. The experimental C-N bond length is also less than the expected value because of same reason.

 In the same way C-C bonds adjacent to and are shorter. Here also, the observed dipole moments are different from their expected values due to hyperconjugation.


The delocalization of σ-electrons or of electrons into adjacent π-orbital or p- orbital is called hyperconjugation.

It takes place because of overlapping of s-bonding orbital or the orbital containing a lone pair with an adjacent unfilled p-orbital. It is also called as "no bond resonance" or "Baker-Nathan effect". It explains stability of alkenes, carbocations and free radicals.

The dipole moment of the molecules and bond length is greatly affected due to hyperconjugation since the contributing structures show considerable polarity and change in bond order. Hyperconjugation also explains the reactivity & orientation of electrophilic substitution on alkyl substituted ring.

The overall tendency of anomeric to favour an axial position is called anomeric effect. For example, the α-methyl glucoside is more stable than the ß-methyl glucoside due to hyperconjugation. For a-halo alkenes, the delocalization of electrons takes place towards the group through hyperconjugative mechanism because of electron withdrawing nature of halogen. It is known as reverse hyperconjugation.