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William Golding's Lord of the Flies: a Satirical Analysis of Fantasized

William Golding's Lord of the Flies: a Satirical Analysis of Fantasized

William Golding's Lord of the Flies: A Satirical Analysis of Fantasized Dystopia [PP: 163-171] Sayed Mohammad Anoosheh Department of , Faculty of Humanities, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran Muhammad Hussein Oroskhan Department of English Literature, Faculty of Humanities, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars, Iran ABSTRACT The eruption of two world marked a period of transition in which the intellectual and artistic environment underwent a drastic change. Such a gloomy era provided the inevitable situation for the -writer to switch to new and bold fictional modes. Under such circumstances, the adoption of became one of the most interesting, satisfying and effective forms for projecting the modern novelist's vision. Fantasy can work as the most suitable board on which the fictional writer can apply his satirical vision and negate the value of our sense experiences. Indeed, Fantasy seems to be the exact through which writers of the can proceed effectively along their chosen path. As such, William Golding in his monumental work, Lord of the Flies, has tried to show a fantastic representation of Modern man's nature which leads him inevitably to savagery. Golding has created a dystopia by diminishing the adults to children to show that the modern man who denies the spiritual values is doomed to failure. Hence, in this paper tries to apply the technique of diminution, an oft- repeated technique in satirical writing, to prove that the animal side in man is the sole cause of his degradation and degeneration and if this animal side is not kept under control, the society will face injustice, repression, slavery and hatred. Keywords: , Fantasy, Dystopia, William Golding's Lord of the Flies ARTICLE The paper received on Reviewed on Accepted after revisions on INFO 19/08/2017 25/10/2017 28/06/2018 Suggested citation: Anoosheh, S. & Oroskhan, M. (2018). William Golding's Lord of the Flies: A Satirical Analysis of Fantasized Dystopia. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. 6(2). 163-171.

1. Introduction purposive aspects of literature. Literary and Modern writers have used fantasy, artistic explorations have been directed to some of which is horrifying, gruesomely new ends in the hands of many. Human life, thrilling; some are used for light satire on constantly oscillating like the pendulum of a manners, or for pungent satire on the actual clock between unrealizable hopes and but unwarranted state of affairs; and some abysmal , stared the creative writer in manifest merely an indulgence of playful the face. This gloomy situation provided the fancy. Indeed, the use of fantasy has become inescapable environment for the fiction- one of the most interesting, delightful, writer and stimulated new and bold fictional natural, and satisfying and effective forms modes. Awareness of the prevailing for projecting the modern novelist's vision. uncertainty and the future dangers led the No matter how grotesque, thrilling or trivial novelists toward incursions into fantasy, in the picture of fantasy is, its outward ways hardly seen before. contours hide within them a solid pragmatic Writers have often interpreted the purpose. The contours enclose an essentially world differently but all consciously or logical and valid purport which needs to be unconsciously have searched for one fully realized and implemented to make life common view among many possible in the worth living. world and that is the establishment of a The aftermath of the two world wars utopian world through which all the people has coincided with a period of transition in can live happily ever after. The term was which the intellectual and artistic first introduced in 1516 when environment has undergone a great change. wrote his seminal work entitled . And With such changes taking place in man's throughout the history, the concept of the ideas and outlook, there have inevitably utopia has "focused on disembodied been new orientations in the functional and intellectual traditions, interrogating utopia as

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (www.eltsjournal.org) ISSN:2308-5460 Volume: 06 Issue: 02 April-June, 2018 term, concept, and genre" (Gordin et al., can be passed by the and finally 2010, p.1). Author's critical eye has been settle in the "promised land of apparently always in search of a utopian vision but has beautiful people" (2005, 20). Among the never been negligent to take the notification critics of dystopia, Parrinder has taken the of its opposite pole. Hence, a discussion of most optimistic view claiming the each utopia while it is directed toward its opposite society should experience a dystopic has been the subject matter of many authors. moment until reaching a utopian moment, In this respect, every utopia comes along nonetheless, other critics never concur with with its dystopia; a totally unbearable such optimistic view and proclaim a totally situation which was commonly seen in pessimistic view. Not many writers have different places around the world in attested to such perspective while studying twentieth century. The two concepts may be the concept of dystopia. Mainly, critics easily distinguished by its opposite features, believe that the principle factor pervading however, less obvious is the way that these over the concept of dystopia is gloomy in all two concepts can be discussed in relation its parts and the natural bent should be with each other- toward realizing the reason leading to the Whereas utopia takes us into a future creation of such atmosphere. In his article and serves to indict the present, dystopia entitled "Living under the Bell Jar: places us directly in a dark and depressing Surveillance and Resistance in Yevgeny reality, conjuring up a terrifying future if Zamyatin's We", Michael D. Amey has do not recognize and treat its symptoms in the carried 's We under his here and now. (p. 2) critical view so as to provide us with a detail While being in an age of World Wars, study of a dystopia through the lenses of the writers endeavored to make a proper Foucauldian and Lacanian theories. diagnosis and prescription for the agonized Amey asserts that the presence of spasms of the disenchanted and troubled regulatory power in the portrayal of world. To many authors, satire seems to be prevalent surveillance existing in The One the exact mode through which they can State of Zamyatin's We echoes the proceed effectively along their chosen path. incorporate network of disciplinary regime The history of satire shows that satire takes explained by 's design of various forms and out of them utopia and the Panoptican. Furthermore, he claims that dystopia are the chief ones. Though utopia the presence of continuous surveillance in was the from which had the principles of many dystopic atmospheres compels the progress and attempts towards a better citizen to internalize the governmental world, today we have a host of writers regulatory power so that the subject grows to tending towards a contrary direction. In this be part of the unified principle. He adds to respect, a dystopian fantasy is doubly his discussion that the nonexistence of any important at a time when the swirl of life is privacy in such society which is most upsetting or when tension is at the accompanied by the imposition of actions highest or when despair has paralyzed the directed from the unified power would ability to think and with clarity and assimilate the individual into the collective confidence. In this regard, William system. Finally, he concludes that the Golding's Lord of the Flies is a dystopian development of an individual in such society fantasy of enacted by a group of should be studied by focusing on Jaques children who are fantastically deserted in an Lacan's "mirror-stage" theory as he studies island after a plane crash against the the development of the protagonist in the background of a nuclear in the future. and asserts that "it is within the Through our discussion of Golding's privacy of the individual, and from the masterpiece, we have tried to put emphasis position of alienation that resistance to the on the satirical uses to which fantasy is societal power structures begins" (2005, 38). applied as a very highly imaginative mode. Amey's attempt to study Zamyatin's We 2. Review of Literature within the framework of Foucault and Lacan The concept of dystopia has been was to discover the way through which the recently analyzed from different perspective. individual can release himself from the Patrick Parrinder provides us with a new restricted network of dystopic society. examination of Samuel Butler's , In the same respect, Aaron Rosenfeld situating it within the tradition of dystopian in his article "Re-membering the Future: romance while arguing that the concept of Doris Lessing's 'Experiment in dystopia is only a fleeting moment which Autobiography"' has tried to spur a new

Cite this article as: Anoosheh, S. & Oroskhan, M. (2018). William Golding's Lord of the Flies: A Satirical Analysis of Fantasized Dystopia. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. 6(2). 163- 171. Page | 164

William Golding's Lord of the … Sayed Mohammad Anoosheh & Muhammad Hussein Oroskhan

reading of the future-history literary imagination has led him to create fantasy. tradition by criticizing its formulation of the Some of the highly imaginative products, relationship existing among the individual, such as religious , served the purpose history and the community. He formulates of binding the community into unity by four different modes as follows: means of ultimate concerns about his The Utopian form is a text about the situation and his final destiny. The other perfect civilization, offered in contrast to the products of imagination and fantasy only world as it is; the dystopian form is about aimed at entertainment. Beyond affording escape from civilization; the arcadian form is thrills and sensations, some of the early a world without civilization; post-apocalyptic fantasy contained no special form is a tale of the struggle to return to meaning. But in the course of history of civilization (2005, 40). Rosenfeld asserts that under the cover imaginative verbal arts, fantasy, as a mode of a utopia/dystopia, Lessing tries to of apprehending reality, has come to acquire reconsider a world-historical subject who is a definite purpose and become one of the situated both within and outside the limits of most significant elements of the modern the precedent models for narrating the novel. history of future. Moreover, Rosenfeld Fantasy as a literary mode may be believes that she challenges utopia's sense of defined as a deliberate and purposeful the explorer with a totally different delineation of human reality in terms of perspective that world historical forces has what is unusual, impossible and apparently put dystopia's sense of the agentic individual improbable under ordinary and familiar under siege. Finally, he concludes that circumstances, fantasy is the creation of a Lessing Memoirs of a Survivor portrays a hypothetical world which is far removed pungent analysis of utopia and dystopia, and from the existing familiar realities; yet the of its oppositions and ideologies as provided writer can imbue it with a definite version of by writers like Orwell. Not criticizing others contemporary life. As means of access to for taking a wrong perspective toward reality, fantasists have often created dystopia, Ben Wheeler provided a new nightmares which amazingly prove to be the perspective by investigating the ways that very world their contemporaries are actually realities are internally and externally living in. Pudolf B. Schmerl defines fantasy constructed within the modern subject as: The deliberate presentation of through the study of Terry Gilliam's seminal improbabilities through any one of four dystopian vision Brazil. In his seminal methods- the use of unverifiable time, place, article entitled "Reality Is What You Can characters, or devices- to a typical reader Get Away With", he primarily considers the within a culture whose level of sophistication ways that dystopian fiction have generally will enable that reader or recognize the created to the complex influences and impossibilities. (Schmerl: 1962, 328) manipulations that formulate the modern Fantasists have used one or the other subject which at last may end in "characters or a combination of four variables which are who attempt to free themselves in such a unverifiable time, place, characters and way generally end up dead, or in Sam's case devices to project their vision of reality. insane" (2005, 4). Clearly, each author has Fantasy is a phenomenon of very tried to justify the reasons creating an considerable cultural and literary atmosphere leading to a dystopic moment; importance. It is employed today as a nonetheless, no one has ever discussed the technique of satirical exposure, of rendering inevitability of ending with a dystopia while an apocalyptic vision of society. E. M. groups of human being are gathered together Forster's concept of fantasy as one of the and putting in some effort to make a utopian essential aspects of the novel deserves . As such, a discussion of William careful attention. He has devoted a full Golding's Lord of Flies with respect to the chapter to fantasy in his book, Aspects of the gathering of some small and innocent boys Novel (1927). Before giving a formal highlights the inevitability of ending with a definition of fantasy, Forster thinks it dystopia. necessary to find out the sort of demand this 3. Methodological Framework & Analysis mode of writing makes on readers. Fantasy, 3.1 The Role of Fantasy according to Forster, has special types of Indeed, fantasy has always been a stimulus-response effect over readers medium for artist's vision in a satisfactory "because of the oddness of its method or order. Right from the very earliest times subject matter" (1962, 114). This oddness of when men started telling stories, his fecund method or subject makes the readers not

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (www.eltsjournal.org) ISSN:2308-5460 Volume: 06 Issue: 02 April-June, 2018 Page | 165

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (www.eltsjournal.org) ISSN:2308-5460 Volume: 06 Issue: 02 April-June, 2018 acquainted with it thrilled and excited. always comes with its implied dystopia— Therefore, fantasy "compels us to an whether the dystopia of the status quo, adjustment that is different to an adjustment which the utopia is engineered to address, or required by a work of art, to an additional a dystopia found in the way this specific adjustment"(ibid). Forster thus means that utopia corrupts itself in practice"(2). This fantasy demands something more from the duality is not to carry us to a future full of readers that what may be called ordinary and wishes and ideal characteristics and unusual. Dictionary of World Literary Terms moments but also to remind us of the past defines fantasy as: times and the factors leading to a dystopia. Fantasy includes, in the , the The interesting fact that might come to light characters, or the things that are more here is that mostly a system with a utopic impossible under ordinary conditions or in the vision may inevitably lead to some dystopic normal course of human events. In the case of moments. Erika Gottlieb (2001), in her no other genre is the willing suspension of monumental work, Dystopian Fiction East disbelief so requisite. Not every work and West, claims that twentieth-century containing strange or supernatural features is a fantasy. If it deals with religious beliefs or fiction is partially defined by a terrible and treats the mysterious but nevertheless actual undesirable consequence: "It is one of the phenomena of abnormal psychology, it is not most conspicuous features of […] dystopian fantasy. Only purely imaginary phenomena, fiction that once we allow the totalitarian accepted as such by the author and his state to come to power, there will be no way intelligent adult readers, constitute the back" (p. 4). characteristic matter of fantasy. Once the 3.2 The Analysis of William Golding's Lord author has aimed his fancy's flight, however, of the Flies as a Fantasized Dystopia its farthest range must be in the same Total disenchantment moved some of imagined world, must seem consistent; the the serious writers of 1920s to create a world reader will ride but one magic carpet at a time. of fantasy akin to hell. Their works reflected (116-118) The above definition makes it clear a world that was demonic and sometimes that fantasy include elements of possibilities sadistic and masochistic. But the core of that and probabilities under normal and natural world, despite all the plentifulness of the circumstances of this world. Thus when bizarre and irrational, was not quite alien to exposed to a fantasy, the reader has the spirit the actual world. Taken in its essentials it and willingness to suspend his disbelief. In was the same world in which they lived, other words, the writer of fantasy breathed, or died. It is significant to note that deliberately aims at upsetting the reader's many successful of the time projected normal expectation about the a priori chain, into their vision a gloomy aftermath of some about how events follow one another. nuclear war. This phenomenon is to be seen Evidently, the author administers a shock- in the context of the world wars as well as therapy to make the reader reconsider his the political, social, cultural and economic normal responses and expectation more set-up of the world that has undergone a carefully. In this way, the reader's dim drastic change. Walter Allen writes: "After apprehensions are given a keener edge and the first world war, the age… lay like an no matter how grotesque, queer, thrilling or unbridgeable chasm between the present and trivial the picture of fantasy is, and its the past, so that present and past seemed outward contours hide within them a solid almost laughably different in kind…what pragmatic purpose. The contours enclose an had seemed certainties… were exposed as essentially logical and valid purport which illusions" (Allen, 1964, 1). needs to be fully realized and implemented The aftermath of the two world wars to make life worth living. has coincided with a period of transition in The denial of the features of the real which the intellectual and artistic world renders the fantasist to create a totally environment has undergone a great change. new world. This new world is controlled and With such changes taking place in man's directed by a new vision and perspective. ideas and outlook, there have inevitably Since Thomas More published his been new orientations in the functional and magnificent book entitled Utopia, this new purposive aspects of literature. This gloomy concept has found its way through literary situation provided the inescapable studies. However this concept is always environment for the fiction-writer which embedded with its negative concept of then led to the stimulated new and hold meaning which is dystopia; "every utopia fictional modes. Awareness of the prevailing uncertainty and the future dangers led the

Cite this article as: Anoosheh, S. & Oroskhan, M. (2018). William Golding's Lord of the Flies: A Satirical Analysis of Fantasized Dystopia. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. 6(2). 163- 171. Page | 166

William Golding's Lord of the … Sayed Mohammad Anoosheh & Muhammad Hussein Oroskhan

novelist like William Golding to create an however, everything into consideration, the unprecedented setting for his novel, Lord of fittest candidate is neither Ralph nor Piggy, the Flies. Golding tries to the wanton growth but Jack. Yet it is Ralph who comes to be of inherent evil in human being by situating elected the leader. It becomes clear in the children in an island which is devoid of any course of the novel that slavery is the natural adult civilized restraint. Golding shows the condition of man. One by one, the boys get human's inherent evil by choosing innocent rid of their freedom and willingly opt to children and following them regressing to become Jack's slaves. Having got rid of their savagery and brutality in the very young freedom, they are blissfully happy to be age. slaves. This is the lot of the majority in the One of the devices employed to create adult world, too. Ralph gets elected leader, fantasy is the technique of diminution initially, because he was bid and attractive (Kernan, 1965, 53), an oft-repeated and was in possession of the conch: technique in satirical writings. In Swift's None of the boys could have found Gulliver's Travels the Lilliputians are good reason for this; what intelligence had created by means of the diminishing been shown was traceable to Piggy while the tendency. Orwell's Animal Farm diminishes most obvious leader was Jack. But there was a men to the breeds of animals, and 1984 to stillness about Ralph as he sat that marked him out: there was his size, and attractive mere mechanical tools. Huxley's Brave New appearance; and most obscurely, yet most World diminishes human mothers to test powerfully, there was the conch. The being tubes, education to hypnosis and individual that had blown that, had sat waiting for them differences to conditioned reflexes. The on the platform with the delicate thing device of diminution to create fantasy has a balanced on his knees, was set apart (Golding, symbolic reference to the contemporary 1954, 28). society in Lord of the Flies as in novels just Ralph, with the aid of Piggy's mentioned. Instead of presenting the basic intelligence, is resourceful and can human condition in a realistic manner, discriminate between important and trivial Golding has restored to fantasy and satire matters. He realizes that if they do not keep and to that end he has reduced the adult the fire going, "We'll be like animals. We'll world to the world of children. The never be rescued (30)". Golding is careful children's behavior has an allegorical import not to idealize Ralph; therefore, Ralph in respect to human motives. cannot be the father figure. He has some The technique of diminution compels innate . His lust for power is as great as us to see the adult image in the mirror of the Jack's. He is also uncharitable; makes fun of children depicted. As several places Piggy Piggy by calling out his nickname and has, with unconscious , described the raising a vulgar and cheap laughter among behavior of the "biguns" as that of "a crowd the boys. Ralph humiliates Piggy: "He's not of kids"(Golding, 52) he also tries to warn fatty…. His real name is Piggy! (27). Ralph the "biguns" with "what's the grown-ups is a snob; he is callous towards Piggy. Piggy going to think?" (248). He is not aware of asks Ralph his name and expects the same the irony in respect to his regard for the question from Ralph. But here is the grown-ups. He is too young to know what conceited boy's response: the grown-ups truly are. However, the reader The fat boy waited to be asked his recognizes the irony readily enough, because name in turn but this proffer of acquaintance he is able to see the behavior of the grown- was not made; the fair boy called Ralph ups in identical realms with that of the kids. smiled vaguely, stood up, and began to make Among the children Ralph occupies a his way once more toward the lagoon. The fat privileged position; he enjoys a relatively boy hung steadily at his shoulder. (8) high social status because his father is He ignores Piggy. It is clear enough commander in the Navy. He believes that his that he is also contemptuous of all the father would rescue him and the rest as soon "littluns". When Simon is dead, he asks: as he gets the news about the predicament of ""Piggy? Are you the only one left?" the children. Piggy, who is more intelligent "There’s some littluns." "They don’t count. than any other boy on the island, is an No biguns?""(222). All these defects in orphan. His superiority of talent, however, Ralph are far outweighed by the better side goes waste when he becomes a subordinate of his nature. Ralph, with the advice of to Ralph. Piggy cannot get himself elected, Piggy, produces a workmanlike program to because he has no social status to boast of. put things straight. A plan for better He comes of the lover middle class sanitation, for keeping the fire going, for and lived with his poor aunt. Taking, cooking on the mountain top. But all his

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (www.eltsjournal.org) ISSN:2308-5460 Volume: 06 Issue: 02 April-June, 2018 Page | 167

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (www.eltsjournal.org) ISSN:2308-5460 Volume: 06 Issue: 02 April-June, 2018 efforts become ineffectual because of the couldn't have a beastie, a snake-thing, on the fissiparous tendency set afoot among boys island this size… You only get them in big and their becoming unruly. Ralph tries to countries, like Africa, or India (49)". implement his plans because he considers But this rational assurance from Ralph them good and may help their rescue from is only half-convincing to the little children. the island. Jack, who started with revolt, is Jack as a hunter has been to every part of the more inclined towards his inner animal island. He also says that there is no fearsome compulsions; he simply enforces his will reptile on the island. He tells the "littluns" and overweening pride. He does not want to that they are unduly frightened "because you be reasonable. There is a situation during the are like that," (117) and, as he adds, because second meeting when the difference between it is human nature to be frightened of the Ralph and Jack simmers up to the surface. world and of life when man is all alone and To prevent confusion and allow everyone to it is dark. He tries to pull up their spirit by from a disciplined team, Ralph suggests, saying, " cannot hurt you anymore that a "we'll have to have 'Hands up' like at school dream" (116). Fear, according to him, can be (44)". But this is odious to Jack. To him hunted and killed. Piggy also makes little of rules like this cannot be a means of the fear. For him everything can be preserving a child's individual voice; they explained. Life is scientific. There is no are a means of penal repression. Ralph beast to fear and there is no need to fear ejaculates, "We'll have rules! (45)", he cried anything "unless we get frightened of excitedly. "Lots of rules! Then when people"(119). But this rather precocious everyone breaks them ….(ibid). rationality of Piggy does not help the This is Ralph's way of dragooning his "littluns". The cause of fear is not any fellows. Initially Jack falls in line with animal, but "maybe it's only us (126)" says Ralph. The point is that in his heart Jack is Simon. The latter's rationalization is that dogmatic and assertive. He says that he is there is perhaps something bestial, English and that "the English are best at something absolutely dirty, that is present in everything"(58). There is responsive cord in man which causes fear. But all these him to agree to Ralph's scheme of explanations and assurances are unavailing. regimentation. But very soon it becomes The fear prevalent among the boys cannot be clear that the tacit understanding between dispelled by these explanations. The fear them is fragile and momentary. Jack's ego is among the "littluns" intensifies and they too strong to enable him to be anybody else's build up a chimera in the form of an henchman. His nature is basically imaginative beast. The "biguns" are also primitivistic and acutely so as seen in afraid. contrast to Ralph's constant yearning to be Ralph is also seized with fear. He no rescued from the island. Jack is more longer dares to blow the conch. If it is interested in pig-hunting. The love-hate disobeyed, it will be an insult to his relationship between Ralph and Jack is one leadership and the boys will defy his orders. of the technical highlights of the book, a Piggy's fear is still of another type. He is picture of the marriage of convenience afraid of Jack. Piggy has a rational mind but between the modern methods of repression there is a peculiarity about him. His asthma and regimentation, which Ralph symbolizes, always appears when he is confronted with and the primitivistic wildness and something beyond his control and wantonness, of which ,Jack is a symbol. understanding. "I been in bed so much I Man degenerates because of fear, done some thinking. I know about people greed and lust for power. This is one aspect (132)". He talks about the prognosis he has of the basic human condition, which made about his asthma: Golding suggests through the portrayal of If you’re scared of someone you hate the boy's characters in Lord of the Flies. him but you can’t stop thinking about him. Everywhere there is fear among the You kid yourself he’s all right really, an’ then "littluns," and even among the "biguns" who when you see him again; it’s like asthma an’ are more sensible. Ralph's entire plan starts you can’t breathe. I tell you what. He hates breaking up because the children are you too, Ralph. (132) frightened, and this in spite of Ralph's By his own admission Piggy's asthma efforts to boost their morale. Ralph tries to is an image of the fear he has experience. assure the boys and particularly the child Both Ralph and Jack degenerate because of with the mulberry colored birth-mark, who the tension that mounts quickly in their life claims to have found a serpent, "You as a consequence of lust for power. As they

Cite this article as: Anoosheh, S. & Oroskhan, M. (2018). William Golding's Lord of the Flies: A Satirical Analysis of Fantasized Dystopia. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. 6(2). 163- 171. Page | 168

William Golding's Lord of the … Sayed Mohammad Anoosheh & Muhammad Hussein Oroskhan

lapse into barbarism, Jack reveals himself as and Roger he is able to throw stones down at an absolutist, a powerful and them with impunity, a new but perverted aggressor, who asserts his authority through awareness of power "began to pulse in tribal ritual dances, arousing terror in the Roger’s body (253)". The perversion is at its "littluns" and blood-lust. It is around the worst when he levers the rock on to Piggy of Jack that Golding builds up and kills him. Roger does not feel any much of the fantasy of an entire society that remorse whatsoever after killing innocent goes savage before our eyes. In this context, Piggy. And as if this is not enough, a few Fry's critical formulation is fully vindicated, moments later he starts torturing Sam and especially when he says: Eric. Thus Roger proves himself a terror. The demonic human world is a society The inner cruelty of his nature finds the held together by a kind of molecular tension fullest expression as the conditions on the of egos, a loyalty to the group or the leader island start deteriorating. One of the twins which diminishes the individual, or, at best tells Ralph, "You don't know Roger. He's a contrasts his pleasure with his duty or honor. terror (172)". (147) Another aspect of the basic human This kind of society is an endless condition, a disruptive force suggested by source of dilemma. Jack is the tyrant leader, the book, is man's instinctive urge to ruthless with an insatiable will. Jack is so embrace slavery. This may sound strongly and excessively egocentric that he paradoxical in respect to a novel which cannot tolerate any other's ego. Thus he focuses attention upon man's lust for power almost swallows up everybody else and and domination over others. But the comes to represent the collective ego of his narrative makes it clear that the two followers like Roger, Maurice, Bill, and apparently opposite tendencies are the Robert whose individual egos are swamped obverse and the reverse of the same coin. under the tidal bore of Jack's self-assertion. Ralph's group gives more freedom to the Roger and others are the bigger boys of the boys than Jack's but the twins, Sam and Eric, choir hunting group, yet they are never remain more or less the same drudges in individualized. Among the choir boys, either group. They have to work ceaselessly. Roger has the propensity of little Nero. He Further even under Ralph's relatively may not be as impressive and assertive as democratic leadership, Piggy does not, Jack, but he is much more brutal and initially, count for much, and Simon is sadistic. He is introduced as one with a considered "batty". Jack, the other group furtive appearance, one who mostly keeps leader, turns into a tyrant who exercises things to himself. In an intense manner he authority in an irresponsible way. Under his betrays the spirit of avoidance and secrecy. iron heel he organizes his tribe with the When he is spoken to he mutters inaudibly. maximum of regimentation. Although But his real nature is revealed when he loyalty to either group places one under destroys the little boys' sand castles by restriction and diminishes the individual, it deliberately walking through them, and also is worse under Jack's leadership. One has to when he derives pleasure by hiding behind a take one's place in Jack's tribe as a mere cog tree and throwing stones at a "littluns" in his efficient machinery. And yet the playing near the sea. majority of the boys willingly barters their In the beginning Roger is a bit careful freedom for a chunk or even morsels of meat about what he does. He takes care to see that and become Jack's slaves. the missiles fall some yards away from the The irony of the situation is that some child, because "invisible yet strong, was the of them are so happy with their enslavement taboo of the old life" (87). This shows that that they ecstatically admire the tyrant: "He initially he is conditioned by his life at home is a proper chief, isn't he?" (181). One is of "parents and school and policemen and forced to conclude that slavery and tyranny, the law (ibid)". But then a change overtakes as Golding suggests, are the conditions of him. As Roger deserts Ralph and joins Jack man's natural state of existence: there is a on the Castle Rock, Jack's arbitrary kind of identity between the slavish mob of treatment of the other boys casts its baneful the boys and the tyrant Jack who exercises effect upon Roger. He absorbs the control over them in the Day of the Lord of possibilities of irresponsible authority and the Flies. In this process Jack comes to feels fully at liberty from the restrictions of represent the collective bestial ego of all of the old life. The stone-throwing habit them. Ralph comes, in the end, to represent quickly comes to the fore again. When some of the virtues that are thrust his Ralph, Piggy and the twins visit the Castle,

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (www.eltsjournal.org) ISSN:2308-5460 Volume: 06 Issue: 02 April-June, 2018 Page | 169

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (www.eltsjournal.org) ISSN:2308-5460 Volume: 06 Issue: 02 April-June, 2018 inherently bestial nature by Simon and novel. In this way Golding confirms that a Piggy. The two thus set off each other. denial of spiritual values by an individual or Focusing our attention upon the a society in general is sure to be path to ruin. dominant psychic qualities of the boys we The above analysis goes to prove that find that Ralph is the type of dictator who Lord of the Flies is a fantastic and has a strong lust for power and control but symbolical representation of modern man's lack intelligence: a curtain keeps frequently nature and those conditions which lead him flapping in his brain so that he cannot think inevitably to savagery. To express this clearly. Another type of man is represented Golding has used the device of diminution to through Piggy, who is shown to be under create his fantasy which constitutes the moral control yet unable to prevent the prophetic aspect of the novel. He has manifestation of craving for power and projected his onto the near future. He leadership. He is distinguished by the says that the beast in man is the sole cause combination of moral sense and sharp of his degradation and degeneration. intellect, both of which are lacking in Ralph. Golding's presentation gives a warning to Still another specimen of the homo sapien is keep the beast under control so that the represented through Piggy who completely widespread symptoms of unwarranted lacks spiritual awareness and is bottled up injustice, repression, slavery and hatred may within a deadening matter-of-factness. He be uprooted and an amiable atmosphere attaches too much importance to intellect created to bring about the fullest awaking of and commonsense. He thinks of inventing humanness in man. things. In him are epitomized all those well- meaning intellectual of a secular cast of References: mind, who have made the progress of Allen, W. (1964), Tradition and Dream, modern technological civilization possible London: Phoenix House, but have turned man away from the eternal Amey, M. D. (2005). "Living Under the Bell Jar: springs of spiritual values. Jack is a natural Surveillance and Resistance in Yevgeny man who has both Ralph's lust for power Zamyatins We". Critical Survey, 17(1). doi:10.3167/001115705781002057. and authority and Piggy's moral awareness. Cuddon, J. A. (1998), Dictionary of Literary As a result, Jack, like Roger, makes a Terms and , Great Britain: diabolical use of his power and authority. Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 4. Sum Up Forster, E. M. )1962), Aspects of the Novel, The dystopia in the novel created by Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd., diminishing the adults to children suggests Frye, N. (2006). Anatomy of criticism: Four that the modern man, who denies spiritual Essays. Toronto: University of Toronto values and vaunts of his intellectual and Press. technological progress, is doomed to live Frye, N. (1970), The Critical Path: An Essay on under the perpetual reign of the Lord of the the Social Context of . Flies. It is thus assumes the contour of a Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Golding, W. (1954), Lord of the Flies, London: dystopia fantasy. It shows the rise and fall of Faber Educational Edition, the modern technologically advanced man. Gordin, M. D., Tilley, H., & Prakash, G. (2010). The sole cause of his fall is that there is a Utopia/dystopia: Conditions of Historical complete denial of moral and spiritual Possibility. Princeton, NJ: Princeton values in his life. The world of the young University Press. boys in this novel is not stagnant or wrapped Grigg, A. E., (1970),"Fantasy", The up in an atmosphere of artificiality as in the Encyclopedia Americana, New York: mechanical . The boys go Americana: Corporation, Vol. XI,. on exploring the entire island. They are not Kernan, A. B. (1956), The of Satire, New mechanical but creative. With their meagre Haven: Yale University Press. means they are able to light fire and make Parrinder, P. (2005). "Entering Dystopia, Entering Erewhon". Critical wooden spears. They also set up democratic Survey, 17(1). and regimental social organizations. doi:10.3167/001115705781002039. Whatever they get, they try to improvise and Rosenfeld, A. (2005), "Re-membering the improve. But each effort leads only to war Future: Doris Lessing's 'Experiment in and cruelty. Golding thus links the limited Autobiography'". Critical Survey, 17(1). world of his character to his own vision of doi:10.3167/001115705781002110 human nature and society. He uses adequate Schmerl, Rudolf B (1962), "The Two Future symbols and images to create a moral and Worlds of ", PMLA, Vol. intellectual framework for the action of the LXXVII, No. 3.

Cite this article as: Anoosheh, S. & Oroskhan, M. (2018). William Golding's Lord of the Flies: A Satirical Analysis of Fantasized Dystopia. International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies. 6(2). 163- 171. Page | 170

William Golding's Lord of the … Sayed Mohammad Anoosheh & Muhammad Hussein Oroskhan

Shipley, Joseph T. (1970), Dictionary of World Literary Terms, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Wheeler, B. (2005). "Reality is What You Can Get Away With: Fantastic Imaginings, Rebellion and Control in Terry Gilliams Brazil". Critical Survey, 17(1). doi:10.3167/001115705781002084

International Journal of English Language & Translation Studies (www.eltsjournal.org) ISSN:2308-5460 Volume: 06 Issue: 02 April-June, 2018 Page | 171