Qualification Accredited

GCSE (9–1) Learner Booklet J316 For first teaching in 2016

Performance and response Component 04 – examined assessment : Key definitions and points for learners Version 1

www.ocr.org.uk/drama GCSE (9–1) Drama Learner Booklet

Component 04 Examined Assessment: Key definitions and points for learners

This resource is designed to explain in outline the content required for Component 04 Drama: Performance and response. Use it to remind yourself of key points. It is split into: • Section A content which must be studied in relation to a chosen set text. • Section A content on the development of drama and performance.

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What is the context of my set text? What are the theatrical conventions of the period in which the text was created? Historical context The time/period the text was written in and the playwright was writing AND the Social context context within the The relationships and interactions text of when and between the characters and the where the events in the text. is set.

Cultural context The values and attitudes explored thematically in the text.

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What are the characteristics of my set text?

Genre(s) Style Dialogue A way of categorising different types of Style refers to the way the actors The spoken text of a – drama. A play may be categorised using perform, the visual characteristics of the conversations between characters – is multiple types of genre. setting and , and the choice of dialogue. conventions used. Structure directions The way a piece of drama is put Theatrical setting Instructions given by the author about together; the connections between The place the action in the scene or play how a play should be staged, when episodes, scenes or acts; the framework. is set. actors should make their entrances and exits and how lines should be delivered. Characters Plot A named individual within the play (e.g. The basic story thread running through "There are ten characters in scene one, a performance/play which gives the all of whom have speaking parts."). reason for the characters’ actions.

Form Subplot In theatre, form is determined by the In , this term refers to a content of the drama (e.g. the way the secondary plot or storyline playwright has constructed the narrative elements) and by the way it is presented (the choices made by actors, designers and directors in interpreting the material for performance).

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How is meaning in my set text communicated to the ?

Through the use of performance space and spatial relationships on stage.

Through the relationship between performers and audience.

Through the design of: set, props, , lighting and sound.

Through an actor’s vocal and physical interpretation of character.

Through the use of performance conventions.

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Am I able to…

Define how the social, historical Select examples from my own Identify how meaning is and cultural contexts have an practical study which demonstrate communicated within my set effect on my set text? knowledge and understanding of text? the full range of characteristics of Explore and identify the my set text? Evaluate the roles that theatre characteristics of a text through makers have on developing, practical preparation work? Identify how a range of genres performing and responding to my may have been used to inform the set text? Explain the impact that characteristics of my set text? characteristics of a text have on my set text?

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What are different types of contemporary staging? Apron Proscenium arch The Apron is a section of the stage The opening in the wall which stands floor which projects towards or into the between stage and auditorium in some auditorium. ; the picture frame through Black box which the audience sees the play. A flexible studio theatre where the Site specific audience and actors are in the same A piece of performance which has been room, surrounded by black tabs designed to work only in a particular (curtains). non-theatre space. In the round Thrust Theatre in the Round is a form of Form of stage which projects into audience seating layout where the the auditorium so that the audience acting area is surrounded on all sides is seated on at least two sides of the by seating. There are often a number of extended piece. entrances through the seating. Traverse Promenade Form of staging where the audience is Form of staging where the audience on either side of the acting area. moves around the performance space and sees the play at a variety of different locations.

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Who are theatre makers in contemporary professional practice? Actors Lighting designer Sound designer Person (male or female) whose Member of the production team Member of the production team role is to play a character. who has the responsibility for who has the responsibility for Although the term 'actress' is still planning and executing the planning and executing the used for a female actor, many layout of all lighting set ups and layout of all sound playback and women prefer to have the same lighting effects. This role may also reinforcement equipment for title as the men. include the sourcing and rigging the show. This role also includes of lighting and effects for the the sourcing of and sound Choreographer production. effects for the production. Member of the production team responsible for setting Lyricist Stage managers and movement sequences Author of the text of a musical/ The Head of the Stage during the production. the words of a song. Management team comprising the deputy stage manager (DSM) Costume designer Playwright and assistant stage manager Member of the creative team The author of a play. Also known (ASM). The DSM is normally "on for a show responsible for the as a dramatist. the book" calling the cues from clothes worn by the actors the prompt corner. throughout the performance. Set designer Member of the creative team Understudy Director for show responsible for the set A member of the cast of a Broadly, the person who is throughout the performance. musical or play who understudies responsible for the overall artistic one (sometimes more) of the vision of a production. principal roles and is also in the chorus.

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What are acting skills? Communication through physicality and the use of body language, facial expression and gesture. Vocal techniques an actor might use to communicate a role.

Improvisation Performing quickly in response to something or acting without The process of arranging moves previous planning. Spontaneous to be made by the actors refers to making up during the play, recorded by a role as you go along. Prepared/ stage management in the planned improvisation refers to prompt script. working and reworking within a structure of ideas and roles agreed in advance.

Characterisation The art of creating a character. Within the text, characters may be presented by means of description within stage directions or character descriptions which the actor must try to convey or through their actions, speech, or spoken thoughts within the text.

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What about design? The design and use of a set including: Box sets Naturalistic setting of a complete room built from flats with only the side nearest the audience (the fourth wall) missing. Composite sets A stage setting where several locations are represented in the same space and isolated or highlighted by lighting each area separately. Non-naturalistic sets A set which does not represent a specific location or place where the scene is set. The development of character through the creation and use of: Costume Clothes worn by the actors on stage. Hair and makeup The hair style created for the character and the products applied to the face or body of an actor to change or enhance their appearance. Form of theatre where actors’ faces are covered with masks. The use of contemporary light, sound and media technology in contemporary performance

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What can influence the understanding of the audience in a performance? The use of semiotics How meaning is created and communicated through systems of signs and symbols of drama. All of the elements that make up a theatrical performance have meaning and an audience 'reads' or interprets them to understand the events in the performance. How performance styles affect the direction, acting and design of a performance Performance style is the way the actors perform, the visual characteristics of the setting and costumes, and the choice of conventions used.

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What are the features of a performance text? Acts and scenes Monologue Subdivision between sections of a play. Acts A speech within a play delivered by a single are subdivided further into scenes. actor alone on stage. Antagonist Plot A character that is working against or is The basic story thread running through a opposing the hero character. The opposite of performance/play which gives the reason for the protagonist in a drama. the characters’ actions. Character Subplot A named individual within the play (e.g. In narratives, this term refers to a secondary "There are ten characters in scene one, all of plot or storyline. whom have speaking parts."). Protagonist Dialogue The leading character or 'hero' in a play who The spoken text of a play – conversations has to fight against/oppose the ANTAGONIST. between characters – is dialogue. Stage directions Duologue Instructions given by the author about how Part of a scene in a drama which is a scripted a play should be staged, when actors should conversation between only two characters. make their entrances and exits and how lines Flashback should be delivered. A moment during the action of a play when the natural flow of time is interrupted so that a moment from the past can be presented.

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Am I able to…

Evaluate the roles that theatre Apply knowledge and makers (from contemporary understanding of the professional practice) have on development of drama and developing, performing and performance to my set text? responding to a set text?

State advantages and disadvantages for the decisions made directing, acting and designing for a performance?

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