AUGUST 2020 The Trees of

BY MAGGIE MYSLIK, MAGGIE OLSON, AND ALEJANDRO VELEZ Today West Roxbury is known for its tree lined streets and its multitude of parks and green spaces. These green spaces and trees benefit the neighborhood by providing protection from the heat, neighborhood beautification, better air quality, improved public health, and stormwater mitigation. In comparison to the rest of , West Roxbury is one of the greenest neighborhoods in the entire city, with over twenty three acres of open space per 1000 residents, which is nearly three times Boston's average. Not only does the neighborhood have access to many parks and reservations, but the majority of streets are lined with street trees.

While West Roxbury is a very green neighborhood, it is also important to note that it is a very affluent and white community, which has taken part in allowing it to have such large and mature green spaces. Part of this can be attributed to redlining in the 1930’s, where West Roxbury was rated relatively high and therefore had access to more resources. The neighborhood also has mainly single family housing, and has developed overtime with the trees being an important part of the neighborhood structure.

Although West Roxbury has a very mature and dense urban forest, it is still very important to take care of the trees that are in the neighborhood. Future threats to the trees in West Roxbury could include gas leaks, new developments, and climate change on the rise. If the trees are maintained and preserved then West Roxbury and its future generations will continue to benefit from the trees in the neighborhood right now. Aerial Image of West Roxbury, 1925 Today

Past West Roxbury is known for its suburban atmosphere and green spaces. West Roxbury isa very green community historically, and its green spaces and trees have been maintained and allowed to mature over the years.

While West Roxbury is a very green community, it is also a very white and wealthy community. Redlining in the past has affected all neighborhoods of Boston including West Roxbury. Most of West Roxbury was originally given a “B” rating (meaning still desirable) by the Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, and the effects of redlining still show. In comparison to lower rated neighborhoods, West Roxbury has far more of a tree canopy, and in turn the neighborhood has a much lower temperature and far better air quality.

West Roxbury is also known for its many parks. It is near the and is bordered by , where the Bellevue Hill Water tower stands. Off of the VFW parkway is Millennium park. Millennium park was originally a landfill for many years and it sits right along the . In the nineties renovations began to transform the landfill into the park. It was finished in 2000 and continues to be a very popular park for West Roxbury residents. Residents spoke of how parks and green spaces are an important part of West Roxbury and can cause people to gravitate towards the neighborhood, which is just one example of a benefit of the trees and green spaces. Trees Coverage Throughout Boston Average Summer Temperatures in Boston (2019)

Present `As one of the greenest neighborhoods in Boston, West Roxbury has a very high percentage of tree coverage compared to the rest of the city. Along with such a large urban forest comes many benefits for the residents of the neighborhood. On average, West Roxbury has some of the coolest summers in Boston and contains much less air pollution than other neighborhoods. The large amount of trees also adds to the aesthetic value of the neighborhood, making the streets and parkways look nicer and encouraging residents to take walks and participate in outdoor activities. West Roxbury residents also have access to many parks and green spaces, including Millennium Park, , Hynes Field, Allandale Woods, and others. When interviewing residents of West Roxbury, families described that their kids loved going to the parks to take walks, ride bikes, go to playgrounds, play sports, and meet friends.

Although the neighborhood might seem like there is very little improvement that could be made, some West Roxbury organizations worry that gas leaks and new construction projects could threaten the existing urban forest. In such a green neighborhood, many residents overlook the importance of trees, which can make it even more difficult to maintain and improve the neighborhood’s urban forest. Protesters against the West Roxbury Lateral Pipeline

Future `West Roxbury is incredibly fortunate to be able to sustain so many trees and green spaces throughout the neighborhood. When comparing it to other areas in Boston, it becomes even clearer how plentiful green space and trees are. While the future is always uncertain, we can always speculate and think about the possible threats to trees that are over the horizon.

Gas leaks, climate change, and new developments are some things that can be expected to threaten the health and lives of trees in West Roxbury. When underground gas lines begin leaking into the soil, they deprive the trees’ roots of oxygen and nutrients, often leaving them to die if not taken care of soon enough. As these gas lines grow in age, they are more prone to leaks which can harm the urban canopy of West Roxbury. It is vital to aid trees affected by these leaks, and avoid planting new ones along these lines. However, gas leaks are a rather difficult problem to mitigate in comparison to construction developments. When new developments take place, more often than not, it involves removing trees to make space for buildings or parking lots. If developers were required to plant one new tree for every one removed, it would ensure that West Roxbury’s urban canopy does not dwindle in the future. Lastly, climate change is something that will inevitably affect both West Roxbury’s trees and residents, which is why residents should demonstrate care for their trees. If we care for our trees, by making sure they get enough water, or simply cleaning up litter around new trees, they will provide countless benefits in the future. WORKS CITED

Boson Parks and Recreation Department, "Community Open Space & Recreation Mission." Open Space Plan 2002-2006, City of Boston, www.cityofboston.gov/parks/pdfs/os3o.pdf. Carr, Katie. Personal interview. 30 Jul 2020. City of Boston. "How to Get a Tree Planted on City Land." Boston.gov, 14 July 2016, www.boston.gov/departments/parks-and-recreation/how-get-tree-planted-city-land. Crane's Street Map of the Boston Area. Pinterest, www.pinterest.com/pin/350366045989395391/. Accessed 12 Aug. 2020. Fairchild Aerial Surveys, inc. Boston. West Roxbury. 1925. Web. 12 Aug 2020. . Hunter, Maxine. Personal interview. 3 August 2020. Image of Old and New Water Towers on Bellevue Hill. May 1957. The West Roxbury History Page, Facebook, 11 July 2015, www.facebook.com/The-West-Roxbury-History- Page-854804617923497/?__tn__=k*F&tn-str=k*F. Accessed 12 Aug. 2020. Maps created by Raquel Jimenez from 2018 5-Year American Community Survey data O'Laughlin, Frank. "Map Reveals 147 Natural Gas Leaks in West Roxbury." West Roxbury, MA Patch, Patch, 24 Aug. 2015, patch.com/massachusetts/westroxbury/map-reveals- 147-natural-gas-leaks-west-roxbury. Pisut, Dan. "'Redlining' and Exposure to Urban Heat Islands." ArcGIS, Esri, 24 Feb. 2020,www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.htmlwebmap=1d7c77f1b13c4a688bf123fd 469d9792&extent=-71.4426,42.2044,-70.7196,42.5372. Accessed 12 Aug. 2020. Map. Rafferty, Mary. Personal Interview. 7 Aug. 2020. Wasser, Miriam. "Street Trees Could Help Boston Adapt To Climate Change. If They Can Survive, That Is." Street Trees Could Help Boston Adapt To Climate Change. If They Can Survive, That Is | Earthwhile, WBUR, 23 Jan. 2020, www.wbur.org/earthwhile/2020/01/23/boston-urban-forest-street-trees. SPECIAL THANKS:

Speak For The Trees EmVision Everyday Boston John Hancock City of Boston Youth Engagement & Employment MassCEC Greening Youth Foundation American Forests