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Outline of

See also: Index of energy articles • Rest energy – (≥0) that E=mc² an object’s rest

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to energy: • – a microscopic, disordered equiv- Energy – in , this is an indirectly observed quan- alent of tity often understood as the ability of a physical system to do on other physical systems.[1][2] Since work is • – an amount of thermal energy being deﬁned as a acting through a distance (a length of transferred (in a given process) in the direction ), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert of decreasing force (a pull or a push) against an object that is moving • along a deﬁnite path of certain length. Work (physics) – an amount of energy being energy transfer in a given Process (thermodynamic) due to in the direction of an applied force 1 Forms of energy

– energy contained in molecules 2 Measurement • Electric energy – energy from electric ﬁelds 2.1 Units • – energy from gravitational ﬁelds Main article:

– energy that binds an to its atom or molecule • of oil equivalent (~6.1178632 × 109 J) • – (≥0), energy of the of a • (~1055 J) body • • – energy from magnetic ﬁelds (~4.184 J)

• Mechanical energy – The sum of (usually • Current solar income – the amount of macroscopic) kinetic and potential that falls as

• Mechanical wave – (≥0), a form of mechanical en- • – (symbol: eV) is the amount of en- ergy propagated by a material’s ergy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential diﬀerence of • Nuclear – energy that binds nucleons one . (~1.602 × 10−19 J) to form the • Planck energy, 1.22 × 1028 eV (1.96 × 109 J) • – energy possessed by a body by virtue of its relative to others, stresses • – (symbol “erg”) unit of energy and mechanical [3][4] within itself, , and other factors. work in the centimetre-- (CGS) system • – energy of deformation of a of units material (or its container) exhibiting a restora- • Foot-pound – (symbol ft·lbf or ft·lbf) is an Imperial tive force and U.S. customary unit of mechanical work, or en- • Gravitational energy – potential energy associ- ergy, although in scientiﬁc ﬁelds one commonly uses ated with a gravitational ﬁeld. the equivalent metric unit of the (J). There are • Nuclear potential energy approximately 1.356 J/(ft·lbf).

– (≥0), energy of electromagnetic • Joule – (symbol J, also called meter, including second, or volt)

1 2 3

– (symbol thm) a non-SI unit of heat energy. 3 Energy industry It is approximately the heat equivalent of burning 100 cubic feet of natural . In the US gas in- Main article: Energy industry dustry it is deﬁned as exactly 100,000 BTU₅₉ °F or 105.4804 megajoules. • Worldwide , outline by country/region • Kilowatt- – (symbol: kW·h) corresponds to one kilowatt (kW) of being used over a period of • and consumption one hour. • List of energy resources, substances like , • of oil equivalent products and

• TPE – Ton Petroleum Equivalent, 45.217 GJ, see • , the need to conserve energy resources ton of oil equivalent • , development of energy re- sources — ongoing eﬀort to provide abundant and 2.2 Related units and concepts accessible energy, through knowledge, skills and construction • Volt • , the sum total of energy expended • to deliver a good or service as it travels through the economy • Coulomb • , tips for conserving energy re- • sources • • EU energy label , as the foundation of other rela- tionships • Fill factor – deﬁned as the ratio of the maximum • , government policies and plans for en- power (Vmp x Jmp) divided by the short-circuit cur- ergy supply rent (Isc) and open-circuit (Voc) in light cur- rent density – voltage (J-V) characteristics of solar • , methods commonly used to store cells. energy resources for later use • Gigaton – Metric Unit of mass, equal • , an interpretation the energy sector to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) metric , in system terms 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) • Any of various units of energy, such as gi- gatons of TNT equivalent, gigatons of • Ecological energetics equivalent, gigatons petroleum equivalent. • (unit) – (symbol: Gy), is the SI unit of energy • for the of radiation. One gray is the Energy balance absorption of one joule of radiation energy by one • of . One gray equals 100 , an older unit. • U4energy, a pan European school challenge on energy education launched in September 2010. • Heat U4energy is an initiative funded under the IEE pro- gramme to improve in schools • Mass-energy equivalence – where mass has an en- and their local communities. ergy equivalence, and energy has a mass equivalence • Energy speculation • Megawatt • Free energy suppression • • Future energy development – Provides a general • – of an AC system is overview of future energy development. deﬁned as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power. • History of 3

, also known as – the • theory that world oil production will peak (or has • History of electricity peaked), and will then rapidly decline, with a corre- • sponding rapid increase in prices. History of the • History of the • Primary production • Timeline of the electric motor • Power harvesting • History of electric • History of development • History of petroleum • History of the 3.1 Energy infrastructure • History of renewable energy See especially Category:Electric power and Category: • History of alternative energy Fuels for a large number of conventional energy related • History of topics. • History of solar cells • Growth of • Energy storage • History of sustainability • • History of power • History of the steam • Steam power during the Industrial Revo- • lution • Liquiﬁed

power transmission 5 Physics of energy • Power plant • Energy • explains the diﬀerences in the • Power transmission of various chemical reactions • • Underground Alternative energy indexes • 3.2 Energy applications • Chemical energetics

• Energy in

• Energy in that is responsible for the macroscopic transformations on the planet Earth • Electric • Electricity • energy • Passive solar building design • Orders of magnitude (energy) – list describes var- • ious energy levels between 10−31 and 1070 joules • 4 • Perpetual motion Main article: History of energy • Heat • History of energy • History of the energy industry • Forms of energy, the forms in which energy can be • History of coal deﬁned 4 5 PHYSICS OF ENERGY

, relating to energy’s changes • , used to explain some cosmological from one form to another. phenomena

• Energy (signal processing), the inner product of a • , empirical experience of the charac- signal in the domain teristics of diﬀerent energy forms as they ﬂow and transform • spectrum, relating to the distribution of signal energy over . • Energy density, amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit , or per • Potential energy, the form of energy that is due to unit mass position of an object • Energy ﬂow, ﬂow of energy in an ecosystem through • Kinetic energy, the form of energy as a consequence food chains of the motion of an object or its constituents • Energetics, the scientiﬁc study of energy ﬂows under • Mechanical energy, the potential energy and kinetic transformation energy present in the components of a mechanical system. • Stress–energy tensor, the density and ﬂux of energy • Binding energy, a concept explaining how the con- and in space-time; the source of the stituents of atoms or molecules are bound together gravitational ﬁeld in • • Bond energy, a measure of the strength of a chemi- , energy in food that is available cal bond • – Energy contained in raw fuels and • Nuclear energy, energy that is the consequence of any other forms of energy received by a system as decomposition or combination of atomic nuclei input to the system.

,or salinity gradient power and • Radiant energy – energy that is transported by waves energy, is the energy available from the diﬀerence • in the salt concentration between seawater and river – An object’s rotational energy or angular kinetic energy is part of its total kinetic en- ergy • , a related concept in that incorporates consid- • Solar radiation – radiant energy emitted by the , erations too particularly electromagnetic energy

, a thermodynamic potential • , also called tidal energy, is a form of that measures the “useful” work obtainable from a hydropower that converts the energy of tides into closed at a constant temper- useful forms of power - mainly electricity, dynamic ature, useful for studying explosive chemical reac- tidal power, tidal lagoons, Tidal barrage tions • is the transport of energy by ocean sur- • Elastic energy, which causes or is released by the face waves, and the capture of that energy to do elastic distortion of a or a ﬂuid useful work — for example, electricity generation, water , or the pumping of water (into • Ionization energy – the (IE) of an atom is the energy reservoirs). Machinery able to exploit wave power is required to strip it of an electron. generally known as a wave energy converter (WEC).

• Interaction energy, the contribution to the total en- • Wind energy is the kinetic energy of air in ergy that is a result of interaction between the ob- motion; is the conversion of wind en- jects being considered ergy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind to make electricity, for me- • – (abbreviated E or U) the total ki- chanical power, windpumps for water pumping or netic energy due to the motion of molecules (transla- drainage, or sails to propel ships tional, rotational, vibrational) and the total potential energy associated with the vibrational and electric energy of atoms within molecules. 5.1 Allegorical and esoteric • • Energy (esotericism), invoked by spiritualists for al- • Energy conversion – process of converting energy ternative modes of healing the human body as well from one form to another as a spirit that permeates all of reality. 5

, Wilhelm Reich discovered this energy and 6.2.2 Regional and national tried to use it to cure various physical ailments and control the weather. Main page: Energy policy by country

• Bioenergetic analysis, body-oriented Reichian psy- chotherapy • – overview of many energy laws from various countries and states • a concept from Oriental medicine that is some- • translated as “energy” in the West. • Energy Tax Act – energy-related leg- • Vitalism, often referred to as “energy” islation. See also : Category:United States federal energy legislation • fusion, at conditions close to room temperature. • United Kingdom:

• Bubble fusion, also known as Sonofusion, energy • Energy policy of the United Kingdom from acoustic collapse of bubbles. • Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom • Water-fuelled , powering a car using water as . 7 Economics

6 Politics Main article: Energy economics

6.1 Energy issues 7.1 Energy companies • 2000 Watt society • Exxon Mobil • Environmental concerns with electricity generation • GmbH – Company based in Germany that • Fuel poverty operates in the wind industry. One of the biggest producers in the world. • Greasestock, American showcase of and • technologies powered by alternative energy • Sasol • Low-carbon economy • United States Enrichment Corporation – contracts • Peak Oil with the United States Department of Energy to pro- duce enriched . • – an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists 7.2 Non-proﬁt organizations

• Musicians United for Safe Energy • Strategic Petroleum Reserve (disambiguation)

7.3 Industry associations 6.2 Energy policies and use – national and international • OPEC – Organization of Petroleum-exporting Countries 6.2.1 International • IEA – International Energy Agency • Energy policy – an introductory article • CAPP – Canadian Association of Petroleum Pro- ducers • Energy and Environmental Security Initiative (EESI) • World LP Gas Association – WLPGA 6 12 EXTERNAL LINKS

8 Innovators 11 References

[1] “Retrieved on 2010-Dec-05”. Faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu. Retrieved 2010-12-12. • Charles Kettering [2] “Retrieved on 2010-Dec-05” (PDF). Retrieved 2010-12- 12. • Farrington Daniels – solar energy [3] Jain, Mahesh C. “Fundamental and laws: a brief • Georges Leclanché – battery review”. Textbook Of Engineering Physics, Part 1. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd. p. 10. ISBN 9788120338623. • John Frederic Daniell – Daniell cell [4] McCall, Robert P. (2010). “Energy, Work and • Rudolf Diesel – compression ignition internal Metabolism”. Physics of the Human Body. JHU Press. engine p. 74. ISBN 978-0-8018-9455-8.

• Georges Imbert – 12 External links • Leonardo da Vinci • This outline displayed as a mindmap, at wiki- • Moritz von Jacobi mindmap.com • Nikolaus Otto – internal combustion engine

• Robert Stirling – (external combus- tion)

• Nikola

– steam engine with separate condensor

9 Lists

• List of books about energy issues

• List of energy abbreviations

• List of energy storage projects

• List of large wind farms

• List of notable renewable energy organizations

• List of photovoltaics companies

• List of renewable energy topics by country

• List of solar thermal power stations

• Index of wave articles

• List of manufacturers

• Energy (disambiguation)

• List of environment topics 7

13 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

13.1 Text

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_energy?oldid=753220811 Contributors: Tedernst, Stevertigo, Gabbe, CesarB, Mac, Lumos3, Twang, Robbot, Romanm, Sterlingda, Asparagus, Pablo-ﬂores, Alan Liefting, Lethe, Niteowlneils, DocSigma, ConradPino, User2004, Loren36, JustinWick, Enric Naval, Vortexrealm, Maurreen, 9SGjOSfyHJaQVsEmy9NS, Kjkolb, Craigy144, Samaritan, Cdc, Wtshymanski, Foggg, DV8 2XL, Gene Nygaard, Ultramarine, Boothy443, Distantbody, Linas, MGTom, AnmaFinotera, Male1979, Link077, ObsidianOrder, BD2412, Quiddity, Schlüggell, Mirror Vax, Ground Zero, Jonathan Kovaciny, Mike Van Emmerik, Lmatt, YurikBot, , Admiral Roo, Belfroy, StarTrekkie, 2over0, 6a4fe8aa039615ebd9ddb83d6acf9a1dc1b684f7, CWenger, So- larusdude, SmackBot, Philosopher, SEIBasaurus, Colonies Chris, Hallenrm, Sholto Maud, Chlewbot, Theanphibian, Mion, Will Beback, John, JHunterJ, McTrixie, Hu12, CmdrObot, Neelix, Cydebot, Quibik, Divydovy, Teratornis, Jaceknow, Abtract, Dorank, Gralo, Bbpair, Gatemansgc, Harryzilber, The Transhumanist, Beagel, Spellmaster, R'n'B, Leyo, WJBscribe, Alexander Bell, Squids and Chips, Funandtrvl, Burlywood, Johnfos, Hqb, Melsaran, Bearian, Jenny Kent, Crashingﬂwrgrl, Neparis, Suntech, Lightmouse, Vig vimarsh, Dabomb87, ,Sigmout, Minnecologies, Thehelpfulbot ,محبوب عالم ,Niceguyedc, ChrisHodgesUK, NJGW, Forbes72, Addbot, Xp54321, Jeremy206 FrescoBot, Thorenn, Gamewizard71, Magicus69, Jadedwinter, Helpful Pixie Bot, Wbm1058, BG19bot, Rwbest, Shawn Worthington Laser , Emil K2, Spyglasses, RobbieIanMorrison and Anonymous: 42

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