blueprintsVolume XXVI, No. 1 National Building Museum Good in this issue: Old-Fashioned The New Face of Preservation An Interview with Richard Moe

Federal Modern Assessing and Preserving a Legacy Renewing Urban Renewal Silo Point: An Industrial-Strength Renovation

Winter 2007–08 in this issue 2 6 10 14 18 20 25

Is Modern the New Victorian? Good Old-Fashioned Modernism

British novelist L.P. Hartley wrote: “The past is a foreign Currently on view at the National Building The New Face of Preservation country; they do things differently there.” If we accept this Museum is maxim, we might assume that proximity matters—in other words, : Design and 2 Richard Moe, president of the National Trust for Historic , an exhibition organized by Preservation and recipient of the ninth Vincent Scully Prize, that the recent past is likely to be less foreign than the distant past, reflects on the evolution of the American preservation movement. in much the same way that Canada is more familiar to the typical the Vitra Design Museum that explores American than, say, Cambodia. When it comes to history, however, the diverse career of one of the modern Federal Modern that assumption may be illusory. director 6 The nation’s biggest landlord celebrates the jewels in its portfolio movement’s most influential figures. while freshening up the ugly ducklings. We all remember the recent past—or at least we think we do—and having lived through This is the first component of a broad it, we have inevitably formed biases and emotional associations that color our perceptions Museum initiative intended to encourage Renewing Urban Renewal of that history. With respect to our built heritage, it is often difficult for us to appreciate 10 In Southwest Washington, D.C., an icon of the “urban renewal” the true significance of relatively recent works of architecture—buildings that we may have reconsideration of the legacy of 20th- revolution in the 1950s and ’60s is now undergoing a seen under construction; buildings that may have replaced earlier ones that we remember century modernism, which is all too easily transformation of its own. fondly; buildings that are, perhaps, all too familiar. So how do we assess the aesthetic, taken for granted by virtue of its ubiquity. cultural, and material value of structures that have not been around very long? Silo Point: As part of the initiative, this issue of An Industrial-Strength Renovation In architecture, the term “modern” tends to evoke images of rational, unornamented Blueprints focuses on the preservation 14 A seemingly obsolete industrial facility finds a new career as hip structures fabricated of human-made materials such as steel or concrete—in short, the and reuse of aging modernist structures. urban housing. antithesis of “historic” architecture. Nonetheless, there are numerous indisputably modern buildings that are now 50, 75, or even—by some people’s reckoning—100 years old. Many Museum News of those buildings are unquestionably significant, whether aesthetically, technologically, 18 • For the Greener Good Part II or historically. They are now as much a part of our cultural heritage as log cabins, corner • Breuer exhibition member opening stores, and brownstones. • 2007 Turner Prize recognizes Gehry and colleagues • Furniture designer lends expertise to Museum outreach program • Festival of the Building Arts draws thousands Preservation groups are taking notice of the growing body of “historic modern” from the executive • Hardy headlines Builders event architecture, and there is increasing public debate about which buildings from the • Spotlight on DeGarmo (relatively) recent past are worthy of keeping. Meanwhile, design and building professionals • Raffle winners enjoy Chihuly sculpture are grappling with the technical challenges of preserving or reusing modern structures, • NBM/Kreeger Museum tour of architecture which often employed experimental materials and construction methods. The preservation of modernism is also becoming central to the sustainability movement, as proponents shop NBM! Contributors of green development argue that even very mundane structures should be at least partially Paris on the Potomac: 24 • Donor Profile: U.S. Department of Energy preserved in order to reduce waste. The French Influence on the • Grateful applause to our recent donors Architecture and Art of Washington, D.C. It seems, then, that our fundamental assumptions about the purpose, practice, and Mystery Building politics of preservation are likely to change dramatically in the near future. Is Modern Edited by Cynthia R. Field, Isabelle Gournay, and Thomas P. Somma 25 “Step Right Up!” the new Victorian? Perhaps not, but it clearly represents a rich and varied legacy that Released in November 2007, Paris on the Potomac is a compilation of we are just beginning to understand. essays that explores aspects of the French influence on the artistic and architectural environment of Washington, D.C. which continued long Marcel Breuer: Design and Architecture is made possible after the well known contributions of Pierre (Peter) Charles L’Enfant, the transplanted French military officer who designed the city’s plan. by the National Endowment for the Arts; Vitra, Inc.; Cynthia R. Field, one of the book’s editors, is a founding trustee of the and other generous contributors. National Building Museum and is an architectural historian who recently retired from the Smithsonian Institution. Chase W. Rynd Executive Director Available in the Museum Shop. opposite right and cover: Church of St. Francis de Sales, Muskegon, MI, by Marcel Breuer, 1964–6. $44.96 Members / $49.95 Public Photo by Hedrich Blessing. Courtesy of Chicago Historical Society / Hedrich Blessing left: Cover of Paris on the Potomac by Cynthia R. Field, Isabelle Gournay, and Thomas P. Somma. Courtesy of Ohio University Press and Swallow Press.

Winter 2007–08 blueprints  An Interview with Richard Moe ONLINE VIDEO! Martin Moeller: In 1949, the same year that the National We are going to take steps in the very near future to set up To see a video Trust was established, completed his a Recent Past Initiative in our Western Office in California of the interview with famous Glass House in New Canaan, Connecticut. Do you and a Center for Modernism based at the Glass House in Richard Moe, visit think any of the Trust’s founders could have imagined a New Canaan, to give specific focus to these styles of day when such a quintessentially modern building would architecture. In terms of the recent past, something need The New Face be designated a National Trust Historic Site? not be historic to have value and to be worthy of being preserved. So we are breaking the mold a little bit here. Richard Moe: It’s interesting to think back on what the Some of our predecessors in the preservation movement leaders of the then-new Trust would have thought of a didn’t think that we should preserve anything before its time modernist structure like that being historic. I think the more came. Well, unfortunately, we lose a lot in the first 50 years, of Preservation far-reaching and visionary of those men and women would and sometimes we have to intervene and save the best of have foreseen that perhaps this iconic structure would the recent past, which is what we are trying to do. someday be historic—many others would not. Moeller: A burgeoning interest in modernism is just by Martin Moeller But the answer, I think, really lies in the history of the one aspect of what the Trust calls “the new face of preservation movement. Different styles of architecture have preservation in America.” Another is the growing become historic at different periods, and usually over some participation of diverse ethnic groups and communities. bottom: In June 2007, the On December 13, 2007, the National Building Museum presented the ninth public resistance. For example, Victorian architecture was What is the Trust doing to reach new constituencies? National Trust opened very unpopular with a lot of people—nobody could imagine Philip Johnson’s iconic Vincent Scully Prize to Richard Moe, president of the National Trust for Historic Glass House in New saving that stuff. Now, of course, we prize it. Same thing with Moe: We have really tried hard in recent years to expand Preservation. The award recognized Moe’s leadership in moving preserva- Canaan, Connecticut Art Deco. Well, the time of modernism has arrived, and the the constituency for preservation and to make it clear to the public. tion into the mainstream of American society and expanding the public’s iconic Glass House, of course, just represents the very best that preservation is relevant to everyone in this country Photo by Paul Warchol. of modernism, and it is historic, even in a literal and legal regardless of where they are, or what they do, or what understanding of the significance of our built heritage. In accepting bottom right: Richard the prize, he joined a prestigious roster of past recipients sense—it’s [more than] 50 years old. their income level is. I think we have to concede candidly Moe, president of the that 50 years ago preservation appealed to very few National Trust for Historic including Jane Jacobs, Phyllis Lambert, His Highness the Moeller: Have the Trust’s forays into the preservation people—it was mostly people who cared about great old Preservation, speaking houses, and that was fine and still a lot of us do that. But at the organization’s 2007 Aga Khan, and His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. of modernism led to any general changes in the annual conference in organization’s strategies or policies? preservation’s evolved enormously over the last 50 years, St. Paul, Minnesota. and it really has become relevant to more and more people. Photo by Tony Nelson. In an interview excerpted here, Moe discussed some Moe: Modernist architecture, by definition, hasn’t been of the ways in which the National Trust and the with us that long, so our biggest obstacle is persuading the We’re broadening the definition of what preservation movement in general have evolved. public that much of this is great architecture and deserves preservation really is. And in doing that, we’ve undertaken a very serious and far-reaching Particularly noteworthy are the Trust’s growing to be saved. We’re losing great modernist structures all the time. For example, in New Canaan, where Johnson’s Glass effort to diversify not just the National Trust, commitment to the preservation of modernist House is located, there have been a lot of tear-downs. but the preservation movement. At my buildings, many of which are now more than Great, iconic modernist structures have been torn down very first National Preservation Confer- 50 years old, and the organization’s explicit and replaced with McMansions. ence in Miami 16 years ago, we initiated a Diversity Scholarship Program, which fo- focus on environmental sustainability.

 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints  literally changed the face of our annual conference. These Moeller: Clearly, one of Moeller: One of your fellow Scully Prize were largely minority students, people from lower-income the most endangered recipients was Jane Jacobs, who argued neighborhoods, whom we brought to the conference as places in the country that healthy communities need a variety diversity scholars. We’ve continued to do that. today is the city of of buildings in terms of age, use, and New Orleans. size. How have her views influenced Moeller: Another aspect of the “new face of What are the latest your work? preservation” is the Trust’s explicit focus on developments sustainability. How are you promoting preservation in the Trust’s Moe: We owe a lot to Jane Jacobs and I as an environmental imperative? efforts to protect think we owe especially a debt of grati- the city’s built tude for her really making us understand Moe: We have long maintained that preservation of older heritage in the the value of eclectic neighborhoods, with buildings is inherently a sustainable activity. The restoration aftermath of different kinds of buildings, different eras and reuse of older buildings is the ultimate recycling. We’re Hurricane Katrina? of buildings, different uses. She was a saving enormous energy, we’re saving natural resources, great advocate of mixed uses, as am I. This we’re filling fewer landfills. Moe: Hurricane Katrina, is what makes vibrant communities, really in my view, represented not lively communities, interesting communities that We are now undertaking a program at the Trust to research just a great human tragedy attract people. I think the most vibrant down- these factors quantitatively. In this time of trying to combat but also. . . probably the greatest towns, for example, in America, are those that have climate change and CO emissions, we think preservation 2 cultural disaster in the history of our saved their great iconic historic buildings, but they’ve has a lot to contribute in this area, and [we will be taking] country. There were more historic also built great new buildings. . . it’s really a blending of the these data and converting them into public policy proposals. properties lost or threatened than at any other old and the new together that makes for a great city. Should there be new tax credits? Should there be changes time in our history. In the city of New Orleans itself, there are in the Secretary [of the Interior’s] Standards [for the some 20 National Register [historic] districts. They encompass Moeller: In what areas is the United States at the above right: In collaboration Treatment of Historic Properties]? In the U.S. Green Building with the Preservation physically half of the city. They contain 39,000 historic forefront of preservation compared to other countries Council’s LEED [Leadership in Energy and Environmental Resource Center of New structures, most of them shotgun houses, Creole cottages, around the world? Moeller: Where do you think the preservation above: The preservation Orleans, the National Trust Design] standards, should preservation get more credit? corner stores, and so forth, but great historic buildings. And movement is headed in the near future? of the Socorro Mission developed the “HOME in El Paso, Texas, was most of those were flooded. Most of them can be saved. Moe: The United States is clearly in the lead on the AGAIN!” program, which The other thing we’re doing—on our new website—is recognized with the provides funding to help Main Street program, [which] is probably the most Moe: I wouldn’t be surprised if preservation expanded its National Trust’s Honor trying to help owners of historic homes and other older residents who were We opened an office right away in New Orleans, and successful program the Trust has ever had. We’ve been wings sometime soon and got into contemporary design Award in 2006. displaced by Hurricane buildings learn how they can retrofit their existing buildings we’ve worked with our partners with shared field staff in over 2,000 communities revitalizing downtowns with issues. In other words, if we’re being asked to preserve Photo courtesy of the National Katrina to restore their and make them more energy-efficient and greener. Trust for Historic Preservation. homes. Here a group of in Mississippi and we’re still doing that, and we’ve said the business communities that are there, and it’s basically what’s important, why shouldn’t we contribute to making volunteers works on a we’ll do it as long as it takes. We’ve raised several million trying to make downtown a more attractive place to come new buildings important and significant? That’s a bit of a below: Hilliard Homes house in the city. Moeller: One of the Trust’s most widely known dollars, we’ve done a lot of advocacy, we’ve persuaded and a more successful place to do business. And it’s reach now, but I can foresee the day when that might be in Chicago, Illinois, was Photo by Mary Fitzpatrick. initiatives is its annual list of the 11 Most Endangered Congress to appropriate $50 million so far just for historic not just preservation—fixing up the old storefronts and seriously discussed. recognized with a 2007 Places. How are the sites selected each year, and putting in public amenities—but it’s also organizing the National Trust / HUD below: The Hampton Hotels properties in the Gulf Coast. We have worked with our Secretary’s Award for “Save-a-Landmark” program how exactly does the Trust use this list to advance partners in New Orleans to stop the demolition—the business community, marketing it effectively, filling in the It’s really intriguing to try to look forward. Obviously, we’ll Excellence in Historic was created in 2000 to foster its advocacy efforts? unnecessary demolition—of historic sites, and this is all vacancies, and making it possible to compete with the have different styles of architecture—that will continue Preservation for its recognition and preservation big-box retailers. to evolve—and they will eventually become historic, and recently completed, of the historic—and some- coming to a head now because FEMA has established Moe: The criteria are quite broad: it’s a historic site that’s $99 million rehabilitation. times quirky—places that deadlines for compensating homeowners for demolition. the best of those styles of architecture will deserve to be Photo courtesy of the National enliven the American road. threatened by some cause. I like to say that [it] is a list of So far we think we’ve helped save over 600 homes, and Every dollar that we put into a Main Street program preserved. So just as we’ve experienced this with Victorian Trust for Historic Preservation. Here a volunteer works different kinds of significant historic sites, in different parts I hope we can save many more. leverages $40 of public and private money brought architecture and Art Deco and modernism, we’ll experience at Carousel Gardens in of the country, coming under different kinds of threats. So to the community. Now we’ve brought the program it with whatever is yet to come. And something else will New Orleans, which boasts one of only 100 remaining it’s really an educational device in that sense. It’s by far the Moeller: How have the economics of preservation to larger cities—not the downtowns of larger cities, come for sure. • antique wooden carousels most effective public vehicle we have for bringing attention changed over the past couple of decades? but neighborhood commercial districts—and the in the country. to endangered sites. We’ve lost a few that have been on same principles have applied. It’s very important for Photo courtesy of the Hampton the list, but very few. communities to have viable commercial districts so not Hotels “Save-a-Landmark” Moe: If you take a look back over the history of preservation in America, there have been different themes underlying everybody has to go out to the strip mall or the big boxes Anybody can nominate a site, and then our regional it—different reasons why preservation’s been regarded to do their shopping. And this is a program that doesn’t offices recommend them and we make the final decision as important. If you go back to the very earliest days when really exist anywhere else in the world, and there’s a lot in Washington. But, you know, people love lists, and the Mount Vernon was saved by Ann Pamela Cunningham of interest in it. media love lists, and it’s just a great vehicle and we’re very and a group of courageous, effective women, they were pleased with its effect. We take very seriously the listing of trying to save a great architectural and historic icon, and Similarly, with tax credits—although every country’s tax a site, because we don’t just believe in putting out a press that’s what preservation was for a hundred years. Then in system is different—the fact that we give tax credits for release saying, “This is an endangered site.” Our regional the middle of the 20th century, that started to change, and investing in historic buildings is very interesting to those offices and other departments at the Trust put together a people started seeing the economic value of preservation, who have tax systems that lend themselves to this. strategic plan for trying to address the threat to each spe- and they started setting up revolving funds, and they saw cific site that’s listed, and then they spend as long as the value of adaptive reuse—using a building for a purpose it takes to try to remove that threat. other than that for which it was designed. And then came the adoption of federal tax credits, which were a great incentive. The whole theory behind historic tax credits was that the public gets to enjoy the continued historic value of the exterior of a building, and that’s a great public benefit, which now, happily, has expanded to 29 states.

 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints  Changing Attitudes Toward Governmental Architecture

There are hidden forces that shape the built environment, By the early 1960s, a series of Executive Orders and and they are at work before the architect and client ever Congressional legislation cemented attitudes that were draw the first line. In the case of federal construction, these already changing regarding federal building. Several Federal Modern hidden forces have often taken the form of executive orders attempted to remedy the perceived aloofness and insu- and legislative acts, successively strengthening, enforcing, or larity of the first modern buildings. Among the most even undoing various preceding directives. With so many influential was a set of principles issued in1962 that Assessing and Preserving a Legacy contemporary design firms actively specializing in civic came from a committee convened by President John F. projects today, it is difficult to imagine that the appropri- Kennedy to take stock of the state of federal architec- ateness of the federal government’s procurement of design ture. Written by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a lifelong services from the private sector was once hotly debated. champion of excellence in building and city design, The Tarsney Act of 1893 opened the doors to private the Guiding Principles for Federal Architecture encour- by Susan Piedmont-Palladino “ t was the best of times, it was the worst of times.” Now, what was once new is old, and one of the largest firms like McKim, Mead and White, D.H. Burnham & aged the “finest contemporary American architectural Charles Dickens was referring to the period just landlords and property managers in the country, the Company, and the office of Cass Gilbert, but the act was thought.” They urged architects to be sensitive to con- before the French Revolution, but could just as U.S. General Services Administration (GSA), finds Susan Piedmont-Palladino I repealed in 1912 over concerns that the private sector might text, treat the site and landscape as equally important easily have been describing the architecture commis- itself with a huge portfolio of buildings and landscapes, be overcharging the government, proving that, while archi- as the building, and warned against any official “style” is a curator at the National sioned by the U.S. government after the Second World the majority of which were built in the last 50 years. tectural tastes may change, friction over budgets is timeless. of architecture. As with all guidelines, the generalities Building Museum and a War, with its decidedly mixed legacy of buildings and The frequently used, catch-all descriptors “mid-century The biggest federal building boom started about two de- are unassailable, but the details are wicked. What is the professor of architecture at cityscapes. The decades from the 1950s to the ’70s gave us modern” and “post-war” embody in shorthand just cades later, beginning with the Public Works Administra- “finest contemporary American architectural thought” Virginia Tech’s Washington- the architecture of the post-war economic boom and then how much the architecture after World War II differed tion during the Great Depression, accelerating during the and who decides? At the time, it wasn’t entirely clear. Alexandria Architecture the Great Society, with the promise of an efficient and in scale, style, and philosophy from that which came mobilization for World War II and escalating in the years Center. transparent government ensconced in buildings to match. before. These differences pose unique challenges for the following the war. The construction program even before The twin forces of economic growth and the desire for But during that time old buildings were regularly razed caretakers of that architectural legacy, and for the citi- the war more than doubled the total number of buildings newness threatened buildings and landscapes through- in the name of progress and too often replaced zens in whose name these buildings were designed and under government ownership. In 1949, President Harry out the 1950s and ’60s. Iconic single acts of destruction, by banal boxes indistinguishable from typical office constructed. In the United States, true modernism really Truman established the GSA, recognizing the exponential such as the demolition of Penn Station in New York buildings of the time. arrived with the end of the war: literally, with the immi- increase in the responsibilities for designing and construct- City, as well the Federal Highway Administration’s gration of a generation of modern masters from Europe, ing the buildings that the larger central government would inexorable paving of city and countryside, were among and metaphorically, in that the end of the war marked need, not to mention managing those that already existed. the forces that motivated the 1966 National Historic the beginning of a more optimistic and prosperous era. Indeed, in its first decade, the agency focused on simply Preservation Act. Recognizing that the “spirit and di- was the symbol of that beginning. below: The U.S. Tax Court in bringing order to the diverse portfolio it rection of the Nation are founded upon Washington, D.C., was designed by had inherited. and reflected in its historic Victor Lundy and completed in 1974. The building won a GSA Honor Award in the agency’s first Design Awards program in 1972. Photo by Carol M. Highsmith Photography, Inc., courtesy of GSA.

 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints  heritage,” the language of the act expressed a sense A Campaign to Preserve Such was the case with the Strom Thurmond Federal Federal construction has been influenced by all of the What’s in a Word? of urgency: “Historic properties significant to the Modern Landmarks Building and U.S. Courthouse, in Columbia, South same movements and counter-movements that have swept Nation’s heritage are being lost or substantially altered, Carolina. Completed in 1979, the exposed rough through architecture and design as a whole in the last often inadvertently, with increasing frequency.” Pre- concrete, or béton brut, building expressed its divided century, each seemingly convinced of the errors of its im- “Brutalism” Today the complex interplay between environmen- serving these properties in the “face of ever-increasing functions with the courthouse in a horizontal wing and mediate predecessors. The ethos of preservation has given What began as a bi-lingual pun, tal conservation and historic preservation is being extensions of urban centers, highways, and residential, the office space in a tower, both connected by a plaza. us a more generous perspective on the past, including the usually attributed to influential brought to bear on the very buildings and landscapes architecture critic Reyner Banham, the commercial, and industrial developments” was clearly In 2003 the federal courts left for new quarters, leaving recent past. “We have a responsibility to the evolution of that were young then. The irony is inescapable: The label “brutalism” became the common in the national interest. Just three years later, the Na- the fate of the structure in doubt. Not well-loved even architecture,” says Rivas-Camp. “We can’t cut out a part of name for a whole body of modern National Historic Preservation Act set out to protect tional Environmental Policy Act was passed, extend- when new, it had few champions and the circumstances it and still claim to tell a true or complete story.” Modern- building. Literally translated from the the familiar, often beloved, yet arguably inefficient French, béton brut means “raw con- ing similar protections to the natural environmental, of its construction were not well known. Through the ism itself is more eclectic than we often think, encom- and old-fashioned buildings of previous centuries crete” and describes a style of modern in recognition of the “profound impact of man’s efforts of Jeffrey Jensen, a historic preservation specialist passing , New Deal murals and heroic architecture that expresses the truth from demolition by the forces of progress. Now, the activity on the interrelations of all components with GSA’s Southeast Sunbelt Region, however, it was sculpture, streamlined Art Deco, béton brut, and the much- of its own construction. Unfortunately, very buildings that were once the enemies of history thanks to Banham’s quip, it became an of the natural environment.” The same threats revealed to be one of the very last works by the Bauhaus maligned glass box. Each building and landscape in GSA’s may enjoy the generous embrace of preservation…if apt mistranslation, worn as a badge of were cited: “influences of population growth, master Marcel Breuer, in partnership with Herbert portfolio reflects some aspect of the relationship between honor by some architects, but leveled they can pass the test. The 1966 act fundamentally high-density urbanization, industrial expansion, Beckhard. The building’s attribution to Breuer raised its the government and the citizens at the time the project as a rebuke by those who preferred changed the way the government, the public, and the their buildings finished and refined. resource exploitation”; and the same motivations: value, even as questions about his actual contribution to was built. The Center for Historic Buildings is marshalling Even the most cursory stroll down design community saw older buildings, but seeing to “preserve important historic, cultural, and natural the design fueled the debate. While the office tower still the spirit of the Guiding Principles for Federal Architecture K Street or Pennsylvania Avenue, the work of the recent past in the same light still however, will only confirm the truth of aspects of our national heritage.” houses federal workers, the courthouse wing now sits with the principles of stewardship in the National Historic poses a challenge. “In many people’s minds,” explains the double meaning. Some buildings vacant. With the original modern interiors for the major Preservation Act to ensure that the “finest contemporary deserve the epithet “brutalist,” but oth- Rolando Rivas-Camp, FAIA, director of GSA’s Center spaces still intact, this late work of Marcel Breuer awaits American architectural thought” is represented from every ers are just raw. for Historic Buildings, “‘historic’ equals ‘traditional,’ another use. era of our history. so making the case to preserve modern buildings is a • above top: The Federal Building challenge.” To address that challenge, the center issued in Des Moines, Iowa, after its Determining the Fate of completion in 1968. Growth, Efficiency and Modernism: GSA Buildings from Photo by Wetherell Harrison Wagner the 50s, 60s and 70s. The study includes a rigorous set Less Important Structures and McKleeven, courtesy of GSA. of criteria for assessing the merit of modern federal above bottom: The Federal Building properties. “In evaluating these properties,” notes Clearly, not everything warrants preservation. Decid- after recladding. Courtesy GSA. David L. Winstead, commissioner of GSA’s Public ing among the alternatives—renovate, re-clad, reuse, Buildings Service, “we must consider not only the or demolish—involves evaluating the relative merits of below: Designed by Marcel Breuer and Associates and building’s architecture, but its potential historical the structure itself and its potential for other uses. The constructed from 1965 to 1968, significance, and the significance it may have to the reuse of the Strom Thurmond Courthouse is difficult the Robert C. Weaver Federal Building in Washington, D.C., community.” In some cases, being able to connect a precisely because of the orthodox modernism of its was the first federal building building to a specific architect is sufficient to save it, architects; the more faithfully form follows function in the country to use precast concrete as the primary structural or at least forestall its demolition. the more resistant the building is to new functions. and exterior finish material. And function isn’t the only issue that makes evaluating Photo by Ben Schnall, courtesy of GSA. mid-20th-century modern architecture difficult. While opposite right: The four-story central conservation techniques for pre-modern buildings public hall, also called the Hall of Justice, in the U.S. Tax Court are well-developed, they are just being developed for in Washington, D.C. The hall is modern materials and methods, many of which were crowned by a clerestory roof that admits light into the space. still experimental when first used. The Federal Building Photo by Carol M. Highsmith in Des Moines, Iowa, was beset by technical problems Photography, Inc., courtesy of GSA almost immediately after it was completed in 1968. GSA assessed its architectural significance and found little. With the support of the local architectural community the decision was made to give the building a makeover. In this case, being both modern and architecturally unremarkable allowed the Des Moines building to avoid demolition and instead have its technology and appearance upgraded. Environmental conservation took precedence over historic preservation: less material for the landfill, and much of the embodied energy in the structure and infrastructure was re-used.

 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints  A Case Study in Southwest D.C.

by Amanda Murphy Renewing Urban Renewal

Amanda Murphy he innermost part of planners, developers, and architects The new Southwest reflected a desire The result of their efforts was one scratch. Such fundamental design of Esocoff & Associates, involves is a development Washington, D.C.’s have begun to consider opportuni- for rebirth as well as a rejection of of the first truly modern urban decisions have prevented the the rehabilitation of two apartment coordinator at the T Southwest quadrant is one ties to restore and enhance some of traditional attitudes about urban neighborhoods—and one of the neighborhood from becoming a buildings in the Town Center National Building of the oldest neighborhoods in the the defining characteristics of this living—sentiments that were deeply most successful urban renewal truly vital, modern community. complex designed by I.M. Pei and District of Columbia, pre-dating modernist neighborhood while fixing rooted in the ideals of modernism. efforts—anywhere in the country. completed in 1962. Importantly, Museum. She is the establishment of the federal obvious urbanistic errors of the past. Although popular in Europe for Unlike many similar projects in A Second Rebirth however, Fairfield at Marina View currently pursuing city. Few remnants of these early several decades, modernist urban other cities, Southwest ultimately will also entail the construction of a master’s in Historic Today, Southwest is on the brink days remain, however, thanks to The Urban Renewal Era design principles were just beginning managed to attract and retain of its most significant redevelop- two new residential buildings; Preservation from the sweeping, post-World War Between 1950 and 1965, more to take hold in the United States, solidly middle-class individuals ment since the initial urban renewal restoration and rejuvenation Goucher College. II urban renewal initiatives that than 550 acres of small businesses, largely due to the influence of and families. A half-century after period. Residents, preservationists, of public open spaces; and erased much of the area’s architec- working-class row houses, and European émigré architects such as many of its constituent develop- planners, architects, and developers a plan for reconnecting the tural heritage. Today, despite slum dwellings in Southwest were and Marcel Breuer. ments were completed, it is now a are once again actively exploring complex with the surround- its proximity to the capital’s cleared in the name of remaking Southwest Washington became a well-maintained, leafy, quiet enclave possibilities for radical changes to ing neighborhood. monumental core, this precinct D.C.—as President Harry Truman major testing ground for such new with much to offer both residents the neighborhood, while this time is largely overlooked by tourists put it—“the best-planned city in design paradigms, not to mention and visitors. acknowledging the need to preserve Although the Pei buildings are and locals alike. the world.” A vibrant if decrepit the largest single urban renewal site existing architectural resources. not registered landmarks, the old neighborhood was soon in the world at that time. Breuer Nonetheless, the original Southwest architects and the developer, Fair- below: Rendering of Fairfield Given its relative obscurity, coupled replaced by coolly rational high-rise himself designed two government plan had serious flaws that were David Maloney, the state historic field Residential, decided to work at Marina View Towers, with the fact that most of its build- buildings in Southwest and some typical of large-scale urban renewal with the D.C. Historic Preservation showing two existing apartment blocks, Brutalist federal preservation officer for D.C., towers at I.M. Pei’s Town ings are barely 50 years old, South- office buildings, modern town of Gropius and Breuer’s students, schemes of the period. Inward is optimistic that a proposed Office, D.C. Preservation League, Center (left and right west D.C. would seem an unlikely including I.M. Pei, would also have facing superblocks diminished street and other interested parties to center) and two proposed houses and churches, open green development called Fairfield towers by Esocoff & focus of a historic preservation cam- space, and parking lots. Such an influence on the new modern activity; cul-de-sacs confused traffic at Marina View will serve as a devise a plan in which the two Associates/Architects paign; yet it is becoming just that. landscape in a city that had been, circulation; high fences isolated towers would be treated sensitively. (far left and far right). ambitious redevelopment schemes model for the reconsideration of Courtesy of Esocoff & Like other post-war urban renewal were common throughout the until that time, emphatically residents from one another; and Southwest—one in which existing Ultimately, there was agreement Associates/Architects. zones that are now coming of age, country during that time despite traditional. unrealized projects such as a town modernist buildings are gently that, whatever alterations were opposite right: One of the the area is increasingly recognized controversy over their dispropor- center and a grand mall on 10th renovated while new structures are made to Town Center, the property towers at I.M. Pei’s Town as a site of historical and architec- Street showed the dangers of should retain sufficient historic and Center, as it appears today. tionate impact on African added into the mix. This project, led Photo by Amanda Murphy. tural significance. Recently, due to American families. attempting to start over from by the Washington architecture firm architectural integrity to remain rising real estate pressures in D.C.,

10 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints 11 eligible for inclusion in a potential Windows posed a bigger problem. New Design Based on Repairing the Modernist Breach Another way in which the Marina historic district nomination for the The original single-glazed units Neighborhood Precedent of the Streetscape View project will improve upon the entire Southwest urban renewal were energy-inefficient, and their In designing the two new towers for As part of the Marina View project, mid-20th-century urban pattern is precinct. As Philip Esocoff, FAIA, thin aluminum frames were not Fairfield at Marina View, Esocoff much of the original Town Center through environmentally conscious principal of Esocoff & Associates, structurally capable of support- and senior associate Linda Palmer, landscape will also be restored, design strategies. The Pei towers, put it, the approach was a matter of ing new insulated glass panels. It Associate AIA, wanted them to though the high walls and fences for instance, will be retrofitted “saving the baby and throwing out was therefore unavoidable that the complement, rather than match, that currently separate the complex with green roofs, while the new the bathwater.” old windows would need to be the Pei buildings. They decided and from the street will be removed, buildings will be topped with green replaced. However, a thoughtful to survey other urban renewal-era and pedestrian walkways, public roofs from the start. The landscape In rehabilitating the Pei buildings, way to preserve Pei’s design intent buildings in the area for inspiration. garden areas, and refreshment stands design also incorporates multi- Esocoff’s firm went to great lengths was devised. First, the characteristic Noting that even the mid-20th- will be added. This aspect of the modal planning that will encourage to apply the nationally recognized dimensions of the existing century modernists often looked to project is being directed by the walking and bicycling, while preservation guidelines known as windows—7 feet by 7 feet—will be classical antiquity and other periods landscape architecture firm of Zion still accommodating cars in an the Secretary of the Interior’s Stan- retained. While the new window for ideas, Esocoff said, “The built Breen Richardson; partner Don appropriate way. dards, which provide direction for frames are thicker than the originals, environment is a book you can Richardson worked on the original background: Aerial view even the most minute details of a they will be two-toned, with an If Fairfield at Marina View proves of Southwest Washington open and read.” design of Town Center while an in 1959. project. For example, hairline cracks outer silver band similar in scale to associate with the firm, then known successful, the D.C. Historic Courtesy of the Washingtoniana in Pei’s concrete structure are being the full width of Pei’s originals. The Preservation Office is likely to Division, DC Public Library. The design for the new construction as Zion Breen, in the 1960s. cleared of the mismatched grout inner, dark bronze band of the new is largely inspired by Chloethiel consider using the project as an below: I.M. Pei’s Town that was applied in a haphazard frames will visually recede and be explicit model for guidelines for Center, completed in 1962. Woodard Smith’s nearby Capitol In a sense, the construction of Avery Architectural and Fine fashion over the years. They will subsumed into the varying window Park apartment towers, which date two new residential buildings just future redevelopment of urban Arts Library, Columbia University. be re-patched with grout of a more treatments and lighting conditions from the late 1950s and early ’60s outboard of the original Town renewal-era structures in Southwest. opposite top right: View of compatible color, and then sealed of individual apartment units inside. and were the first Southwest urban Center towers may be viewed as a Like everyone involved in this Town Center today. with a clear coat. This method will endeavor, Maloney, the D.C. Photo by Amanda Murphy. renewal-era buildings to receive historic restoration of sorts. After allow the original texture and color Esocoff noted that the window a historic landmark designation. all, the modest buildings that the preservation officer, is hopeful that opposite bottom left: of the concrete—as well as the problem raises philosophical the project will demonstrate that Site plan of Fairfield Esocoff’s buildings will feature Town Center towers replaced would at Marina View. natural patina it has acquired over questions that preservationists will undulating curved walls of glass have come right up to the sidewalk, modernist buildings can be both Courtesy of Esocoff & time—to remain visible. need to address in order for other meaningfully preserved and Associates/Architects. and concrete, cantilevered metal thus creating a strong street edge as modernist buildings to be eligible balconies, and obvious “non- was typical in 19th-century cities. carefully updated to meet the opposite bottom right: for historic preservation tax credits, needs of present-day living. Rendering of proposed supporting” decorative brick By contrast, the post-war buildings • building for the Marina since so many buildings of this era features—all elements that Smith were sited in the modernist fashion View project as seen from feature exteriors almost entirely the intersection of 6th & used in the design of her buildings. as “towers in the park,” allowing M Streets. of glass. Would removal of these Esocoff feels the new buildings for more green space and parking Rendering courtesy of Esocoff original features compromise a & Associates/Architects. reflect the essential elements of lots, but also destroying the clear structure’s architectural integrity? both Pei’s and Smith’s buildings sense of the streetscape. By placing Can 80% or more of a building’s without actually copying their buildings along the street lines once exterior be removed without specific motifs. again, Esocoff is undoing one of the running afoul of generally accepted urban design blunders common in historic preservation standards? If Southwest. Moreover, the residential those standards do not allow full building facing M Street will have replacement, how can the buildings retail and restaurants on the first conform to even minimal standards floor, reinforcing the character of for thermal efficiency? Such that street as a commercial corridor. questions illuminate the delicate— and sometimes difficult—balance that architects and preservationists must pursue when trying to figure out how best to adapt older structures to current standards.

12 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Fall Winter 2007–08 blueprints 13 Preservation of modern-era buildings is not limited to landmarks designed by famous architects. As this article about a project called Silo Point makes clear, the American landscape includes industrial buildings and other essentially modern structures that could easily be forgotten or dismissed, but in fact can be handsomely and profitably transformed to serve new purposes. Sign Me Up! While such projects are likely to entail substantial changes to the existing structures rather Silo Point was the subject of than pure restoration, they nonetheless can serve to preserve important aspects of a one of the Museum’s popular Point Construction Watch Tours, which Silo community’s historic character while also minimizing expenditures for entirely new resources. are open to members. If you are not An Industrial-Strength Renovation a member and would like to sign up Christopher Pfaeffle, AIA NCARB, is principal and founder of Parameter Inc. in Baltimore, in order to participate in the tours, and is the architect for Silo Point. contact the Membership Department By Christopher Pfaeffle, AIA, NCARB at 202.272.2448, ext. 3200, or [email protected].

uring the winter of 2003, Patrick Turner, Pat and I never once considered demolishing the president of Turner Development Group, and elevator tower, despite the naysayers who insisted that DI meandered through one of his company’s the only sensible approach was to take it down and recent acquisitions: the towering shell of what was once build from scratch. While starting with a blank slate the world’s largest and fastest grain elevator. The Locust is often easier, it was just not an option in this case as Point Grain Terminal Elevator, built by the Baltimore & we came to admire the grittily elegant structure. We Ohio Railroad in 1923 on the southernmost peninsula in were convinced that saving the building was worth the the city of Baltimore, stood hauntingly quiet except for effort, and four years after our initial visit, the complex the sound of faraway seagulls and the occasional train that we now call Silo Point is finally being transformed passing through on the tracks below. While the concrete from an archaic industrial facility into a stylish was damp and the windows squeaky and tilted, our tour condominium with 228 airy apartments. provoked the kind of raw wonder that any five-year-old might experience when seeing such an astonishing sight for the first time. Our ambition was to transform the iconic structure—along with portions of the adjacent entire spread: Rendering array of 187 silos—into a sleek, modern residential of Silo Point project complex while still respecting the original building’s superimposed on panoramic view of industrial character. Baltimore. Courtesy of Parameter Inc.

14 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints 15 Old Dog, New Tricks A Striking Model for Urban Living In a project of this type, a cookie- cutter approach to apartment layout We wanted to create a cutting-edge work of architecture Any new residential development must stand out from would be impossible, and Silo Point that would reveal much of its past without expressing its competitors, of course. Fortunately for Silo Point, will therefore offer a broad range it too literally. Our adaptive reuse strategy involved the site’s vivid history, awe-inspiring structures, and of unit options. To pay homage to coming to an understanding of how the building was waterside setting make for an inherently interesting the site’s history, we decided to call designed and how it worked, and then translating and attractive living environment. the residential units “bins.” Each that into a modern use. For example, one of the most “bin” number will be illuminated important aspects of the grain elevator structure was the The public spaces of the complex are designed to on the floor in front of the apart- sense of vastness one felt when walking around both celebrate the project’s origins. Robust, octagonal ment door—an allusion to the the interior and exterior. We wanted to preserve that columns march through the main lobby, emphasizing original system in which a plate in aspect of the elevator building’s character while taking the great weight of the structure above and creating the floor identified the number of advantage of every opportunity to let the building tell dramatic perspectives. The basilica-like quality of this each storage bin. Some condo units its own story. space will serve as a powerful reminder of the vastness will have ceilings as high as 18 feet, above: Rendering of an apartment of the original structure that so impressed us on our most with floor-to-ceiling windows. Units near the top of in the Silo Point project. When approaching any adaptive reuse project, the initial visit. Visitors will be able to look up and see Courtesy of Parameter Inc. the skyscraper will have glass on two or three sides, and design team must decide which elements of the existing the lit interiors of the grain silos rising 10 stories since no nearby buildings approach the complex’s 22-story structure to retain and which to remove. In the case of overhead. The lobby itself—aside from the columns— height—and current zoning prevents any other high-rise the B&O grain elevator, the extant concrete tower was will remain practically empty. construction in the area—Silo Point’s residents will enjoy tall, narrow, and long, with views of the harbor and city Another challenge was the 16-foot-by-16-foot structural spectacular views for years to come. skyline. It was easy to see how that arrangement could grid that was used throughout the original elevator The columns in the lobby extend into the lower level, translate very well into a modern residential project. In and silos. Although such a grid bears no relationship to which will house a fitness club, a business center, a Another important design consideration was the contrast, the windowless, virtually impenetrable storage typical modern dimensions for residential construction, billiards room, a wine club, and a gallery. The lower- provision of outdoor space for residents. Every bin at above: Historic photo of Locust silos would not lend themselves readily to any other we felt compelled to retain it and integrate it into the level spaces will feature exposed pile caps, which Silo Point has access to some kind of outdoor area—be it a Point Grain Terminal Elevator. uses. It quickly became clear that keeping the entire new construction to preserve the project’s historical will further enhance the visitor’s appreciation of Photo provided by Parameter Inc. private balcony, the lushly landscaped common terrace on silo farm was not possible, so we devised an alternative continuity. In the end, original beams and columns the massive structure. the roof, or the walking trails that surround the property. above right: Rendering of the lobby strategy to maintain a small number of the silos and remained in place, as we found ways to make the of Silo Point. The landscape design will allude to the complex’s original use Courtesy of Parameter Inc. to incorporate them into the new complex. The retained contemporary apartments conform to the unusual The additions to the building, including the elements by incorporating mounds representing the volume of grain silos will serve as visual anchors, as well as highly structural dimensions. Ultimately, as we came to interwoven with the remaining silos and a multi- below: Photo of the Locust Point that would fit in one silo, as well as grain-like plantings. Grain Terminal Elevator in 1926. evocative relics of the site’s industrial past. The new understand the ramifications of this decision, it story block on top of the existing tower, are being Photo provided by Parameter Inc. architectural elements will snake around the remnants, helped us to design better living units. constructed out of concrete, glass, and various forms In the end, we expect that Silo Point will be an exciting and creating a dialogue between historic and contemporary of corrugated metal. A 550-car parking garage, capped dynamic marriage of seemingly disparate histories, uses, materials and forms. In many cases, existing footings The incorporation of elevators—for people, that is, by two- and three-level townhouse-like structures, will materials, and forms. The project also serves as a compelling and piles are being reused to accommodate the rather than grain—also posed quite a problem. In a be linked to the tower by a three-story glass bridge. reminder that our landscape is dotted with many new structure. typical new construction project, stock elevators are placed in shafts designed specifically to accommodate structures—some abandoned, others merely underutilized— them. At Silo Point, elevators had to be custom made that may be ripe for new functions. By preserving and to fit in the building’s existing silos on that unusual adapting elements of a structure that could easily be dis- 16-foot-by-16-foot grid. Moreover, we had to design missed as a white elephant, we hope to create a unique and special platforms in adjacent silos to access the vibrant residential com- elevators’ counterweights, and had to “suspend” munity that will serve elevator pits in the basement. Additionally, new as a model for urban elevators were placed at the perimeter of the project. revitalization in Baltimore and elsewhere. •

16 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints 17 museum news

for the GREENERGOOD Sixth Turner Prize Recognizes Gehry and Colleagues Conversations that by Scott Kratz, Vice President for Education Will Change the World, Part 2 On October 3, 2007, more than 1,200 people gathered in the National Building Museum’s Great Hall to celebrate the sixth recipient of the by Scott Kratz, Vice President for Education Henry C. Turner Award for Innovation in Construction Technology: Gehry Partners and Gehry Technologies. Accepting the award were founder and he National Building Museum’s sustainability program series goes principal architect Frank Gehry on behalf of Gehry Partners and chief tech- global, with a second slate of programs scheduled from January nology officer Dennis Shelden on behalf of Gehry Technologies. Gehry is above: Coordinating curator Susan Piedmont-Palladino Tthrough April 2008. Building on the success of last fall’s events, known around the world for his sinuous buildings that push the boundaries speaks to the group about Breuer’s furniture designs. Photo by Peter Cutts. which focused on domestic issues, we will once again convene of construction and engineering technology. Such cutting-edge work has leaders in the field of architecture, planning, economics, history, and environmental causes to discuss paths to a more sustainable future. been made possible by continuous advances in computer-aided design by Gehry’s affiliated digital technology firm. Engage in a conversation with the past research chief of the United Museum Friends Nations Center for Human Settlements. Talk with world-renowned The Henry C. Turner Prize, named after the founder of Turner planners and architects on what one billion people living in slums means Construction Company, recognizes an invention, an innovative opposite left: An audience member asks a question of a panelist during the program explore for the environment. Hear representatives from Abu Dhabi discuss plans Gone Fission: Can the Nuclear Industry Help Save the Environment? Photo by Peter Cutts. Marcel Breuer: to create a carbon-neutral city in the middle of the Arabian desert. Watch methodology, and/or exceptional leadership by an individual or team as historians debate if planned utopias ever develop according to plan. of individuals in construction technology. Jury chair Norbert Young, above: (from R to L)Norbert Young, president of McGraw-Hill Construction, and 2007 Design and Architecture Listen to California Assemblywoman Fran Pavley describe how her state president of McGraw-Hill Construction, said that Gehry “challenged the Henry C. Turner Prize recipients Dennis Shelden and Frank Gehry discuss the future of innovation in the construction industry. Photo by Paul Morigi. By Tasha Passarelle, Development Events Manager is tackling greenhouse gases. Witness journalists, planners, and environ- industry to innovate new construction methods.” He added that Gehry mentalists from China discussing the master plan of the Beijing Olympics Partners and Gehry Technologies leveraged software and digital design to below: Frank Gehry accepts the 2007 Henry C. Turner Prize during and how to balance historic preservation with the most modern new an award ceremony at the Museum. Photo by Paul Morigi. Marcel Breuer was among the most important create some of the world’s most recognizable structures. green building standards. • and prolific designers of the20 th century. On October 30, the Museum celebrated Breuer’s For more information and to watch/hear the first four programs in the Thomas R. Turner, vice president of Turner Construction Company, diverse career during a private preview of the series, go to the Museum’s website at commended the selection, saying, “The Turner Prize recognizes achieve- retrospective exhibition Marcel Breuer: Design ments that have had a transformative impact on the built environment For the Greener Good Lecture series is presented by The Home and Architecture with the exhibition’s sponsors and the jury’s choice of Gehry Partners and Gehry Technologies strongly ONLINE Depot Foundation. and the Museum’s Corinthian-, Professional Circle- reflects this criterion.” VIDEO! To see a video and Builder-level members. from the October Since its inception in 2002, the Turner Prize has been awarded to award ceremony, visit Developed by the Vitra Design Museum in structural engineer Leslie E. Robertson, architect I.M. Pei, engineer the Museum’s website at Germany, the exhibition presents Breuer’s PARTNERS IN SUSTAINABILITY and builder Charles A. DeBenedittis, the U.S. Green Building extraordinary achievements in furniture and Council, and, most recently, Stanford professor Paul Teicholz. interior design and reintroduces his often over- The prize carries a cash award of $25,000 from an endowment looked, but historically significant architectural established by Turner Construction Company. • work. Vitra’s director, Alexander von Vegesack, and curator, Mathias Remele, traveled from Europe to partake in this exclusive opening and to lead private, behind-the-scenes tours for the 200 guests.

Exhibition sponsors, many of whom attended the opening event, include the National Endowment for the Arts; Vitra, Inc.; Deborah Berke & Partners Architects LLP; Gensler; Perkins + Will; Henry and Jessica Townsend; I.M. Pei; The Honorable Nancy G. Brinker; and Mr. and Mrs. Richard England, Sr. The National Building Museum is the only North American venue to present this exhibition, which will be open until February 17, 2008. •

18 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints 19 museum news BABA F The National Building Museum wishes to FFESTIVAL OF THE BUILDING ARTS thank all the individuals and organizations demonstrating their crafts and skills at the Modernist Mentor: 2007 Festival of the Building Arts: American Society of Interior Designers (ASID) ASID, Washington Metro Chapter An Interview with Daniel Donnelly American Society of Landscape Architects Fall Festivalby Ellen Jacknain, Festival of theFun! Building Arts Coordinator Blacksmiths’ Guild of the Potomac Blue Ridge Timberwrights by Jamee Telford, Associate Outreach Programs Coordinator The Clark Construction Group his year’s Festival of the Building Arts took Debuting at this year’s festival was a life-size custom Capitol Greenroofs, L.L.C. place under sunny autumn skies as visitors playhouse constructed with sustainable materials by COTEdc: American Institute of Architects, DC Growing up in the antiques industry, his father an estate auctioneer and his Committee on the Environment mother an interior designer, Daniel Donnelly learned at a young age how T and exhibitors alike focused on the many Pardee Homes as part of HomeAid’s National Project Covenant House Washington, different aspects of our built environment. On October Playhouse. Children explored the new playhouse and Artisans Program Workshop to cultivate, collect, and create quality furniture. Twenty-one years ago, he DC Association of Land Surveyors 13, more than 2400 children and adults participated in then designed their own miniature versions to take Gold Leaf Studios established an antique and custom furniture shop in Old Town Alexandria interactive displays presented by more than 20 groups home. The playhouse will remain at the Museum as International Masonry Institute and and has seen it grow into a full-fledged modern design studio. He the International Union of Bricklayers of professional craftspeople. Both inside and outside a permanent part of the Building Zone exhibition. • and Allied Craftworkers produces his own line of furniture, sells classic pieces from the likes of the Museum, youngsters in yellow plastic hard hats— Lafarge Colin McGhee, Master Thatcher Marcel Breuer and Charles and Ray Eames, and restores vintage furniture. gifts from the festival’s sponsor Associated General The 2007 Festival of the Building Arts was presented by the Metropolitan Washington Plumbing- Contractors of America—were hammering nails, Associated General Contractors of America. The National Building Heating-Cooling Contractors Miller and Long This fall, Donnelly collaborated with the Museum’s Design Apprenticeship Museum thanks all organizations, as well as the many individual sawing wood, drilling, creating, building, surveying, and company exhibitors, for participating in this successful festival. National Capital Art Glass Guild (NCAGG) Program (DAP) to offer guidance to area high school students as they and climbing on shiny new construction vehicles. Potomac Antique Tool and Industries Through this signature event, the Museum aims to introduce Association (PATINA) constructed furniture for donation to a local organization called the Dinner visitors of all ages to the building trades and building arts by Andy Seferlis and John Sonnier: Program for Homeless Women. In the interview excerpted below, he talked Visitors of all ages were able to talk to architects, offering demonstrations of crafts and skills, many of which include Stone Carving hands-on components; special children’s Superior Concrete Materials, Inc. about his design work and experiences with the DAP kids. masons, roofers, thatchers, plumbers, drywall finishers, Wagner Roofing activities; and displays of construction Washington Woodworkers Guild and timberwrights, and explore different materials and machinery. processes—both traditional and sustainable—used in top circle: This moveable Jamee Telford: What is your design philosophy? Telford: What was the construction. Woodworkers, art glass designers, stone bench—designed by DAP students’ biggest carvers, gilders, and interior designers were on hand students in DAP 16: Furnish- Daniel Donnelly: It varies—most times the solution is just challenge in creating ing Forward—can be recon- to give insight into creative home improvement ideas. figured to fit any space. a slight shift in approach or different angle of attack. Some furniture for the Dinner Photo by Museum Staff. designers tend to over-think a problem. You just need to Program for Homeless Landscape architects educated the public on the keep it simple. Let your materials do the work. Let your Women? advantages of, and creative processes behind, green middle circle: A DAP materials serve their original purpose. When envisioning design team deconstructs roofs; and young visitors also had the opportunity a space, I start as a minimalist, then layer details—work on Donnelly: Comfort. The students a piece of furniture to to make their own model green roofs to take home. functionality first, then let the contents work themselves in. are creating seating for this organiza- far left: The new Project Play- see how it works. house in The Building Zone. Photo by Museum staff. I try not to manipulate materials too much. tion, seating that will be used quite often. The challenge Photo by Peter Cutts. is, how can they make it comfortable and durable? How above top: One of the left: A volunteer at the DAP 16’s designed a cube Telford: What led to the resurgence of interest in can they create seat cushions that will last a long period mid-20th-century furniture? of time? What materials are available to do this? If they Festival of the Building Arts bookshelf to be used in a teaches a builder-in-training local community center. choose not to use seat cushions, how will the materials how to hammer. Photo by Museum Staff. Donnelly: I think it is a generational thing. Appreciation of they use to construct the furniture create a comfortable Photo by Peter Cutts. below: Nesting popular styles tends to skip a generation. In our case, this design? These are the questions they have to answer. happened to coincide with a generation that produced an below right: A young attendee Tables, designed by participates in a surveying Marcel Breuer. enormous output of inspired design. Mid-century design Telford: What did you learn from your experience demonstration at the Photo courtesy of Daniel Donnelly. embodies a functional approach to living spaces and is a with the students? Festival of the Building Arts. good fit with our technology culture today. Herman Miller Photo by Marshall Cohen. realized the groundswell in the early ’90s and re-released its Donnelly: I am extremely impressed with the quality of classic collection. Since then others have followed, including questions the students asked during our initial meeting. me. You no longer have to search through antique shops or They were thinking like designers. It was so refreshing family estates to find the work of Eames, Nelson, or Noguchi. to be in conversation with them. They wanted to know everything about the space, what the constraints were, and how to solve the problem. It was apparent the students wanted to meet the needs of their clients. I would continue to encourage their problem-solving skills.

A good designer is an excellent problem solver. If they con- tinue the cultivation of the skills I have seen so far, these students will be on the right track. •

20 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints 21 museum news

Hardy Headlines Members’ Event National Building by Mark Davis, Membership Manager Museum and Kreeger Late last summer, members of the Museum’s Builders and Professional Circle groups Museum to Offer enjoyed an evening reception and presentation by Hugh Hardy, FAIA, principal of H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture LLC based in New York. Hardy is Joint Study Tour known for high-profile public projects including the restoration of Radio City Music Hall and the design of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum “Cradle of Modernism: The Bauhaus in Cooperstown, New York. His lively remarks provided insights into H3’s creative Legacy in Four German Cities” endeavors, including the firm’s contribution to the Museum’s recent exhibition Reinventing the Globe: A Shakespearean Theater for the 21st Century—a hypothetical by Martin Moeller, Senior Vice President and Curator theater in the middle of Times Square that could be adapted to travel to all of New York City’s five boroughs. The entertaining evening included a special The National surprise: a cake in honor of Hardy’s birthday, which he happily shared with Building Museum and the Kreeger Mu- above: The Museum’s members. To join The Builders or The Professional Circle and receive invitations executive director, seum are cooperating to for programs and events like these, please contact Mark Davis, Membership Chase Rynd, presents offer an unprecedented the Dale Chihuly Manager, at 202.272.2448, ext. 3200, or [email protected]. • tour tracing the legacy sculpture Cobalt Basket set with Red of the Bauhaus, the Poppy Lips (2001) groundbreaking school to the raffle winners. that changed the course of modern design history. Photo by Museum staff. Scheduled for September 12–22, 2008, the tour will feature the three cities that successively served as home to the school—Weimar, Dessau, and Berlin—as well as And the Winner is… Stuttgart.The itinerary includes visits to architectural on DeGarmo Spotlight by Mary Zehe, Assistant Director of Development landmarks designed by Bauhaus faculty, museums that contain works by Bauhaus masters, and other sites of by Melinda Hungerman, Corporate and Association Relations Manager historic or architectural importance. This past summer, the Museum held a raffle for On September 24, a crowd of more than 250 people attended a lecture by Todd the chance to win the elegant sculpture Cobalt The tour will begin in Stuttgart, site of the Weissenhof DeGarmo of STUDIOS architecture presented by the Museum as part of its Basket Set with Poppy Red Lip Wraps (2001) created housing complex, which was one of the largest works by prestigious Spotlight on Design series. As CEO of STUDIOS architecture and founder by world-renowned glass artist Dale Chihuly. Bauhaus architects, and two important art museums— of the firm’s New York office, DeGarmo has had a profound influence on the design Chihuly generously donated this piece as a salute the Kunstmuseum and the Staatsgalerie. In Weimar, of base buildings, renovations, historic preservation, and interior architecture. In his to his former classmate at the Rhode Island School stops will include the Art Nouveau house of Henry van lecture, he discussed how the Washington, DC office’s expertise has informed national of Design, David Macaulay, and to support the de Velde, who headed the predecessor institution to the and international projects, including the interiors of the IAC/InterActiveCorp Museum’s exhibition: David Macaulay: The Art Bauhaus, as well the historic homes of major literary headquarters by Frank Gehry, the Bloomberg LP headquarters, and the Kingman of Drawing Architecture. figures such as Goethe and Nietsche. The highlight Island Environmental Education Center. of the stay in Dessau will be the famous Bauhaus After being open for more than three months, above: Architect Hugh Hardy 14 speaks with a Museum itself—the only entirely new structure ever built for the After the lecture, the Museum and STUDIOS architecture hosted a reception in the raffle was held on September th. The lucky member during The Builder’s school—and the houses of Bauhaus founder Walter the Pension Commissioner’s Suite, with nearly 100 guests including Corinthian and winners were Museum members Michael D. Blau and Professional Circle and Jacqueline A. Moore, who is also a member of reception in August 2007. Gropius and other leading teachers. The tour concludes Professional Circle members, and STUDIOS architecture staff and clients. • Photo by Museum Staff. in Berlin, where participants will visit the Bauhaus the Museum’s Teacher Advisory Board. Both glass right: The Museum presents Archives, the National Gallery designed by Ludwig artists in their own right, Michael and Jacqueline Hugh Hardy with a cake in Mies van der Rohe, and the contemporary Jewish above: Todd DeGarmo, CEO and founder of said they were thrilled to have won and are celebration of his birthday. STUDIOS architecture’s New York office. looking forward to enjoying this beautiful piece Photo by Museum Staff. Museum by Daniel Libeskind. Photo by Ron Solomon, courtesy STUDIOS architecture. in their home. •

The total cost of the tour including airfare from left: Todd DeGarmo discusses STUDIOS Washington, luxurious hotel accommodations, and architecture’s work in Washington, D.C. and beyond during a Spotlight on Design numerous meals is $5,995. For more information lecture at the Museum. contact Martin Moeller, at 202.272.2448, ext. 3451 Photo by Museum staff. or [email protected]. •

22 blueprints Winter 2007–08 Winter 2007–08 blueprints 23 Board of Trustees

Chair Honorary Trustees Michael J. Glosserman Harold L. Adams Readers Show Powers Howard M. Bender Executive Director Carolyn Schwenker Brody contributors Chase W. Rynd David C. Evans of “Observation” M. Arthur Gensler Jr. Secretary Mike Goodrich The Museum thanks the following individuals, companies, associations and agencies for gifts Gilbert E. DeLorme Thomas J. Klutznick of $250 or more received from August 1–October 31, 2007. These generous gifts provide Perched at the edge of a dramatic Frederick A. Kober precipice, its white walls gleam- Treasurer Stuart A. McFarland essential support for the Museum’s exhibitions, education programs, and endowment funds. Robert McLean III Robert H. Braunohler Some of the contributions listed below are in partial fulfillment of larger pledges. ing in the sunlight (when it’s Elizabeth B. Moynihan not too smoggy), its terraces Marilyn Perry Elected and Voting Trustees commanding spectacular James W. Todd William B. Alsup III $50,000 and above $2,500–$4,999 $250–$999 Mallory Walker views of the Los Angeles Frank Anton Leonard A. Zax U.S. Department American Planning Association Aon Risk Services Agnes Artemel Basin (when it’s not too Thomas N. Armstrong III David S. Bender Deutsche Bank Private David C. Evans Esq. Bob and Kathy Baer smoggy), is the Fall 2007 Ex Officio Trustees Wealth Management Fentress Architects Thomas M. Ballentine Mystery Building, better Deborah Berke of Energy William M. Brennan Secretary Dirk Kempthorne U.S. Department of Housing Grunley Construction Co., Inc. Linna M. Barnes Department of the Interior known as the Griffith Kelly Caffarelli and Urban Development Costas Kondylis and Christian J. Mixter by Tim Carrigan, Donor Relations Coordinator Observatory. Designed Joan Baggett Calambokidis Secretary Alphonso Jackson & Associates, P.C. C. Kaya Biron, AIA by John C. Austin and Donald A. Capoccia Department of Housing and $10,000–$24,999 Linda B. Lyons and A. R. Braunmuller and Urban Development Frederick M. Ashley in an Dennis J. Cotter Jonathan S. Lyons Christine L. Krueger Christopher Dorval Senator Barbara Boxer Since 2002, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Apollo Real Estate Management Microdesk Robert Bush elegant Greco-Deco style, Delon Hampton Chair, Senate Committee on and the National Building Museum have worked Mr. and Mrs. Thomas N. Environment and Public Works Musee des arts et metiers/ William F. Clinger, Jr. the observatory opened Gary P. Haney Armstrong, III together on numerous programs—such as the CNAM Kim Coletta in 1935 and has long been Philippe Hardouin Representative James Oberstar Associated Builders and Chair, House Committee on The New York Times Jerome A. Conlon a favorite backdrop for Robert W. Holleyman, II exhibitions Big and Green and The Green House, as Contractors, Inc. Joseph F. Horning, Jr. Transportation & Infrastructure Ann Satterthwaite, AICP Einhorn Yaffee Prescott building mystery Hollywood films, ranging from well as the noontime lecture series Building for the The Beech Street Foundation Gerald M. Howard Lurita Doan

donor profile STUDIOS Architecture Joan Eisenstodt and Joel Levy Bentley Systems, Incorporated the classic Rebel Without a Cause Mercy Jiménez Administrator 21st Century—which advance the agency’s mission Virginia Tech Frances Ferguson General Services Administration The Beverly Willis Architecture to the recent Transformers movie. The A. Eugene Kohn Leonard A. Zax Guardian Industries Corp. of ensuring the ongoing availability of reliable, clean, Foundation landmark building recently reopened after Deryl McKissack Adrian M. Fenty Delon Hampton, PhD, PE Hollis S. McLoughlin Mayor of the District of Columbia efficient, and affordable energy. BFC Partners an extensive renovation and addition by Pfeiffer $1,000–$2,499 Patricia Harrison Melissa A. Moss David L. Winstead Bloomberg Joseph F. Horning, Jr. Partners Architects Inc., working in association with Levin & Robert A. Peck Comissioner, Facchina-McGaughan, LLC Sandy Apgar For the 30 years since it was established, DOE Craig Howie Associates Architects. Whayne S. Quin Public Buildings Service, Freddie Mac Atmosphere Inc. Stephen M. Ross General Services Administration Mr. and Mrs. Joel Hunter has provided the framework for a comprehensive Gensler The Honorable Deborah Ratner Salzberg Stephen T. Ayers Island Press The Mystery Photo was taken from the “promenade walkway,” looking up the Robert W. Holleyman, II Nancy G. Brinker Stephen E. Sandherr Acting Architect of the Capitol and balanced national energy plan. The Dudley Ives side of the faceted, buttressed drum that supports the central planetarium dome. Kohn Pedersen Fox Brownrigg Charitable Trust Robert A.M. Stern Allen Weinstein Kasteel Construction department is responsible for long-term research Associates PC Champion Title and Norbert W. Young, Jr. Archivist of the United States Keane Enterprises, LLC and development of energy technology, federal Lafarge Settlements, Inc Six readers correctly identified the building. Each of the first five respondents James H. Billington Joyce Kessler and Founding Trustees The Meltzer Group Christie’s America received a National Building Museum coffee mug as a prize. The prize winners The Librarian of Congress power marketing, energy conservation, military Amy Kessler Pastan Cynthia R. Field National Association DeSimone Consulting were: Carl Thomas Engel, Painesville, OH; Edward T. Revere, McLean, VA; Cristián Samper John P. Kyle Herbert M. Franklin applications, energy regulatory programs, and of Home Builders Engineers Acting Secretary of the Michael L. Marshall, AIA and John Edwards, Nick Wafle, and David G. Wood, all of Washington, DC. Edward T. Hall Smithsonian a central energy data collection and analysis Perkins + Will Dewberry Randolph Q. McManus The sixth correct respondent was Jan D. Carline of Seattle, WA. • Nancy Stevenson Reznick Group Mr. and Mrs. Richard Richard Moe program. Today, DOE continues to ensure the G. Martin Moeller, Jr. Beverly Willis President Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP England, Sr. and Steven Dickens National Trust for nation’s energy security by maintaining the safety Herb and Barbara Franklin Historic Preservation John E. Moyer, AIA and reliability of nuclear stockpiles, cleaning up $5,000–$9,999 Gilbane Building Company Sakura Namioka Christine McEntee Elika Hemphill and Executive Director and CEO the environmental impact of the Cold War, and American Society National Association of Women Richard Confalone The American Institute of Civil Engineers in Construction of Architects spearheading scientific and technological advances S. Kann Sons Company The Associated General Thomas E. O’Brien and research into viable energy alternatives. Foundation, Inc. Contractors of America Lawrence O’Connor and this issue’s mystery... Kishimoto.Gordon.Dalaya PC Deborah Berke & Partners Ashley Power O’Connor Jacqueline and Architects LLP Joseph Palca and Kathy Hudson National Building Museum Editorial Board “The National Building Museum’s programs put Marc Leland Foundation Cassidy & Pinkard Colliers Laura Peebles a wonderful ‘shine’ on the often gritty research Mortgage Bankers Association Johanna Dunkel, Marketing and Communications Manager Nancy B. and Howard K. Cohen Thorn L. Pozen Charles A. and Diana R. Nathan Catherine Crane Frankel, Vice President for Exhibitions and Collections conducted in our national laboratories and on Construction Industry Quadrangle Development Co. National Society of Melissa Kennedy, Senior Graphic Designer Round Table Edna R. Ranck and Martin Step Right Up! building sites all around the U.S.,” said Mark Professional Engineers Scott Kratz, Vice President for Education Cushman & Wakefield Fleischer Ginsberg, board member of DOE’s Office of The National Trust for Bryna Lipper, Vice President for Marketing and Communications D.C. Office of Property Susan A. Retz, AIA Something curious is going on with Historic Preservation G. Martin Moeller, Jr., Senior Vice President and Curator Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “The Management and Charles J. Lovett those doors. Can you identify the Scott and Maggie Nelson Chase W. Rynd, Executive Director Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Edward T. and Dee Ann Revere Mystery Building and its location? U.S. Department of Energy is a proud partner Oehme, van Sweden Shar Taylor, Vice President for Development DeBenedittis Robert Silman Associates, PLLC with the National Building Museum. We look & Associates Cynthia R. and Charles G. Field SKB Architecture & Design Responses will be accepted by e-mail Parsons Brinckerhoff Blueprints forward to a continued relationship where the Handel Architects, LLP Albert H. and Shirley Small Robert A. Peck or regular mail. To be eligible for a Robb & Stucky Interiors George Stavropoulos Editor-in-Chief, G. Martin Moeller, Jr. results of building research—better, safer, and more I.M. Pei, FAIA prize (reserved for the first five correct Thornton Tomasetti, Inc. Robert A. M. Stern Architects LLP Managing Editor, Johanna Dunkel energy efficient homes and buildings and building Jillian Hanbury Poole respondents only), send an e-mail to Sustainable Design Designer, Jennifer Byrne Quite a Stir in Catering! [email protected]. You may also practices—can be showcased and shine on in such Consulting LLC Rathgeber/Goss Associates, P.C. Keene Taylor respond by regular mail, though you will Blueprints is the quarterly magazine of the National Building Museum. a wide variety of programs and exhibitions.” Rippeteau Architects, P.C. Shar Taylor not be eligible for the prize. Subscriptions are a benefit of Museum membership. RMJM Hillier Kristen and Christopher Ullman Blueprints ©2007. All rights reserved. ISSN 0742-0552 David Rockwell, AIA and The Museum relies on the support of government United Way of the The mailing address is: Rockwell Architecture, National Capital Area Paper contains 50% recycled content including 25% post-consumer waste. and industry partners like the U.S. Department Planning, and Design, PC Mystery Building Anna G. Wade and Nancy Laws of Energy. The Board of Trustees and staff are Stephen E. Sandherr National Building Museum Christine Wirkkala ? The National Building Museum explores the world we build for ourselves— Tompkins Builders, Inc. 401 F Street, NW grateful for the agency’s continued support. • Marion E. Yeck from our homes, skyscrapers, and public buildings to our parks, bridges, Washington, DC 20001 and cities. Through exhibitions, education programs, and publications, the Museum seeks to educate the public about achievements in architecture, design, engineering, urban planning, and construction. The Museum is supported by contributions from individuals, corporations, foundations, 24 blueprints Winter 2007–08 associations, and public agencies.

Drawing the Museum Limited Edition Antoine Predock Print

by Johanna Dunkel, Marketing Communications Manager

In 2001, the National Building Museum commissioned renowned architect Cesar Pelli to create a portrait of our historic home. The result was an oil pastel of the Museum’s brick and terra cotta main façade. The limited-edition print of the drawing was very popular, and soon sold out.

This year, the Museum once again commissioned a leading architect—2006 AIA Gold Medalist Antoine Predock—to draw the Museum. Predock’s drawing beautifully and evocatively depicts the Museum’s Great Hall and its famed Corinthian columns. Only 100 of the 18” x 24”, signed, and numbered prints were produced and they are available exclusively at the National Building Museum Shop. Be sure to pick one up today.

The Pelli and Predock prints are the first two in a series of drawings that the Museum intends to commission. Stay tuned for information on the next drawing in the series.

$270.00 Museum members / $300.00 Public

Drawing of the Great Hall. © Antoine Predock.

exhibitions on view

Lasting Foundations: Marcel Breuer: David Macaulay: Washington: Cityscapes Revealed: Investigating Building Zone The Art of Design and Architecture The Art of Drawing Symbol and City Highlights from Where We Live Long-term Architecture in Africa through February 17, 2008 Architecture Long-term the Collection extended through through January 13, 2008 extended through Long-term January 13, 2008 May 4, 2008

Above from left to right: © Margaret Courtney-Clarke; © Hedrich Blessing; © David Macaulay, photo by Christopher Benson; Models by RAF Models and Displays, photo by Cary; National Building Museum collection; ©Amanda Barber; ©F.T. Eyre

National Building Museum Nonprofit Organization U.S. Postage Paid 401 F Street NW Washington, DC 20001 Washington, D.C. 202.272.2448 / Permit No. 488 Red Line Metro, Judiciary Square