Harpers Ferry Center U.S. Department of the Interior

Ice Age National Scenic Long-Range Interpretive Plan


Boulder Creek, Devil’s Lake State Recreation Area, Sauk County

2 Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan National Scenic Trail America’s Great Outdoors (AGO Project): Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains (Dane County) to the Aldo Leopold Shack (Sauk County) Long-Range Interpretive Plan

Prepared under Order No. P12PD14250 Task Order No. 25 Interpretive Planning Services for the Ice Age National Scenic Trail

Prepared under Contract No. C1180070004 with the National Park Service

Interpretive Planning Services Harpers Ferry Center P.O. Box 50 Harpers Ferry, WV 25425

By: Interpretive Solutions 732 Westbourne Road West Chester, PA 19382

October 2013

COVER PHOTO: View of Hawks Bluff at Lodi Marsh State Wildlife Area, Dane County INSET: at Black Creek, Village of Cross Plains, Dane County All photos NPS unless otherwise indicated.

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Devil’s Lake in winter, Devil’s Lake State Park, Sauk County. Photo courtesy Department of Natural Resources

4 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan Introduction

Foundation for Planning 7 Introduction About the Long-Range Interpretive Plan Legislative Background Purpose Statements of Significance Primary Interpretive Themes Management Goals Audience Segments Desired Visitor Experiences Issues and Opportunities

Existing Conditions 21 Background Information and Orientation The Audience Experiencing the Trail Interpretive Partners Personnel

Recommendations 37 Introduction Next steps for the Long-Range Interpretive Plan The America’s Great Outdoors (AGO) Project Programs, Services and Media Interpretive Infrastructure Evaluation

Background Material 57 Map for all Themes Map for Theme One: The Landscape Map for Theme Two: People and the Land Map for Theme Three: Environmental Conditions Map for Theme Four: Ice Age National Scenic Trail Map for Theme Five: America’s Great Outdoors Project Map for Theme Six: Stewardship Images of AGO Sites Matrix: Geologic Features / Characteristics Matrix: Environmental Features / Characteristics Matrix: Cultural Features / Characteristics

Glossary of Geologic Terms

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La Budde Creek Segment of the Ice Age Trail, Sheboygan County. Photo courtesy Ice Age Trail Alliance

6 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan Foundation for Planning

people (including Milwaukee and Introduction Chicago), it is a prime candidate to help the nation meet those goals. In The Ice Age National Scenic Trail (Ice addition, the segment supports AGO Age NST) is one of only eleven such goals that include large landscape in the . The trail conservation, preservation of natural follows the edge of the extent of and culturally significant areas, and the of some support for creative public-private 10-30,000 ago, highlighting an partnerships. amazing array of glaciated features that includes , kettles, The trail segment selected for the , , erratics, lakes, AGO program – and for interpretive potholes, , marshes, melt- planning – includes two Ice Age water channels, gorges, ice-walled National Scientific Reserves (Cross lake plains, outwash plains, and Plains Complex and Devils Lake State glacial lakebeds. These features are Park), the Baraboo Range, which considered to be among the world’s is the Midwest’s largest National best examples of a glaciated landscape. Natural Landmark, and the Leopold Shack, a National Historic Landmark. While many of the nation’s 19 The Long-Range Interpretive Plan National Historic Trails have (LRIP) may serve as a model plan for interpretive plans, the Ice Age NST the interpretation of other Ice Age is one of the first National Scenic Trail segments in the future. Trails to create one. This plan will center on the (approximately) The AGO segment of the Ice Age 70-mile segment of the trail that NST presently includes two operating stretches from the Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains (Dane County) to the Aldo Leopold Shack (Sauk County). This segment was recently identified by the Federal government as one of 100 America’s Great Outdoors (AGO) projects. (Two projects were selected in each state; the other Wisconsin project is the Water Trail). These projects center on outdoor recreation, and are intended to help Americans connect or reconnect with , with special emphasis on urban populations and youth. With the AGO segment of the Ice Age Trail within a two-hour drive of a population of over 11 million


visitor contact stations, and one a forward-looking document that planned for the future. The contact concentrates on actions needed stations are the Visitor Center and to create or sustain a vigorous and Nature Center at Devil’s Lake State effective interpretive program for Park, and the Aldo Leopold Center. the future. A future visitor center will be located at the Cross Plains Complex. While The Long-Range Interpretive Plan the visitor and nature centers offer process features two phases. One, opportunities for interpreting the the Foundation phase articulates trail’s stories, the LRIP focuses significance, themes, and target on the trail only, not on interior, audiences. The Foundation museum-style exhibits. Document addresses those elements of the plan, and includes a review of existing conditions. About the Long-Range Interpretive Plan The second phase of the LRIP process recommends interpretive The National Park Service (NPS) has services, media, and partnerships adopted a unified planning approach for the site. A Full Text Draft, for interpretation and education. which includes the revised Founda- This approach combines planning tion Document, articulates those for interpretive media, personal elements, and, after review, the Long interpretive services, and education Range Interpretive Plan is finalized. programs as a single initiative. The Long-Range Interpretive Plan is While the LRIP for the Ice Age Trail intended to help parks identify references and is based, in part, on target audiences, clarify objectives, elements of a recently completed and make programming choices. It General Management Plan (Record defines the overall vision and long- of Decision 2013) for the 1,700- acre term interpretive goals of the park, Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains, including recommendations for the LRIP for the AGO-designated the best mix of media and personal segment of the Ice Age NST is a services that will effectively convey separate, stand-alone document, park themes, and serves as a guide to with significance statements effective, goal-driven interpretation and primary interpretive themes by defining realistic strategies and centered specifically on the trail. actions that work toward achieve- ment of those goals.

Although LRIPs share common elements, each is customized to meet individual park needs. While it considers past interpretive programming, the LRIP is primarily

8 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan FOUNDATION FOR PLANNING

Legislative Background

The idea for the Ice Age Trail began in 1958 with a Milwaukee lawyer named Ray Zillmer, who had a vision of a long, linear park winding through Wisconsin along the ’s terminal . In 1964, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to designate collections of the most significant geologic features left by the last glacial advance as the Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, whose purpose is to protect, preserve, and interpret Wisconsin’s glacial landscape features. As a result, nine sites were identified as official units of the preserve. (They are Two Creeks Buried Forest, State Forest North Unit, Campbellsport Drumlins, Wildlife Area, Cross Plains Complex, Devil’s Lake State Park, , Chippewa Moraine State Recreation Area, and Interstate State Park.) The entire trail is within the state purposes exist for it. The purpose Ray Zillmer, of Wisconsin. In 1980, Congress of the trail as stated in the Ice Age visionary founder of the Ice Age Trail recognized the national significance Complex at Cross Plain’s General of the Ice Age Trail by authorizing it Management Plan was adapted to as a National Scenic Trail through apply to the AGO trail segment. an amendment to the National Trails The purpose of the Ice Age NST, Systems Act in 1980 (Public Law AGO segment, is: 96-370; 16 USC 1244 (a)(10)). The Ice Age Trail passes through six of the • To ensure protection, preserva- nine Scientific Reserve Units. In tion, and interpretation of the 1987 the State of Wisconsin named it nationally significant resources Wisconsin’s first (and, to date, only) and values associated with State Scenic Trail. continental glaciation in Wisconsin, including moraines, erratics, potholes, outwash Purpose plains, kettle holes, tunnel channels, drumlins, swamps, Purpose statements describe why a lakes, and other reminders of site was set aside and what specific the Wisconsin Ice Age.


• Nowhere are the marks of conti- nental glaciation upon the land more impressive than along the Ice Age National Scenic Trail and in the Ice Age National Scientific Reserve units in Wisconsin. The meandering landscape that exhibits the marks of the glacier’s farthest advance is a showplace of moraines, kettles, drumlins, erratics, kettle lakes, potholes, marshes, meltwater channels, gorges, outwash plains, and beds.

View toward • To establish a superlative • The Ice Age National Scenic Baraboo Range and Devil’s Lake State segment of the Ice Age National Trail’s path of glacial features Park from Riverland Scenic Trail and provide provides outstanding opportuni- Conservancy, information and interpretation ties for recreation, education, Sauk County. Photo courtesy Ice about the trail to the public at scientific observation, citizen Age Trail Alliance significant sites along its route. science, inspiration, solitude, and enjoyment. • To provide outdoor recreational and educational opportunities in • The Ice Age National Scenic support of and compatible with Trail provides outstanding the conservation and enjoyment opportunities to observe, of the nationally significant monitor, and understand the scenic, historic, natural, and impacts of environmental cultural resources along the trail. conditions.

• The AGO segment of the Ice Age Statements of Significance National Scenic Trail offers outstanding biodiversity and Significance statements describe remarkable scenic values while what is distinctive about the linking several nationally signifi- combined resources of the trail. cant sites, such as the Baraboo The statements can reflect natural, Range (the Midwest’s largest cultural, scientific, recreational, National Natural Landmark) and inspirational values, as well as and the Aldo Leopold Shack other aspects. These statements and Farm (National Historic summarize the importance of the Landmark) – all within a few trail to the nation’s natural and hours’ drive of 11 million people. cultural heritage. The significance of the Ice Age NST is:

10 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan FOUNDATION FOR PLANNING

Primary Interpretive Themes • Environmental Conditions: The AGO segment of the Ice Age Primary interpretive themes National Scenic Trail, which describe what needs to be inter- includes a remarkable range of preted in order to provide people biodiversity, is a living laboratory with opportunities to understand for observing, monitoring, and and appreciate the park’s purpose understanding how environmental and significance. They embody the conditions affect the landscape, most important ideas or concepts ecosystems, and the way we live communicated to the public today, and may live tomorrow. about the trail. They convey the significance of the resource, and • Ice Age National Scenic Trail: highlight the links between tangible The Ice Age National Scenic elements, intangible meanings, and Trail is a long distance footpath universal concepts that are inherent that provides a premier in the park’s resources. The themes experience. It is a partnership park connect resources to larger pro- that is being created and sustained cesses, systems, ideas, and values, by a multitude of agencies, and emphasize the relevance of park organizations, and volunteers. stories. They define the core content It provides tremendous benefits of the educational opportunities the to individuals and communities park offers, and serve as the building that include: development of trail blocks upon which interpretive building, leadership and service services and educational programs skills; opportunities to leave a are based. The primary interpretive mark and contribute to the future, themes for the trail are: strengthen family and community ties, reconnect with and explore • The Landscape: The Ice Age nature; provide space for spiritual National Scenic Trail landscape contemplation; improve health/ and its features uniquely illustrate wellness; link communities both the contrast between glaciated and physically and socially; connect to unglaciated landscapes, demon- the past; celebrate regional identity, strating the dramatic earth-shaping and a sense of place. power of , and creating the Wisconsin that we know today. • The America’s Great Outdoors Project. The AGO segment of the • People and the Land: The Ice Age National Scenic Trail was landscapes, both glaciated and designated to protect our natural unglaciated, have affected human heritage and to create recreational migration, settlement patterns, land opportunities through federal, use, spiritual life, the economy, and state, tribal, non-profit, and local values of the land for thousands community partnerships. While of years. the other theme statements in the LRIP may apply to other sections

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of the Ice Age NST, the AGO theme • Environmental Conditions: is focused specifically on that trail surviving remnants of native segment, and centers on outreach vegetation; biodiversity and geol- to urban and youth audiences. ogy’s impact; natural communities; green corridor concept; natural • Stewardship: Restoring and main- communities; the dynamic land- taining healthy and diverse eco- scape; topography; soils; ; systems along the Ice Age National environmental conditions; phenol- Scenic Trail connects people with ogy; . the land, helps inspire development of a land ethic, and creates active • Ice Age National Scenic Trail: stewardship opportunities. Partnership park managed by NPS, DNR, Ice Age Trail Alliance Each of the primary interpretive (IATA), and others; built and main- themes embodies abundant poten- tained by an outstanding volunteer tial topics for interpretation. Some force; links communities along of these are listed. Please see “Next the trail physically and socially; steps for the Long-Range Interpre- protection of significant features; tive Plan” (in the Recommendations construction of trail and support section), for a description of the facilities; provides a spiritual con- next steps involved in capturing the nection with nature; strengthens meaning and relevance of each of people’s ties as they work together these topics, along with how and to create and preserve the trail and where to interpret them. its values; through-hikers (all 1,200 miles) and section hikers (includ- • The Landscape: the process of ing the “Thousand-Milers”). glaciation; comparison of glaciated and unglaciated landscape; how • America’s Great Outdoors glaciated landscape features were Project: the Department of the formed; the age of visible features Interior’s AGO initiative; AGO’s on the landscape; and where promise to future generations; within the glacier various features landscape conservation and part- are formed. nerships; increasing public aware- ness of the importance of conser- • People and the Land: the impact vation; restoration of ecosystems of the landscape on human within the Ice Age Trail corridor migration, settlement patterns, and surrounding areas; public land land use, and the economy; land management; activities for young management strategies of Native adults; goals centered on attracting peoples; effigy mounds; prominent new trail users, including minority conservationists from the area; and urban populations. cultural history of the region. • Stewardship: POTENTIAL TOPICS ecosystem management strategies;

12 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan FOUNDATION FOR PLANNING long tradition of stewardship; development of a land ethic; the volunteer contributions to rewards of nurturing a landscape ecosystem management; invasive (it nurtures us back); learning the species; restoring and maintaining value of nature; connectedness/ Ice Age Trail hikers on healthy sustainable ecosystems; interdependence between humans Mecan River Segment, preservation of scenic views, bio- and nature; investment in the Waushara County diversity, and geological features; future; engaging with one’s world.

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Management Goals education program lies in whether or not a particular audience requires These goals describe management’s communication in a way that is intent in offering interpretive and distinct from that of the general educational programs and services. audience. Factors to consider The goals for interpretive products include the life experiences of and services are: the individual or group, level of education, learning styles, language, • To create public awareness of the cultural traditions, time available for Ice Age Trail and the value it brings interaction, and others. The Ice Age to our lives—scenic, recreational, NST’s audiences are: wellness/health, scientific, spiritual and personal relevance. • Local audience. Given the nature of the trail and its connection to • To connect people on the trail with trail communities, this may be the significance of the landforms the Ice Age NST’s most important they will see; and to help them audience. Not only does it include understand how those land forms casual users of the trail for daily were created and to imagine the exercise and dog walking, but it scene 20,000 years ago when the also includes opportunities for glacier was still present. citizen science and volunteering. The local audience needs • To create public awareness that the interpretive strategies that will Ice Age Trail is a Long Distance sustain their interest and keep National Scenic Trail that is used as them returning to the trail. a backbone connecting public lands and other trails across the state. • General audience. The general audience for the trail could be • To connect urban populations defined as “out-of-town-travelers.” to the great outdoors for their They arrive by car, will observe enjoyment and to gain appreciation landscape features and experience for the natural environment. interpretive media, but may or may not hike or walk on the trail. • To provide youth with a nature immersion experience and envi- • Curriculum-driven audience. ronmental education, a place for This audience comes with specific creative play, and to inspire them to curriculum goals in mind. One be the land stewards of the future. target age group is 7th grade students, who study Wisconsin geology. Other targets include Audience Segments scouting groups that are meeting badge or community service The basis for categorizing audience requirements, high school and segments for the interpretation and college students with service

14 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan FOUNDATION FOR PLANNING

requirements, home-schooled students, charter schools, private schools, and the senior study group, Road Scholar.

• Virtual audience. A certain number of visitors will access the Ice Age NST via the NPS and Ice Age Trail Alliance webpages. These include people who are planning to visit, as well as those for whom the internet will be their only experience of the trail. The virtual audience can also be considered those who access interpretation via smart phone applications, although they are more likely to be on or ferently to different audiences, not Snow shoeing on Ice Age Trail in Kettle near the trail when they do so. only through a variety of media, Moraine, Southern Unit. but emphasizing specific aspects of Photo courtesy Ice Age • Families. This audience overlaps those themes. Trail Alliance with others, but the emphasis is on connecting with family, getting • Non-English speakers. This children outdoors, and teaching audience may require multilingual whole families outdoor skills so media. they can continue to enjoy nature on their own. • Minority and urban populations. This audience may require • Recreation audience. This special outreach and additional -round user group includes research into how they can best be hikers, walkers, and winter reached. Urban outreach strategies sports enthusiasts. They come employed by other AGO units to the trail for fun and activity may provide a starting point to more than interpretation, so the development of the Ice Age NST’s interpretive elements need to be own approach to these audiences. strategically posed in order to reach them. Services for this group • Physically/cognitively challenged may go beyond interpretation, to audience. Universal design facilitating their experience by concepts will make interpretive providing amenities, “concierge”- media accessible to most. Physical style services, and even a shuttle. adaptations to the trail where Rather than “dog walkers,” this feasible will support not only audience includes those who like visitors with disabilities, but also to hike with their dogs. In addition, families with small children and themes might be presented dif- senior citizens.

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Desired Visitor Experiences

Statements of desired visitor experiences describe how the park’s interpretation and education program facilitates intellectual, inspirational, emotional, and physical experiences for visitors. These statements describe what visitors to the park would like to learn, feel, do, or experience when visiting the park (either in person or remotely). These experiences for the Ice Age NST include:

• Visitors want to experience the trail as a place to escape the stress and chaos of everyday life, where they can find solitude, serenity, silence, and spirituality as they connect with the natural world, finding personal relevance in their experiences.

• Visitors want to experience the sights and sounds of nature. They want to see and smell spring wild flowers and other plants, trace with their fingers the striations in bedrock left by the glacier, hear birdcalls, and see animals or their signs.

• Visitors want to understand how the glacial features they see were formed. They want to learn to read the landscape, to identify each kind of feature, to understand how each was created, and to visualize the land as it may have looked thousands of years ago when the glacier was present. They want to learn how the glacial Pasque Flower at Mecan River State Fishery Area, Waushara County landscape has influenced the way

16 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan FOUNDATION FOR PLANNING

people have lived on the land for of the trail: that it is in fact a millennia. “National Scenic Trail.”

• Visitors want to hike the trail as a o Service to urban audiences will means to building and maintaining require new, innovative market- physical fitness, health, and strength. ing strategies. They want to be able to hike safely and confidently. o The “No Child Left Inside” movement provides excellent • Visitors want to experience beautiful opportunities for the Ice natural views of pastoral and agri- Age NST to participate in a cultural landscapes that are free of nationwide initiative to get more intrusions such as houses, roads, and children acquainted with and other signs of modern development. comfortable in natural sur- roundings. • Visitors want to connect with families and friends while o The trail provides opportunities connecting with nature. for classroom field trips, but administering and delivering school programs can be difficult Issues and Opportunities given current fiscal limitations and constraints on students’ This section notes issues and oppor- time. tunities inside and outside the park, resource-based issues, and internal o The Ice Age Trail Alliance has issues that affect interpretation and sponsored an audience survey education. Collectively, it reflects the by UW-Whitewater, funded perspectives of upper management, by a transportation grant, that as well as staff members and provides valuable information stakeholders. Issues and oppor- about visitor demographics and tunities for the Ice Age NST include: the trail’s economic impact. Please see below for highlights • Opportunities to reach new of the study. The full Joint audiences. The selection of a Effort Marketing Report is segment of the Ice Age NST available at http://www.iceaget- as part of the America’s Great rail.org/economic-impact. Outdoors (AGO) project provides a superlative opportunity to o The plan provides the opportu- identify the trail’s educational and nity to identify new technolo- interpretive potential resources, gies to interpret the trail and and to serve new audiences. reach new audiences.

o Many people are not aware • Need for improved user services. of the national significance The trail and its connecting routes

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can seem confusing and hard to o While the trail has many strong learn. Good orientation to the partners, there remains a need trail, including pre-visit, pre-hike, for better communication and on-trail locations, represent a among groups in the region critical need. There is also a need that share similar mission, for more highway signs directing values, and goals. people to trail segments. o Twenty-one trail chapters for o There is a need for public the overall trail provide an transportation to trailheads if exceptionally dedicated group the trail is to effectively serve of volunteers who handle urban audiences. nearly all trail construction and maintenance. This devoted o There is a need for more places corps of volunteers is the pride to camp along the trail. of the National Park Service. The Dane, Sauk, and Columbia • Support. The Ice Age NST is County chapters are active in supported by a strong triad supporting the AGO segment of composed of the National Park the trail. Service (NPS), Wisconsin Depart- ment of Natural Resources (DNR), o The Mobile Skills Crew (MSC), and the Ice Age Trail Alliance in its tenth year of operation, is (IATA). The AGO segment of the a statewide group of volunteers, trail is also supported by the Aldo trained in advanced crew Leopold Foundation, Baraboo leadership and trail construc- Range Preservation Association, tion techniques, who bring Natural Conservancy, and Dane, their knowledge and expertise Sauk and Columbia County Parks to coordinate, manage, and and Recreation Departments. In train volunteers for local trail- addition, a national organization, building projects. The program the Partnership for the National provides invaluable service by Trails System, assists with lobbying bringing professional quality expertise and federal funding management and sustainable requests; and the Knowles-Nelson trail standards to the trail State Stewardship Program and development system. the Land and Water Conservation Fund provide monies to protect o The Swamplovers project at lands for the trail. Table Bluff, a private nonprofit organization that is connected o Many townships, municipali- to the Ice Age Trail, provides ties, and conservation organiza- an excellent example of how tions have also been supportive and conservation can of the Ice Age Trail. exist in harmony.

18 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan FOUNDATION FOR PLANNING

• Trail-building. The trail as o There is a great deal of interest planned statewide is only half- locally and statewide in prairie complete. Land acquisition to re-creation and restoration, a connect existing trail segments trend that strongly supports the continues to provide both Ice Age NST mission. However, challenges and opportunities as there is a need for education of management seeks to fulfill the the public regarding the nature plans for the whole trail. of the pre-contact landscape in order for such programs to o Approximately 60% of the be well received. The public 70-mile AGO Ice Age NST frequently has concerns over through Dane, Southern the necessary removal of Columbia County and Sauk and shrubs, and the burning County still needs to be acquired required to create a prairie. and the trail constructed. • Interpretive media. Although not o Acquisition within the Ice all visitors will have smart phones, Age Complex at Cross Plains there is widespread support for continues with approximately using smart phone technology and half of the park in public own- other electronic media to interpret ership. Purchase of a few key aspects of the glacial landscape. parcels will allow the Ice Age NST to cross the property. The o DNR has recently produced a National Park Service purchase film that includes a series of ani- of the former Wilkie farmstead mations that show the process of provides new opportunities for glaciation and how the resulting interpretation and education, landforms were created. along with the responsibility of deciding on the best future use o There is a need to extend inter- for the existing farm buildings, pretation through publications and on the most appropriate and souvenirs that visitors can kinds of visitor services to be bring home with them. provided at the Complex. • A planning model. The LRIP for • Land stewardship. Areas along this trail segment may serve as a the Ice Age Trail that are model for planning for other Ice currently protected require Age Trail segments, and perhaps regular maintenance and vegeta- even for other national scenic tive management. As part of the trails. mission of the Ice Age NST, agencies and volunteers are also enhancing and restoring the land surrounding the trail to indigenous native plant communities.

National Park Service 19 View of Indian Lake and prairie at Indian Lake County Park, Dane County

20 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan Existing Conditions


The Ice Age National Scenic Trail is a work in progress. As planned, the trail is about half finished, with more than 600 miles complete out of the projected 1,200 of the final route. However, connecting routes, many of them along public roads, have been identified that make it possible even today to hike the entire 1,200-mile route. The partners who manage the trail are continually in the process of carrying out the Corridor Planning Process to identify a general route for the trail in specific counties, and to negotiate land purchases that will connect existing trail segments.

The trail, the “brain child” of Milwaukee lawyer Ray Zillmer back in 1958, winds through the state along the of the last Wisconsin glaciation. Hikers on the trail have the opportunity to observe one of the most significant collections of glacial features to be found anywhere in the world, including moraines, kettles, kames, drumlins, erratics, kettle lakes, potholes, eskers, marshes, meltwater channels, gorges, ice-walled lake plains, outwash plains, and glacial lake beds. As they hike, they encounter wetlands, bogs, lakes, prairies, oak savannas, forests, farmland, upland habitat, the shores of Lake Michigan, and even towns and cities. Like the famed , the Ice Age Trail is mainly intended for off-road hiking. The eastern terminus of the trail is in

National Park Service 21 EXISTING CONDITIONS

in Door County. The trail runs thousand miles away. Their gushing through 30 counties, with the meltwaters radically shaped the land. western terminus in Interstate State The unique glacial landscape has Park, an Ice Age National Scientific long been a source of pride and Reserve Unit at St. Croix Falls in wonder to its inhabitants. Anthro- Polk County on the pologists believe that it may have border. inspired the ancient to create their own versions of the The trail is managed by a “Triad,” glacial features they observed on the a partnership of the National Park landscape, such as drumlins, eskers, Service, the Ice Age Trail Alliance and kames, by reflecting those shapes (IATA), and Wisconsin Department in the rich array of effigy mounds of Natural Resources (DNR). The they built hundreds of years ago. Triad works together to preserve the natural landscape on and near the In 1964, Congress directed the trail, which is often threatened by Secretary of the Interior to work residential, industrial, and energy with the governor of Wisconsin development. The National Park to create an Ice Age National Service is the primary administrator, Scientific Reserve (Reserve), formally providing planning and compliance, established in 1971, to protect, sign systems, tools, and funding preserve, and interpret the tangible to support partners and trail elements of the Wisconsin glaciation. construction. DNR coordinates Congress authorized the Ice Age the involvement of state agencies, NST in 1980 as a Long Distance Trail leads the land acquisition process, that would connect most of the Units and participates in the planning, of the Reserve. In 1987, the state development, and management legislature designated the trail as a of trail segments. The Alliance Wisconsin State Scenic Trail. promotes the trail, participates in planning and land acquisition, and In 2010, President Barack Obama’s trains and coordinates the efforts of administration launched the volunteers who build and maintain America’s Great Outdoors (AGO) the trail. Initiative, calling for a grassroots approach to conservation and ways The “prehistory” of the trail goes to reconnect Americans, especially back nearly 30,000 years ago, when youth and urban populations, with two-thirds of what is now the state their natural heritage. of Wisconsin was covered with enormous glaciers up to two miles Two projects were selected for thick. The glaciers scraped and each state. One segment of the Ice sculpted the landscape as they Age National Scenic Trail – from advanced, and left behind deposits the Ice Age Complex at Cross as they retreated, including some Plains (Dane County) to the Aldo erratics that were carried from a Leopold Shack (Sauk County) – was

22 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan EXISTING CONDITIONS

selected for the AGO project due new audiences, to encourage more Aldo Leopold Shack, to its proximity to and easy access recreational use of the trail, and to Sauk County for a large urban population. The provide effective interpretation of LRIP for this segment of the trail the trail segment’s stunning array is intended to facilitate the goals of of glacial features. AGO by planning for outreach to

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featuring 105 detailed, colored hiking maps, along with the Ice Age Trail Companion Guide that describes the trail segment by segment.

The Atlas and Companion Guide are invaluable for orientation to the trail, as trail segments are not yet continuous; it can be confusing to hikers and other visitors as to where the trail is located and how the connecting routes link the segments. The Companion Guide is particularly valuable for long distance hikers in finding support facilities such as campsites and in providing background and highlights on particular trail segments.

For visitors who would like more in-depth information, Geology of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011), by David M. Mickelson, Ice Age wayside Information and Orientation Louis J. Maher, Jr., and Susan L. exhibit in Roznos Simpson, provides a wonderfully Meadow, Devil’s Lake State Park, Information about the trail is accessible account of the trail’s Sauk County available from a number of sources. features, including “Science Briefs” Photo courtesy of Ice Age Trail The National Park Service website that explain the science behind Alliance provides basic information, glaciers and how different glacial including an overview map and land forms are created, as well as a a link to Ice Age: Geology of Ice segment-by-segment description of Age National Scientific Reserve landscape elements. of Wisconsin (NPS Scientific Monograph No. 2, 1974) by Robert On the ground, the trail is indicated F. Black. The Department of in a variety of ways. There are simple Natural Resources maintains an wooden routed signs, upright signs on-line interactive map viewer on its that feature a map of the whole trail, website that allows hikers to print standard Park Service-style wayside out detailed maps of the trail. The exhibits and other interpretive signs, Ice Age Trail Alliance website offers and kiosks. The trail for the most part downloadable maps and descriptions is sustainably built with native soil, of each segment, and the Alliance and with boardwalks, bridges and publishes the Ice Age Trail Atlas other structures placed in wet areas.

24 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan EXISTING CONDITIONS

The Audience year. Internet responders (targeted through the organization’s email Anecdotally, it is clear that many users list) unsurprisingly used the trail 30 of the trail reside near it and use it or more times per year. to walk their dogs, improve physical fitness, or catch a breath of fresh air at • 51.1% of users seek out new sections the end of a long day. However, more of the trail, while 37.4% enjoy than fifty hikers have achieved the returning to familiar trail segments. designation of “Thousand-Miler” by hiking the entire length of the trail, • Average number of people in the either as through-hikers, or segment party was 4.86. by segment. • Average age of respondents: 38 Interestingly, when stakeholders of the trail were queried during the planning • On-trail respondents were equally process about what population divided between women and men, segments utilize the trail, the answers but the online responses broke seemed to vary by segment. For down at 60% male, 40% female. example, Dane County stakeholders cited growing numbers of college-age • 32.6% of respondents had 4-year youth and young families on the trail, college degrees, and another 19.4% while Sauk County stakeholders felt had master’s degrees, for a total of this population under-utilizes the trail. 52% of users with college degrees. In 2012, the Ice Age Trail Alliance Among internet responders, 75.3% commissioned an audience survey had a college degree or higher. and economic impact study through Economic Development Partners and • The overwhelming majority of the Fiscal and Economic Research respondents learned about the trail Center (FERC) at the University of from family and friends, followed by Wisconsin-Whitewater. Responses the internet. for the Joint Effort Marketing Report were collected from more • 47.7% of users did not take travel than 1,010 trail users through online, distance into consideration when mail, and field surveys at various planning their trips. access points along the Ice Age Trail. Key findings included: • 60% have a household income greater than $50,000, while 26.5% • Based on the field survey results, an had incomes of under $40,000. estimated 1,252,685 people use the trail annually. • 51% of those surveyed stayed overnight in the region, with the • Nearly 93 percent of those surveyed balance being day-trippers. 52% of were repeat users and used the those who stayed overnight stayed Trail an average of 10.26 times per in tent campgrounds.

National Park Service 25 EXISTING CONDITIONS

• Hiking and were the group use technology to connect highest ranked trail activities. to the outdoors, including online research, social media, blog sites, • Users from 31-45 years old with and QR codes. incomes of $40,000-59,000 were identified as a highly motivated • Madison, metropolitan Milwaukee, target audience. and northern were identified as primary target markets for the Ice Age Trail on • The number of users in the 18-30- region. Secondary markets include Main Street, City of Lodi, year-old target group seems to be Minnesota and . Columbia County growing. More than 60% in this age

26 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan EXISTING CONDITIONS

Experiencing the Trail of driftless terrain, as does a bluff located behind the barn. The NPS This section refers to the AGO- will evaluate a number of alternative designated section of the trail, from scenarios to develop the Complex, the Cross Plains Complex to the Aldo including re-use of the existing Leopold Shack. buildings, and/or a new visitor center with broad views of the glaciated and driftless terrain. ICE AGE COMPLEX AT CROSS PLAINS. The Cross Plains Complex Shoveler Sink, managed by the U.S. is a 1,700-acre site near the village Fish and Wildlife Service, is a former of Cross Plains, centered on the ice-dammed lake that still holds former Wilkie farm, that includes shallow water, especially during wet an outstanding collection of glacial weather. There is a sinkhole at its landforms. It is one of the nine Erratic at edge of units in the Ice Age National Scien- Gorge in the Ice Age tific Reserve. The most prominent Complex at Cross features of the Ice Age Complex are Plains, Dane County a spectacular gorge that was carved out by meltwater, an array of glacial erratics (some of which have been traced to their origin northeast of Lake Superior), four proglacial lakes, and great views to the Drift- less Area, the Johnstown moraine, and areas of glacial outwash. The Complex is an especially good point for comparing views of driftless (unglaciated) and glaciated terrain. The Wilkie farm buildings include a stone house, parts of which date View out of former to the 1850s, a barn, and garage. The Wilkie house park applied for National Register of Historic Places designation for the farmhouse, a 1950s-era addition which had been designed by prominent local architect William Kaiser. Designation was denied on the grounds that the house was not a strong example of Kaiser’s work. The potential administrative, inter- pretive, or maintenance use of the buildings has not been determined. The house features beautiful views

National Park Service 27 EXISTING CONDITIONS

northeast end. The lake features It is located in the Black Earth Trench, an excellent view of the terminal a very large glacial drainageway that (Johnstown) moraine. In addition to contains a 300-foot-thick bed of sand hiking, visitors come to Shoveler Sink and gravel fill, the results of glacial to hunt waterfowl and pick berries. outwash. Today State Highway 14 also winds through this drainageway. One of the most spectacular features in the Complex is located at the center The center of the Complex is of the site along a hiking trail just off located within a seven-to-eight Old Sauk Pass. A deep gorge carved square mile road-less area. The by glacial meltwater is found here night sky and sound environment that is considered very significant. are relatively free of intrusions. Located adjacent to it are erratics that Potential interpretive topics in were dropped along the glacier’s edge, addition to the glacial features and limestone bedrock outcroppings. include restoration of native plant Habitat within the gorge is southern communities, sustainable habitat, mesic, with remnants of oak savanna , and American surrounding it. The property that is Indian use of area resources and home to the gorge is currently owned travel routes. There are 30 schools by DNR. The NPS and DNR plan within 10 miles of the Ice Age to make the trail to the gorge from Complex. the Wilkie farmstead accessible; and DNR and Ice Age Trail Alliance CROSS PLAINS SEGMENT. This chapter members are currently in the 2.7-mile segment crosses Black Earth process of restoring the property to Creek and goes right by the Ice Age oak savanna habitat. Trail Alliance headquarters in the Ice Age Trail at Black Village of Cross Plains. Visitors can Earth Creek in the Village of Cross Plains, Black Earth Creek, a Class A trout stop at the headquarters for maps Dane County stream, runs through the Complex. and other information and meet the IATA staff. bedrock hills lie north of the Village of Cross Plains where the Ice Age Trail winds up to offer great views both to the south and east. This part of the trail features a prairie restoration in progress.

TABLE BLUFF SEGMENT. Table Bluff Segment extends northwest of the Village of Cross Plains for 2.4 miles through the Driftless Area. On the south end, the trail meanders for 1.5 miles on the Swamplovers property. This property, which has been

28 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan EXISTING CONDITIONS

Service and the Ice Age Trail Alliance have contributed toward the View of tunnel channel prairie restoration, with much of the that winds through work attributable to the leadership Indian Lake County Park of the Swamplovers Foundation, Inc. The northern 0.9 miles of this trail segment, owned by the Ice Age Trail Alliance, leads to Table Bluff, a distinctive rock formation composed of St. Peters sandstone.

INDIAN LAKE SEGMENT. Indian Lake is a 450-acre Dane County park that hosts about 80,000 visitors per year. developed by a private nonprofit The park features glacial outwash, organization called Swamplovers, erratic boulders, enormous tunnel is well known for its biological channels, and a large kettle, which is diversity, displays of wildflowers, occupied by Indian Lake. Also found and the quality of the prairie and within the park is a well-known oak savanna restoration. A climb up small chapel. Trees include a grove the steep rocky slopes of the bluff of paper birch, as well as old oaks on yields a beautiful view of the driftless the hilltops that are gradually being region and a filled with glacial managed for oak savanna. Before outwash. This landscape offers settlement brought a halt to frequent Hikers enjoying the Ice many resources, including native fires, the area around the lake was Age Trail at Lodi Marsh vegetation, wildlife communities, mostly prairie. State Wildlife Area and geology. Photo courtesy Ice Age LODI SEGMENTS. Lodi segments Trail Alliance In 1986, five local men bought this include the Lodi Marsh, Eastern Lodi 450-acre parcel near Table Bluff Marsh, and City of Lodi Segments. as hunting lands and as a place to teach youth about hunting. Once the lands were purchased, they began to clear brush on the bluff and found dormant native wildflowers (shooting stars). As a result, they committed to restoring the former ecosystem, which includes 150 acres of prairie, oak savanna, oak openings, wetlands, and wetland prairies. The men created a 501(c)3 nonprofit and a $1.1 million endowment to support the res- toration. The US Fish and Wildlife

National Park Service 29 View of tunnel There is a beautiful loop trail through channel, the Lodi Marsh State Wildlife Area Spring Creek, that features an Education Trail with Central Bluff, and Hawks Bluff interpretive signage; a printed guide at Lodi Marsh State is also available. A State Natural Area Wildlife Area, Dane County designation overlays a portion of the State Wildlife Area that contains the marsh, which is biologically rich. The State Wildlife Area is located just outside the city of Lodi. It features views of a tunnel channel, Central Bluff and Hawks Bluff (partially submerged drumlins), Gibraltar Rock, the Baraboo Hills, and the marsh. The trail goes right through Lodi, which offers hikers some nice restaurants, pubs, shops, and a German bakery. Total trail mileage here is approxi- mately 5.0 miles.

GROVER PERTZBORN SEGMENT. This 1.6-mile segment winds around the north side of a . A parking lot along County Trunk J provides access to it.

Above: Children The town and city of Lodi have been participating in the IATA’s Summer effective, supportive partners. The Saunters program IATA’s Summer Saunters program, hiking the Ice Age Trail a hiking program for elementary at Table Bluff Photo courtesy school children that helps them Ice Age Trail Alliance develop healthy lifestyles and appreciation for the natural environ- Right: Face of Gibralter Rock, ment, originated there. Lodi schools Columbia County make frequent use of the trail and its features. The grand view from the Lodi golf course is from the top of a GIBRALTAR SEGMENT. This 2.4-mile drumlin, and drumlins are a major trail segment includes a state park glacial feature visible in this area. centered on a huge sandstone bluff,

30 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan EXISTING CONDITIONS

Gibraltar Rock, a preglacial feature. by damming the ) Spectacular views of the glaciated that addresses regional and local landscape from the top include trail information. On the north side the Wisconsin River, the Baraboo of the river, the trail passes through Hills, a bog, and a scenic valley. The the 1,800-acre Merrimac Preserve, bluff face has a State Natural Area a parcel of forest, prairie, savanna, designation because of rare plant wetlands, and streams owned and species, and the bluff is a spectacular managed by the Riverland Con- post from which to watch migrating servancy, formerly the Wisconsin raptors riding thermal breezes near Power and Light Stewardship Trust, the cliff face. During the 1960s, a Inc. The Preserve provides a wildlife road was built to the top of the bluff corridor between the Baraboo Hills where a picnic area was placed. and the Wisconsin River. Today, the picnic area has been removed and the road has been allowed to naturalize.

DEVILS LAKE SEGMENT. This Left: Colsac 3, approximately 10-mile-long segment the Merrimac Ferry is part of the Ice Age NST’s Devil’s Lake Unit. It includes Devil’s Lake Above: Talus slopes at MERRIMAC FERRY SEGMENT. The State Park, Wisconsin’s third oldest, Devil’s Lake State Park, Sauk County ferry is touted as the only part of the largest, and most visited state park. Ice Age Trail that moves. It is the last Perhaps the park’s most striking inland ferry in Wisconsin, making a features are the ancient quartzite half-mile crossing of Lake Wiscon- walls (1.6 billion years old) of the sin, and passage is free of charge. A Devil’s Lake gorge. Here the terminal large wayside exhibit with a map of moraine lies on top of and wraps the trail is planned for this location; around the bluffs that were largely an Ice Age NST kiosk is already in left untouched by the glacier. The place on the south side of Lake Wis- lake was formed when the ice left consin (actually a reservoir created behind a moraine at each end of the

National Park Service 31 EXISTING CONDITIONS

lake, creating “plugs” that blocked stand covering many of its 24 acres. the flow of meltwater and created Public restrooms are available along the lake. It is unusual in that it does the entire stretch of this trail and the not have rivers or streams flowing in modern conveniences of downtown or out of its waters. Baraboo are only two blocks off this Glacial features include the section of the Ice Age Trail. Johnstown moraine and the beds of former lakes dammed by the glacier. ALDO LEOPOLD SHACK AND Available experiences include hikes on FOUNDATION. The AGO-designated the moraine and spectacular views of Ice Age Trail segment ends at the the driftless area from the top of the Aldo Leopold Shack, the chicken bluffs, as well as views of the lake. coop that the famed conservationist turned into a rustic country retreat for his family. The family’s careful stewardship and restoration of the land inspired Leopold’s classic A Sand County Almanac. The Ice Age Trail will connect with Leopold Foundation trails, and through America’s Great Outdoors, the Shack and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Visitor Center (the Foundation’s headquar- ters), will also be connected via a City of Baraboo Segment. The 3,000-foot boardwalk. The Visitor Ringling Brothers Ice Age Trail through the City of Center is a spectacular modern Circus on building, created from lumber made Baraboo River, Baraboo follows the scenic Baraboo City of Baraboo River corridor and the asphalt- from the pine trees the Leopold surfaced Baraboo Riverwalk. This family planted on their farm, and 3-mile trail section begins in south is a LEED-certified platinum- Baraboo at the popular Dog Park, level building. The Aldo Leopold located just one mile north of Devils Foundation provides education and Lake State Park. An ADA drinking interpretation about Leopold’s land fountain is available at the Dog Park ethic through classes, seminars, and for park and trail users. The trail media productions. Right: Aldo Leopold Foundation Visitor follows the river northwest through Center, Sauk County the city, passing the grounds and several city parks, including Ochsner Park Zoo, before ending on the city’s northwest corner at the University of Wisconsin, Baraboo. In addition to the free admission zoo, Ochsner Park has a large mature oak

32 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan EXISTING CONDITIONS

Interpretive Partners the Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains. About 20,000 cars pass the head- Partners in interpretation include quarters on Main Street each day. the Ice Age Trail Alliance, Wisconsin The Alliance is funded by multiple Department of Natural Resources, public and private sources, including and the Aldo Leopold Foundation. the NPS and WDNR. There are 21 different trail chapters, covering 30 Ice Age Trail Alliance (IATA). The counties. Chapter volunteers work Ice Age Trail Alliance is a 401(c)3 on trail building and maintenance, non-profit grassroots volunteer- as well as providing support in the and member-based organization form of meals and refreshments for that works with NPS and DNR to the workers. support and protect the trail. The professional staff of seven plus The Mobile Skills Crew (MSC), one fifteen board members addresses of the IATA’s signature programs, everything from trail layout and is celebrating its tenth year of construction methods to land operation. The MSC is a statewide stewardship, trail maintenance, group of volunteers, trained in volunteer organization and support, advanced crew leadership and trail and land acquisition. construction techniques, who bring their knowledge and expertise to The IATA got its start in 1958 as the coordinate, manage, and train Ice Age Park and Trail Foundation. volunteers for local trail-building In the early 1970s, the Ice Age Trail Council was formed to carry out the vision for the trail. The two orga- nizations merged in 1990. In 2009, the name was changed to the Ice Age Trail Alliance. Seven different informal offices along the trail were consolidated into one in 2008 with the construction of the beautiful building that now serves as head- quarters, which was made possible through the generosity of the Congressman Henry S. Reuss family. (Congressman Reuss was the first to publish a professional book about the trail, On the Trail of the Ice Age, in 1976.) The headquarters location in the village of Cross Plains is ideal: it is right on the trail, close to Madison’s population center, close to partner organizations, and close to

National Park Service 33 PLANNING FOUNDATION

projects. The program brings WDNR has a number of staff, professional quality management including interpreters at Devil’s and sustainable trail standards Lake State Park (a Reserve Unit), to the trail development system. that provide a variety of educational Depending on the project, the programs on the significant geologic, Mobile Skills Crews can number biologic, and cultural resources from 30 people to more than 300, found within the AGO project area. and have completed over 70 Ice The interpretive resources that DNR Age Trail projects to date. Many brings to the Ice Age NST AGO participants have gone on to join project are truly exceptional. the IATA staff or board leadership. ALDO LEOPOLD FOUNDATION. WISCONSIN DEPARTMENT OF The Aldo Leopold Foundation NATURAL RESOURCES. The DNR is a 501(c)3 not-for-profit, donor- manages the wide range of con- supported organization based at servation and recreation functions the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center in that would be expected of such an Baraboo, Wisconsin. The founda- agency. It oversees forest manage- tion’s mission is to inspire an ethical ment, environmental protection, relationship between people and water resources, and outdoor land through the legacy of Aldo recreational activities. It manages Leopold. Leopold regarded a land licensing and regulation; provides ethic as a product of social evolu- for statewide recreational opportu- tion. “Nothing so important as an nities from ATV riding to wildlife ethic is ever ‘written,’” he explained. viewing; and educates the public “It evolves in the minds of a about recreational safety, outdoor thinking community.” The founda- skills, tracking, trapping, angling, tion’s membership forms a modern and invasive species. It provides day “thinking community,” and a number of educational services the foundation’s programs create including access to a web-based opportunities for rich, diverse, and program on sustainability called productive dialogue with members Green & Healthy Schools; and others about humanity’s rela- an ecology unit called Project tionships to land, allowing the idea Learning Tree; water education of a land ethic to unfold in a myriad for teachers (WET); Project WILD, of ways. The foundation has eleven an educational program about professional staff whose expertise wildlife and responsible human consists of education and land actions; and Get Outdoors, which management specialists, ecologists, are scheduled activities to encourage biologists, and administrative staff. kids and adults to enjoy nature. The NPS and DNR have a close, The Aldo Leopold Foundation owns cooperative relationship regard- and manages the original Aldo ing the Ice Age NST and Ice Age Leopold Shack and 300 surrounding National Scientific Reserve. The acres, in addition to several other

34 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan EXISTING CONDITIONS parcels, and also manages much of the remainder of the 1,800-acre Leopold Memorial Reserve. The foundation is committed to the ongoing restoration of the Leopold Shack and Farm, where, in 1935, Aldo Leopold and his family undertook a revolutionary experiment in returning health to a worn out farm. Celebrated in Leopold’s classic—A Sand County Almanac—the transformed land now supports vibrant forests, wetlands, and prairie and draws visitors from around the world.


It would be virtually impossible to list all the individuals who have supported, sustained, and maintained the Ice Age NST throughout the years of its existence. National Park Service personnel assigned specifically to the project include a Superintendent, Trail Manager, two outdoor recreation planners, a part time GIS specialist, and administrative staff. The staff does not include any interpreters. The Department of Natural Resources brings a wide range of expertise to the trail in all fields, from recreation planning to wildlife management, including inter- administrative and executive Volunteers building pretation and education programs. assistants, and a coordinator for the the Cross Plains Segment of the The Ice Age Trail Alliance staff Saunters program. Most important Ice Age Trail, includes an executive director, are the many volunteers in 21 county Dane County manager of field operations, chapters located along the Ice Age Photo courtesy Ice Age Trail Alliance director of land conservation, Trail that have made possible the information systems coordinator, creation and maintenance of the publications coordinator, eastern trail. In 2012, volunteers contributed field representative, GIS specialist, over 69,000 hours.

National Park Service 35 Tent camping on Wood Lake Segment, Taylor County Photo courtesy Ice Age Trail Alliance

36 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan Recommendations


Recommendations for interpreting the AGO segment of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail were created along two tracks: a track that focuses specifically on the goals of the America’s Great Outdoors initiative, and a second track that recommends programs, services, and media in general. In addition, three matrices were created (see Background Material) that provide an inventory of tangible geological, biological, and cultural/historical assets and the rough locations of each along the trail. As planning continues, the topics listed under each interpretive theme will be fleshed out to identify the primary messages for each as they are developed into subtheme statements. Each topic will then be aligned with the appropriate interpretive assets listed in the relevant matrix, creating a theme map of the trail segment’s essential stories. Preliminary theme maps (see Background Material) have been developed, and are presented along with images of important AGO sites. As planning continues, locations for interpretive media, whether wayside exhibits, handheld digital devices, or any other method, can be identified in detail through the use of the theme maps and matrices.

The recommendations also address the need to develop interpretive infra- structure to support programming and services. A summary of evaluative methodologies completes the recom- mendations section.

National Park Service 37 RECOMMENDATIONS

Next Steps for the This approach provides a model for Long-Range Interpretive Plan interpretation of other trail segments in the future, with localized themes Within a year of the completion of and subthemes identified within each this document, the NPS Ice Age segment, but within the context of the NST staff will convene a meeting larger primary interpretive themes. of a group of stakeholders who will work together to create interpretive messages centered on the topics. The America’s Great Outdoors These messages will link the themes (AGO) Project and subthemes to the information provided in the matrices. Stakeholders President Barack Obama began will be identified according to their the America’s Great Outdoors particular area of expertise, and Initiative in April 2010 by directing teams of subject matter experts will the Department of the Interior to be formed to address the topics listed launch a nationwide listening tour under each primary interpretive to learn from local communities theme. In reviewing the primary about innovative and successful theme statements, the subject matter conservation initiatives taking place in experts may identify additional topics every state of the union. The program that they feel should be addressed as is intended to foster a 21st-century, part of the overall primary theme. partner-driven approach to con- servation of the natural environment. All the teams will meet together for a Goals for the project include briefing on the project and to receive engaging youth and urban audiences their assigned topics. Each team will in outdoor recreation, increasing meet separately to develop subtheme public awareness about conservation, statements for their topics and, using identifying better management the matrices, to determine the best strategies for public lands (especially locations for their presentation. The through creative partnering end result will be a map of the trail strategies), and conserving large segment that identifies the best place rural landscapes. Two AGO projects to interpret each of the subthemes. were designated for each state: With assignments complete, the teams Wisconsin’s designations include will again meet together to share ideas the Lake Michigan Water Trail, and and review each other’s findings. a segment of the Ice Age National After revision of the draft theme Scenic Trail. The latter was chosen maps, the park will create an overview in part because of its location within map that places each subtheme a two-hour drive of a population of in context. The park will use this over 11 million people, including two information in the future to develop, major cities, Milwaukee and Chicago. prioritize, and strategize regarding the The following recommendations have LRIP’s recommendations. been specifically developed to support and sustain the AGO programs goals.

38 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

• OUTREACH TO NEW AUDIENCES. o Public agencies in Hartford, Interpretation of the AGO trail Connecticut, have created a segment includes a strong focus on highly successful urban youth youth and urban audiences, both rowing program. of which present marketing chal- lenges. The country’s youth are o The City of Detroit has plans increasingly turning to electronic to engage youth, particularly in media for their primary experience underserved minority commu- of their world, and in addition, they nities, to help with waterfront often are involved in a wide array and river restoration work. of school-related and extracur- ricular activities that take up much o The River Pathways Program in of what otherwise would be free Phoenix, Arizona, will educate time available to spend outdoors. 25,000 inner city youth (94% In addition, many urban audiences minority) in basic environmental are simply unfamiliar with natural literacy by 2015. Youth will help and rural environments, tend to build regional trails, monitor have fewer traditions that involve fragile riparian resources in the outdoor activities, and in some Agua Fria National Monument, cases may even harbor fears about and help restore avian and the dangers of the natural world. aquatic habitat. The project will The following recommendations also expand urban opportunities address potential strategies to for fishing. strengthen outreach to these special audiences. o The state of Alabama is explor- ing opportunities for expand- • RESEARCH. Ninety-nine other ing outdoor education as part AGO units in the U.S. are facing of its public school curricula, the same challenges of recruiting including hunter and angler new youth and urban audiences. education. An audit of the approach of others could yield worthwhile strategies, o The state of Georgia created many of which are described in “Get Outdoors Georgia,” a the Department of Interior’s AGO program focusing on both Fifty-state Report (http://www. youth and adult populations in doi.gov/americasgreatoutdoors/ urban and rural areas with the documents/upload/AGO-50-State- goal of achieving a healthier Report.pdf). For example: population through outdoor activities. o At Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, special education • RECOMMENDATIONS. The following and youth programs get under- recommendations address urban served audiences out onto Lake and youthful audiences. Michigan in kayaks and canoes.

National Park Service 39 RECOMMENDATIONS

groups and churches, especially those with youth groups.

o Partner with tribes represented in the state of Wisconsin to engage their youth.

o Promote urban birding, an up-and-coming hobby for people of color.

o Increase engagement of minority youth in trail building programs.

o Partner with Outdoor Afro program.

o Coordinate with U.S. Forest Service programs like Urban Trails, Urban Treehouse, Neighborhood House, etc.

o Coordinate with Centro Hispano, a Hispanic youth group with local activities that encourage outdoor skills.

Youth building o Provide specialized sensitivity o Conduct market research to the Ice Age Trail at training to staff to ensure these target and involve urban- and , Polk County audiences receive a warm rural-based organizations like Photo courtesy Ice welcome; attempt to hire more Big Brothers/Sisters, Boys and Age Trail Alliance minority park rangers. Girls Clubs, Sunshine Coach, Boy and Girl Scouts, YMCA/ o Create a section of the website YWCA, 4H, City of Madison that provides advice for Recreation Department uninitiated families regarding summer programs, and Future clothing, food, water, trail Farmers. safety, amenities, and where to find additional information. o Develop a marketing campaign aimed at urban communities. o Reach the family- and community-oriented African- o Participate in “mom blogs” that American and Hmong audiences promote family activities and by working through community outdoor activities for families.

40 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

• REACHING NON-ENGLISH SPEAKERS. initiated as opportunities arise. That In the central Wisconsin area, the is, they would only take place when main segments in this audience certain parameters are in place. The category are Hispanic, Hmong, “triggers” that would launch each of and Slavic/Russian people, but the these initiatives are identified. The trail does receive international recommendations are broken out visitation, as well. by media-based services (including signs, printed matter, and digital o Install multilingual signs content, etc.), and personal services at trailheads, especially for (face-to-face interpretation, such as safety messages, which should ranger talks, lectures, classes, etc.). be offered in each relevant The theme that each recommendation language, along with graphics addresses is listed, along with the that will help reinforce the main audience segment it targets. message more universally. Wayfinding issues. Because the o Translate audio, auto tours, and trail segments are not contiguous, smart phone applications into wayfinding can present a challenge. multiple languages. The Ice Age Trail Alliance’s Atlas and Companion Guide provide a o Translate print and electronic wealth of information for those who materials, including the AGO have access to them, but visitors who segment map, into Japanese, encounter segments of the trail on Chinese, and French for inter- their own, or who have heard about national visitors. An opportu- the trail and wish to find segments nity will arise when the Ice Age of it, are often confused about the NST brochure is reprinted. trail’s official route, the connecting links, etc. There is a need for additional information at trailheads Programs, Services, and Media (kiosks) at carefully selected strategic locations, especially those These recommendations are divided on DNR property, that provide the into three categories. Level One casual hiker with the information recommendations are those that he/she needs to access the trail. are achievable given current staffing Trailhead signage with a QR code levels (in FY13). Many of these and a web link to a downloadable initiatives are partner-driven. Level smart phone app should be installed. Two recommendations require at least one new interpretative See the next page for more specialist on staff in order to be recommendations regarding implemented. Level Three recom- QR codes and a smart phone mendations include those that are application. long-range in nature, and that will be

National Park Service 41 RECOMMENDATIONS

Level One Recommendations: achievable at current staffing levels

Media-based interpretation. Given current staffing levels, media pre- sentations will deliver the most effective interpretive services. The Ice Age NST staff currently includes a media-savvy part-time employee, making it possible at the time of this writing to implement some digital media-based interpretive services in addition to traditional forms of media. The Ice Age Alliance website is due for an upgrade, and many of the features planned for it dovetail with recommendations for the Ice Age NST. The website will be dynamically designed (automatically reformats for web, tablet or smart phone platforms), so visitors on the trail will be able to access the information, but only where there is connectivity. Many locations along the trail receive little or poor phone service.

To provide full functionality and access to digital media, a “native app” (downloaded to the phone when connected, but does not require connection

Level One Recommendations: Media-based Services Theme Addressed Audiences Targeted

Create a smart phone application that highlights geologi- Landscape, People and the All; cal and (especially) glacial features. Visitors can download Land, Environmental Conditions, Recreational, Virtual the app from the internet, or access it via QR codes posted at Stewardship, Ice Age National strategic trailhead locations. Management should experiment Scenic Trail first with simple posts with QR code decals affixed to assess the level of vandalism to be expected before launching a full-scale QR code program. A number of free templates are available for developing smart phone apps, so it is no longer necessary to hire a developer – although creation of an app does require technical knowledge of the digital world. A wide range of features could be incorporated into the application, and additional features could be added each time the app is upgraded. Some potential features include:

* Repurpose the seven animations created by Pigorsch Media Design for the DNR-produced film Mammoths & Moraines: On the Trail of the Ice Age that demonstrate the formation of glaciated features. Additional animations could be created as needed. This augmented reality approach provides animations of the formation of geological (bedrock and glacial) features as an overlay superimposed over an actual view of the existing landscape. An animation should be developed for each type of glacial feature, so it can be used for all features of that type along the trail, rather than being specific to a single, specific example. The animations can also be featured on the web site, along with contemporary photographs of glacial features along the trail.

42 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

Level One Recommendations: Media-based Services Theme Addressed Audiences Targeted

* General descriptive information about each segment (much like what is in the trail’s printed Companion Guide). The information should include level of difficulty (perhaps including trail profiles), level of accessibility (surfaces, barriers, etc.), scenic values, restroom locations, etc.

* Trail segment maps (GIS-enabled) that point out geological, biological, historical, and cultural features.

* Trip planning features including information on camping, parking, nearby B&Bs, Leave No Trace practices, etc.

* The ability to customize one’s hike by selecting trail segment; level of difficulty or accessibility; geological, biological, cultural, and scenic features, etc.

* Feedback loop: a way for visitors to report on trail condi- tions, provide reviews, share their on-trail experiences, including and other wildlife sightings, and upload photographs. This element could be configured as a separate community blog. Geo-located photographs could be posted to a Google Earth map.

* Share button for social media sites (Facebook, Twitter, etc.).

* Link to opportunity to join as member or volunteer.

* Nature guides that are specific to the trail, or even to trail segments. These could be habitat-based and include typical wildlife and plants from each habitat.

* The possibility of linking to apps created by others that serve as nature guides, citizen science platforms, and data collectors. There is no need to recreate these types of programs, which include Project Noah and many others.

* A scavenger hunt-type activity, where users search for geological features, wildlife, trees, flowers, leaves, etc. – and even invasive/exotic plant species. The Alliance’s Coldcache activity, based on geocaching, would be a good model for this. Coldcaching is like earthcaching in that it does not involve the exchange of cached items. The cache is recorded via GIS-located photographs.

* A geological timeline/continuum that provides a concrete metaphor for the large expanse of time revealed along the trail (like the walking stick analogy in Mammoths & Moraines).

* Ranger/naturalist video talks and demonstrations can be included where they would be more effective than an animation. The “formation of a kettle” demonstration from Mammoths & Moraines is a good example.

National Park Service 43 RECOMMENDATIONS

Level One Recommendations: Media-based Services Theme Addressed Audiences Targeted

(Create a smart phone application, continued)

* A link to a series of suggested demonstrations, experi- ments, or follow-up activities that teachers and parents could use to continue to engage their students/children (informal educational opportunities).

* Augmented reality features using historical photographs that allow viewers to toggle back and forth between the historical view and the scene today.

Develop the area around both Merrimac Ferry Landscape, People and the All landings as an Ice Age Trail gateway. The ferry is part land, Environmental Conditions, of the trail, and its location is ideal for attracting the Stewardship, Ice Age National attention of the thousands of tourists that cross on the Scenic Trail ferry every year. An Ice Age Trail kiosk already exists on the Lodi (Columbia County) side, and there are plans to install wayside exhibits as well. The existing kiosk could be better utilized, and a more prominent presence for the Ice Age NST could be installed on both sides of Lake Wisconsin. Specific recommendations for interpretation at the Merrimac Ferry landings include:

* Install a segment map on the existing Ice Age Trail kiosk at Merrimac Ferry.

* Include on the Merrimac Ferry kiosk information about nearby Ice Age Trail features, such as Devil’s Lake SP. Note that the full-color map can be obtained there.

* Include on the kiosk graphic panels interpreting nearby glacial geology features and promoting the National Natural Landmark (Baraboo Hills), Gibraltar Rock, the City of Lodi, and others. Consider partnering with the cities of Lodi and West Point, as well as Columbia County.

* Work with cities of Lodi and West Point and Columbia County to provide more visitor amenities at the south ferry landing, such as restrooms, nicely landscaped picnic areas, and an vendor.

* Install a QR code at the ice cream shop on the north side of the lake (Sauk Co. side) and post a color AGO segment map there. Consider making black and white copies of the map available at the ice cream shop if the local chapter will volunteer to keep them supplied. Include a sign stating that the color version of the map is available at Devil’s Lake SP.

44 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

Level One Recommendations: Media-based Services Theme Addressed Audiences Targeted

* Install an Ice Age Trail interpretive kiosk on the Sauk Co. side of the lake (perhaps on DOT property?), perhaps in partnership with other organizations like the Fox- Wisconsin Heritage Parkway, or with Sauk County.

* Investigate the possibility of placing interpretive materi- als in the public bathrooms on the Sauk County side of the lake.

* Install a QR code on the Merrimac Ferry itself (along with the Ice Age Trail logo).

* Create a short, accessible loop trail (no more than 1 mile) in Roznos Meadow, for travelers who want to experience hiking the trail, but are unlikely to want a more extensive hike.

Partner with DNR to create a wayside exhibit at Devil’s Environmental Conditions All Lake SP that uses pollen records to show changes to the plant community over time. Incorporate the same interpretation on the Alliance website and the Trail’s smart phone application. See David M. Mickelson, Louis J. Maher, Jr., and Susan L. Simpson, Geology of the Ice Age National Scenic Trail, University of Wisconsin Press, 2011, pg. 47.

Add tips for parents to the website on hiking with Ice Age National Scenic Trail Families children: clothing, food, water, best places to go (running water, rocks to climb, dinosaurs, mammoths and other special kid-oriented interests), best places for family photo- graphs, etc.

In conjunction with enhancing trailhead signs, add short Landscape, People and the All; Recreational “interpretive tidbits” for hikers. Land, Environmental Condi- tions, Stewardship, Ice Age National Scenic Trail

Connect with the cell phone tour being developed at Landscape All; Recreational Devil’s Lake State Park (mainly for hikers) by providing information in Ice Age Trail materials regarding the numbers and prompts to call.

National Park Service 45 RECOMMENDATIONS

Personal services. At current staffing levels, many Ice Age Trail themes are best interpreted through media as described above, rather than through personal services. However, some focused personal services are possible and desirable. Many of the services can be provided via partnership arrangements.

Audiences Level One Recommendations: Personal Services Theme addressed targeted

Partner to provide living history programs at historical People and the Land All, but especially venues near the AGO segment. local

Tell these stories through partnered programs, exhibits and People and the Land All, but especially lectures: Circus World, Wisconsin State Historical Society, local Devil’s Lake SP, the Aldo Leopold Center, local historical societies, etc.

Offer programs, clinics and workshops on prairie restora- Environmental Conditions, All; local tion that will contribute to the public’s education about Stewardship and understanding of prairie conditions and management strategies.

• Invite the public to participate in a prairie restoration project by collecting seeds and planting them.

Offer a series of special events in different locations Environmental Conditions All; local, annually to address the environmental conditions, influence recreational of the Ice Age on the contemporary landscape, wildlife watching, etc.

Work to get Alliance members involved with Leopold Environmental Conditions, All; local Center’s Land Ethic Leaders program. Stewardship

Partner with the Alliance to offer scheduled guided hikes Landscape, Environmental All; recreational that address what conditions were like during the glacial Conditions, Stewardship period and how they have changed since then: exotic species, land management practices, roads, etc.

Sponsor a quarterly lecture series to address important Stewardship All; local stewardship questions: What is your imprint? How do we know what is best? The emphasis would be on “intent.” Why these practices? Why is sustainability important? Why is stewardship important? What has the land meant to people throughout history? What are their values regarding the land? Who looks at land differently, and why/how? Ask people to envision the future in the glacial scale of 12,000 years.

• Consider a lecture series specifically directed at urban popula- tions and youth.

46 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

Audiences Level One Recommendations: Personal Services Theme addressed targeted

Partner with the Alliance to create trail work days Stewardship All; local, youth, that provide context, through hikes or other programs urban that help participants understand why stewardship is important.

Partner with the Alliance to create volunteer opportunities Stewardship All; local other than trail crew work, such as presenting educational talks to community groups, so that people who prefer it can address stewardship in ways other than trail building.

Work with the Alliance to form a committee to focus on Stewardship All; local stewardship issues.

Encourage Alliance members to speak to local community Ice Age National Scenic Trail Local clubs and organizations.

Partner with Audubon Society and/or Devil’s Lake SP to offer Landscape, Environmental All; local Saturday morning walks with professional naturalists, for Conditions, Stewardship example a bird walk followed by breakfast and a slide show.

Partner with Wisconsin’s Master Naturalist program Stewardship All; local volunteers to promote awareness, understanding, and stewardship of the state’s natural resources. Coordinate the program with the trail chapters.

Emphasize the volunteer-driven nature of the Alliance by Ice Age National Scenic Trail All, but especially interpreting the volunteer program. local, youth and urban

Offer Night Sky programming and nighttime Landscape All; local, walks/hikes. recreational

Continue to develop overnight public, private or Ice Age National Scenic Trail Recreational dispersed campsites every 8-10 miles along the trail.

Partner with Alliance to offer workshop on logistics Landscape, Ice Age National Recreational and preparations for the through-hike. Scenic Trail

National Park Service 47 RECOMMENDATIONS

Level Two Recommendations: achievable with addition of interpretive specialist. With an interpretive specialist added to the staff, the possibilities for outreach and expanded programming increase

Audiences Level Two Recommendations: Media-based Services Theme addressed targeted

Building on the matrices developed as part of this plan Landscape All; Physically (see Background Material), create an auto tour that provides challenged visitors the “big picture” view of the AGO segment’s geological, biological, and cultural features: the Baraboo Range, Leopold Shack, Circus Museum, etc. The format: a paper map and brochure distributed at shops, visitor centers, chambers of commerce, etc., that can also be printed from the internet or downloaded to smart phones and tablet computers. It can include QR codes that link to additional web-based information and can be tied to the trail’s app for smart phones. • With the addition of small prompts at key locations, the downloadable version of the auto tour map could include MP3 audio podcasts – short descriptions of observable features that go beyond what can be listed in the map/ brochure. These may already have been developed as part of the smart phone application.

Call out cultural features on the AGO segment map, such People and the Land All as agriculture (ex: hops growing), historic towns, Native American settlements (like big Ho Chunk towns at Black Earth Creek, Indian Lake and the Merrimac Ferry area), and effigy mounds. Emphasize family stories, contemporary culture, businesses, the Freethinker movement, land use/ management over time (including native leaders, John Muir, Aldo Leopold), Paleo Indians of the , their connection to the Ho Chunk, etc. These should include links to additional web-based information.

Install QR codes in specific locations that provide web links to Landscape All; Virtual information about trail features: for example, a direct link to a webpage explaining drumlins. This implies considerable added content to the website.

Provide visitor services info via the website, to include Ice Age National Scenic Trail Recreational where to eat, stay overnight, find groceries and resupply outlets, laundries, post offices, etc., targeting both through and day/segment hikers. Provide links to chambers of commerce. Some of this content will have been developed as part of the smart phone application.

Create a series of downloadable online AGO brochures, Landscape, People, and the All; Virtual one for each of the 6 primary interpretive themes, that Land, Environmental Conditions, develops thematic content more fully. Stewardship, Ice Age National Scenic Trail

48 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

Audiences Level Two Recommendations: Media-based Services Theme addressed targeted

Develop an enhanced, online version of the NPS brochure Landscape, People and the All; Virtual Land, Environmental Conditions, Stewardship, Ice Age National Scenic Trail

Create an illustrated interactive time line via smart phone Environmental Conditions All; Virtual that interprets environmental conditions over time.

Create an interactive, web-based map that uses the historic Environmental Conditions All; Virtual record and phenology data to show how nature’s timing has changed.

Create a short PSA for TV showing the value of the trail to Ice Age National Scenic Trail All citizens.

Post You Tube videos by trail ambassadors who have Ice Age National Scenic Trail All benefitted from use of the trail, including doctors touting the health benefits.

Add more contemporary photographs to the website, Landscape, Ice Age National Virtual including images of volunteers having fun at work on Scenic Trail the trails.

Add more historical information to the website, including People and the Land Virtual photographs; include images of the same or similar scenes from today.

Create low-tech downloadable treasure hunts (easy and Landscape, Stewardship, Ice Age Families; hard); participants photograph their findings; photographs National Scenic Trail Recreational can be published on website.

List best wildlife watching opportunities, times, and Landscape All; Recreational; on the website. Families

Create activity backpacks for families to borrow while on Landscape, People and the Families the trail. Land, Environmental Conditions, Stewardship

National Park Service 49 RECOMMENDATIONS

The following Level 2 recommendations call for personal services that would only be possible when an interpretive specialist is added to the staff.

Audiences Level Three Recommendations: Personal Services Theme addressed targeted

Partner with the Alliance to develop citizen science Environmental Conditions All, but especially programs that include data collection, especially phenology, local reported sightings, invasive species, etc.

Expand wellness/fitness incentive programs with hospitals, Ice Age National Scenic Trail All, but especially doctors, and health insurance companies; the Trail becomes local and part of the “nature prescription” program. Engage doctors recreational who are Alliance members to serve as ambassadors to promote the health benefits of walking meditation and hiking the trail. Examples of related programs include regular walking groups, incentives/prizes for hiking a certain number of miles or completing a number of segments, pedometers on loan or distributed for free, downloadable hiking logs, etc.

Engage with the VA hospital to encourage use of the trail in Ice Age National Scenic Trail All, but rehabilitation as part of the Wounded Warriors program. especially local

Partner with others to present outdoor programming, Ice Age National Scenic Trail All, but especially including camping, fishing, hunting, archery, orienteering, local, families, fire-building, paddling, wilderness survival, etc. Examples youth, and urban. include DNR’s GO (Get Outdoors) program, which could involve using Indian Lake County Park or the Ice Age Trail Complex at Cross Plains as a venue for land-based activities, including winter sports. Other suggestions include borrowing snowshoes from Devils Lake State Park for loan to visitors, and connecting with the Hoofers group at UW-Madison, a club for people learning outdoor skills, via special field trips, booked in advance, that include bus transportation.

Offer snowshoe clinics marketed to summer hikers (corporate Landscape, Ice Age National Recreational sponsorship). Scenic Trail

Partner with the Alliance to offer scheduled hikes, perhaps Ice Age National Scenic Trail All, but focused on changing topics or as part of a series of quarterly especially local -based hikes.

Seek commercial sponsorship to make recreational equip- Ice Age National Scenic Trail All, but especially ment like snowshoes available to borrow for free. local, including youth and urban

Develop informal workshops and other programs centered on Landscape, Stewardship Local the arts: writing, songwriting, poetry, art, photography, etc.

50 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

Audiences Level Three Recommendations: Personal Services Theme addressed targeted

Offer contests for writing, songwriting, poetry, art, photogra- Landscape, Stewardship Local phy, etc., that is centered on the Ice Age NST.

Offer photography workshops. Landscape All; Local; Recreational

Offer workshops on creating art from recycled materials. Stewardship Local

Develop a special event/fair centered on sustainability and/ Stewardship All; Local or alternative energy.

Partner with the Alliance to create work details for school Stewardship Local groups that focus on education about invasive species, etc. Offer high school service hours.

Partner with Aldo Leopold Center’s Nature Net program, Stewardship Curriculum-based; which offers grant funding for buses; become a partner in the Local Nature Net/Nature Passport program.

Create regular family-oriented special events. Landscape, People and the Land, Families; Urban; Changing Environment, Steward- Youth ship, Ice Age National Scenic Trail

Offer special family-oriented volunteer opportunities that Stewardship Families include a stewardship message, programming, and fun.

Create print versions of all audio programming Landscape, People and the Hearing-impaired Land, Environmental Conditions, Visitors Stewardship, Ice Age National Scenic Trail

National Park Service 51 RECOMMENDATIONS

Level Three Recommendations: will occur if and when conditions are met Level Three recommendations are opportunistic: when certain parameters fall into place, it will be possible to implement them.

Audiences Level Three Recommendations: Media-based Services Theme addressed targeted

Working with partners such as DNR and the Fox-Wisconsin Landscape All; Virtual; Heritage Parkway, create a narrated virtual tour of the Ice Physically chal- Age Trail, including a segment-by-segment flyover, possibly lenged visitors to be viewed side-by-side with an elevation profile of the trail. Triggers for this recommendation include partnership opportunities, the availability of aircraft and video cameras at reasonable cost, and perhaps discovery of existing footage for some segments.

Create a dog cam: a dog’s eye view of hiking the trail. Ice Age National Scenic Trail Virtual; Local The program includes easily digested tips for people who wish to hike the trail with dogs, and would connect well with children. Trigger: availability of suitable technology and a willing canine.

Install web cams showing the best views of and from the trail. Landscape Virtual Trigger: availability of technology and technological knowhow on the part of the staff.

Install a tactile topographical map of the AGO segment. Landscape, Stewardship Local Trigger: availability of a space to display the unit.

52 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

Audiences Level Three Recommendations: Personal Services Theme addressed targeted

Partner with others to present outdoor programming. Ice Age National Scenic Trail Women; Urban; Connect with the BOW (Becoming Outdoors Women) Recreational program, a nationwide program for women learning outdoor skills that began at UW-Stevens Point and offers dozens of activities in all seasons, including hiking, camping, hunting, fishing, and winter sports, but requires a place for an overnight stay. Trigger: availability of overnight lodging, perhaps at Devil’s Lake State Park.

Promote after school programs to schools that have Landscape, Environmental Curriculum-based; buses available, tied to fitness/wellness programs. Trigger: Conditions, Stewardship, Ice Age Local classroom and other teaching spaces become available at the National Scenic Trail Cross Plains Complex.

Provide transportation for school classes. Trigger: Landscape, Environmental Curriculum-based; successful application for transportation grants/scholarships; Conditions, Stewardship, Ice Age Local classroom and other teaching spaces become available at the National Scenic Trail Cross Plains Complex.

Partner with Alliance’s Coldcache program by making GPS Stewardship, Ice Age National Curriculum-based; units available to teachers, homeschoolers, scouts, and after Scenic Trail Local school and summer programs through libraries or Coopera- tive Educational Services Agency (CESA). Trigger: classroom and other teaching spaces become available at the Cross Plains Complex.

National Park Service 53 RECOMMENDATIONS

Interpretive Infrastructure the National Trails programs and events. In order to present effective interpre- tive programs, a certain level of • Training and professional develop- infrastructure must be in place to ment are available through the support planning and presentation. NPS partnership with Eppley The categories of infrastructure Institute (http://idp.eppley.org/). include training and professional development, resource-based RESOURCE-BASED RESEARCH. This research, visitor-based research, refers to the ability of interpreters to access to images and audio files, access detailed information about access to collections and archives, and the trail, including background availability of interpretive materials on all geological, biological, and like models, props, and replicas. Note: cultural stories. A small library the Ice Age NST staff does not include of resource materials currently professional interpreters at this time; exists, but as interpreters join the interpretation is provided by partners. staff, there will be a need for a The plan covers a ten-year time centralized, easily accessed location period going forward, so the follow- for resources. Other sources of ing recommendations are focused information include: on preparations for the addition of interpretive specialists to the staff. • The State Geological and Natural History Survey: its staff, website, TRAINING AND PROFESSIONAL and publications DEVELOPMENT. Largely based on DNR’s leadership, the following • DNR’s resource management staff options are available: and website

• DNR’s annual interpretive • Dane, Columbia, and Sauk County workshop ($100 for three days) is Park systems available to Ice Age Trail personnel. • State Historical Society’s website • National Association for Interpre- tation options (www.interpnet. • Other state agencies com), including: o Professional certification VISITOR-BASED RESEARCH. This o NAI webinars kind of research is important for o NAI Regional and National understanding the audience and Workshop (annual event) targeting programs to them. A recent (December 2012) Joint Effort • Attend Chicago Wilderness Marketing (JEM) study conducted conferences and programs. by Economic Development Partners (EDP) in association with the • Connect with The Partnership for Fiscal and Economic Research

54 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan RECOMMENDATIONS

Center (FERC) at UW-Whitewater offers some insights. (See above for a summary of the findings). Additional steps can be put in place to enhance interpreters’ knowledge about visitors. They include:

• Demographics survey attached to smart phone application (OMB approval required)

• Trail chapters can conduct periodic parking lot surveys of license plates.

• Trail chapters can conduct “clipboard” surveys at trailheads, indicating zip code of visitors and number in party. ACCESS TO IMAGERY. Interpreters Ice Age Trail Segment need these resources when prepar- Sign, Waupaca County Photo courtesy Ice • Make use of surveys by others, ing programs, whether media-based Age Trail Alliance including: or personal services. The Ice Age o SCORP (Wisconsin Compre- Trail Alliance is a good source of hensive Outdoor Recreation contemporary images of the trail. Plan at http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/ Historic photographs are available parks/planning/scorp/) from local historical societies, the o The National Survey of Fishing, State Historical Society, and Devil’s Hunting, & Wildlife (FHWAR), Lake SP. DNR has a public Flickr site conducted every five years with images available for use by all. for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (http://www.doi.gov/ ACCESS TO COLLECTIONS/ARCHIVES. news/pressreleases/upload/ Collection access is less of an issue FWS-National-Preliminary- for the Ice Age Trail, but material Report-2011.pdf) on the history of the trail and its o Trails and Their Gateway partners is available from local Communities: A Case Study historical societies and from Devil’s of Recreational Use Compat- Lake State Park’s archives. ibility and Economic Impacts by University of Wisconsin ACCESS TO INTERPRETIVE Extension (http://learningstore. MATERIALS. These include items uwex.edu/Trails-and-Their- like props, equipment, replicas, Gateway-Communities-A- and costumes. When Ice Age Trail Case-Study-of-Recreational- interpreters join the staff, a budget Use-Compatibility-and- for these types of educational items Economic-Impacts-P1199.aspx) will be needed.

National Park Service 55 RECOMMENDATIONS

project is completed. Sometimes Groves-Pertzborn it involves visitor feedback as to Segment of the Ice Age Trail, the effectiveness of the product. Columbia County Ideally, money has been set aside Photo courtesy Ice Age in the budget to remediate any Trail Alliance deficiencies that the summative evaluation identifies. But even if that is not the case, the informa- tion gained from summative evaluation can help to inform the next similar project.

EVALUATING PERSONAL SERVICES. Personal services among DNR inter- preters are evaluated through forms, self-evaluation, and by supervisors.

DIGITAL FEEDBACK. The produc- tion of a smart phone application offers another opportunity for Evaluation evaluation, especially with regard to visitor demographics and origin. As for training and professional In addition, with approval from the development, the Ice Age NST can Office of Management and Budget follow DNR’s custom and practices (OMB), the smart phone application for some evaluative strategies. The could include survey questions that traditional framework for evaluation could begin to assess the effective- includes: ness of various interpretive strategies. Before including such a survey, it • Front end evaluation. Front end would be important to learn from evaluation takes place before a other places with such surveys (like project begins. It is intended to the Edsel Ford House Museum in find out what visitors know and do Michigan and the Underground not know about a topic, and what Railroad Museum in Cincinnati) they would like to know. whether or not they are gaining useful feedback via their surveys. • Formative evaluation. Forma- tive evaluation takes place as the project develops. DNR conducts this mode of evaluation informally, by running copy, images, and layout, etc., by numerous people. • Summative evaluation. Summa- tive evaluation takes place once a

56 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan Background Material

Background Material

The material that follows summarizes the resource information collected during the development of this LRIP. It includes preliminary maps that identify specific features and locations where the six interpretive themes may be presented, as well as separate matrices for the geological, biological, and cultural resources found within the AGO trail segment. Both the maps and matrices can be used as the basis for planning interpretive programs and services, and to develop comprehensive theme maps that will identify precise locations for the placement of interpretive media and programs. Photo courtesy Photographs of important sites found within the AGO project area are also of WDNR located in this section.

National Park Service 57 Table Bluff Segment of the Ice Age Trail, Dane County Photo courtesy Ice Age Trail Alliance

58 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan


66 Lava Bed National Monument Long Range Interpretive Plan Introduction

National Park Service 67 RECOMMENDATIONS

68 Lava Bed National Monument Long Range Interpretive Plan GEOLOGIC FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS Melt- Drum- Kettle Pot- Ice-walled Outwash Glacial Lake Tunnel Proglacial Moraine Kettle Erratics Marsh water Gorge Driftless Bedrock Sinkhole lin Lake hole lake plain Plain Bed channel Lakes channel X: best Black 4, including interface of X; at the Earth Black Earth Black Earth X; at the Shoveler Cross Plains Complex Shoveler Sink Wilkie Gorge X glaciated/ Shoveler Sink/Pond gorge Creek Creek valley Trench gorge Sink, Timber unglaciated Valley Lane terrain Black Earth X: dolomite Cross Plains Segment “Three Gorges” Creek valley ridge Black Earth Table Bluff Segment extensive Creek valley X; view X wetlands (tributary) Lake recent radiocarbon Brandenburg; Valley walled dating at south end Indian Indian Lake Segment Milton? Halfway X X by bedrock make it excellent for Lake Prairie Creek hills how do we know valley when it happened’ Spring Creek, Dolomite X; Crystal sedge hills, lime- Lodi Marsh Segment X Lake & Fish meadow, stone bed- Lake cattail rock hills marsh Eastern Lodi Marsh Seg- X; Dolomite XX X X ment ridges

City of Lodi Segment X X X

X; Gibralter Small X (outwash Transition Rock Co. Pk/ Groves-Pertzborn Segment X moraine head) zone St Natural Area x; limestone Gibralter Segment X X bedrock bluff

Merrimac Ferry

Merrimac Segment X X? X X Baraboo Hills X

Devil’s Lake Unit IANSR Johnstown X Devil's Lake X

X; Baraboo ICE AGE NST SEGMENTS quartzite; Devil’s Lake Segment Johnstown X X X Devil’s Lake X; view sandstone escarpment Quartzite Sauk Point Segment Johnstown Parfrey’s Glen Feltz Basin X; view outcrops; Parfrey’s Glen

City of Baraboo

Aldo Leopold Legacy Center ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS South- Tall- Oak ern Wet Oak grass Oak Sa- Hick- Maple Northern Wetland Cedar Deep Inverte- Dry Prairie Prairie/ Wood- Cliff Lichens Lakes Streams Herpetology Fish Prai- vanna ory Bass- Mesic Marsh Glades Forest brates Sedge land rie Forest wood Forest Black Earth Indige- X Creek; cold Prairie grass- Cross Plains Complex X X nous and XX Cadis Fly Tiger Salamanders Gorge water trout land Re-created stream Black Earth Black Earth Creek; cold Creek; cold Cross Plains Segment X water trout water trout stream stream

Table Bluff Segment Prairie grass- XX XX X X X land

Indian Lake Segment XX XXX X

State Natural Lodi Marsh Segment XX XXX X X Blanding’s Turtle Area

Eastern Lodi Marsh Seg- ment

City of Lodi Segment

Groves-Pertzborn Segment X

Leatherleaf X Golden Cryptogamic Bog; Spa- Gibralter Segment Rod soils ghum Moss, acidic, moat Mussels, Bass, Walleye, Pad- Merrimac Ferry dle fish, Lake Sturegon Lake Merrimac Segment Wisconsin X; Parfrey’s Very old, Glen, micro Pygmy Talus X; Igneous restrictive Devil’s Lake Unit IANSR XXXX X climate caused Forest slopes rock growing by cold air

ICE AGE NST SEGMENTS conditions drainage Forest Interior Bird Preserve, National Devil’s Lake Segment XXXXXXX X Natural Land- mark; largest canopy block forest

City of Baraboo

Aldo Leopold Legacy X XXX X Center South- CULTURAL FEATURES / CHARACTERISTICS Tall- Oak ern Wet Oak grass Oak Sa- Hick- Maple Northern Wetland Cedar Deep Inverte- Dry Prairie Prairie/ Wood- Cliff Lichens Lakes Streams Birds Herpetology Fish Prai- vanna ory Bass- Mesic Marsh Glades Forest brates Sedge land Ho Chunk Habitation Sites Mounds Cemetaries Cultural Artifacts European Settlement rie Forest wood Forest Great Indian Trail or War Trail between Prairie Du Chien Black Earth and Green Bay/Milwaukee located on Great Dividing Indige- Cross Plains Complex X Creek; cold Prairie grass- Ridge. Cross Plains Complex X X nous and XX Cadis Fly Tiger Salamanders Gorge water trout land Re-created stream Favored route of Ho Chunk between Four Lakes and Village of Cross Plains and along Black Earth Ho Chunk cemetary on top of bluff at Black Earth Black Earth Cross Plains Segment Wisconsin River; White Crow may be buried at base of Creek was site of large Ho Chunk village Village of Cross Plains Creek; cold Creek; cold bluff at Village of Cross Plains. Cross Plains Segment X water trout water trout stream stream Burial Mound Groups located on and Table Bluff Segment Flint quarries found on ridge top east of near Table Bluff and on bluffs lines trail leading northward to Table Bluff Table Bluff Segment Prairie grass- along Black Earth Creek XX XX X X X land Lake surrounded by several multi-compo- nent habitation sites--places where people returned periodically over thousands of Indian Lake Segment XX XXX X Indian Lake Segment years--7,000-700 years ago. Indian Lake, a kettle pond, provided a ready food source State Natural of fish, waterfowl, aquatic plants and Lodi Marsh Segment XX XXX X X Blanding’s Turtle . Located in a protected coulee. Area Small Euro-American cemeteries and Lodi Marsh Segment Eastern Lodi Marsh Seg- family burial grounds ment Eastern Lodi Marsh Seg- City of Lodi Segment ment City of Lodi founded by Isaac Palmer who chose this valley because of its City of Lodi Segment Groves-Pertzborn Segment X water power potential. Historic Districts and residences. Leatherleaf X Golden Cryptogamic Bog; Spa- Groves-Pertzborn Segment Gibralter Segment Rod soils ghum Moss, acidic, moat Cluster of Native American Mounds, Mussels, Bass, Gibralter Segment including conicals, linears, and effigies, Walleye, Pad- along Chrislaw Road at base of bluff Merrimac Ferry dle fish, Lake listed on the National Register of Historic Merrimac Ferry Sturegon Places Lake Merrimac Segment Wisconsin Merrimac Segment X; Parfrey’s Very old, Ho Chunk oral traditions of Green Water Serpent and Glen, micro Devil’s Lake Unit IANSR Pygmy Talus X; Igneous restrictive The Traveler Devil’s Lake Unit IANSR XXXX X climate caused Forest slopes rock growing by cold air ICE AGE NST SEGMENTS conditions Devil’s Lake Segment drainage Forest Interior Sauk Point Segment Bird Preserve, National Many historic residences, courthouse, hotel, City of Baraboo Devil’s Lake Segment XXXXXXX X Natural Land- bridge, library, Ringling Brothers complex mark; largest canopy block forest Aldo Leopold Legacy Aldo Leopold “shack” listed on Center National Register of Historic Places City of Baraboo

Aldo Leopold Legacy X XXX X Center GLOSSARY

Glossary of END MORAINE—A type of moraine Geologic Terms formed at the outer edge of a glacier or glacial lobe where it paused or CONTINENTAL GLACIATION--The stopped. Prominent end moraines formation, movement, recession along the Trail can be witnessed and related effects of colossal, at Prairie Moraine County Park in nearly -sized ice sheets. Dane County, Devil’s Lake State Though common during the Pleis- Park in Sauk County and the range tocene (or most recent) Ice Age, the of hills north and east of Antigo in only ice sheets that today approach Langlade County. the enormity of those existing during the Ice Age are in Antarc- ERRATICS—Boulders carried long tica and Greenland. Continental distances by the glaciers and glaciation sculpted a quarter of deposited when the glacier melted. the Earth’s landmass and dramati- They tend to be smooth and cally changed the Earth’s climate, rounded. Erratics can be found oceans, plants and animals. along the entire Trail, except where it traverses parts of the Driftless DRIFTLESS AREA--The southwest- Area. Erratics mark the further ern quarter of Wisconsin is ungla- extent of the glacier within the ciated or shows no signs of past Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains. glacial activity. It is a landscape Large, famous erratics along the deeply cut by ancient streams into Trail are in Walworth, Waupaca narrow, angular valleys and several and Langlade counties. hundred million years old ridges. The best place along the Trail EXTINCT GLACIAL LAKE—A to see the Driftless Area is Dane glacial lake that drained, often County between Mineral Point Rd. catastrophically, when a glacier or (Ice Age Complex at Cross Plains) glacial lobe melted back. Extinct and Table Bluff (Swamplovers), ’s lakebed along the west of the end moraine. remains visible in Adams and Juneau counties, north of the Aldo DRUMLIN--An elongated, teardrop- Leopold Shack. shaped hill. These streamlined hills were sculpted in the direction —A large, continental of the glacial ice movement. They glacier that is not confined by often occur in groups known underlying topography. The as swarms. Because drumlins northeastern quarter of North generally form miles behind, or America was covered over a dozen up-ice, from an end moraine, they times by the are rare along the Trail. Drumlins during the Ice Age, between are located within the Lodi State 10,000 and 2.5 million years ago. Wildlife Area and City of Lodi. Today, ice sheets are found only in

71 Ice Age National Scenic Trail Long-Range Interpretive Plan GLOSSARY

polar regions such as Greenland torrents of glacial meltwater during and . the Ice Age. The small potholes at Devil’s Lake State Park were formed KETTLE—A surface depression before the Ice Age. formed by large, detached blocks of melting ice that were buried with TERMINAL MORAINE—A type of end sand and gravel. As the ice melted, moraine where a glacier or glacial the other material collapsed, leaving lobe reached its maximum extent a crater-like depression. Some and melted back. kettles are more than 100 feet deep. Kettles can be found in many places TUNNEL CHANNEL—Subglacial along the Trail. rivers cut into the underlying glacial bed, forming tunnel channels. In LOBE—A tongue-like extension of an Wisconsin, these channels occur ice sheet. Six major lobes during the only at the outmost edge of the late Wisconsin Glaciation covered late Wisconsin advance, where portions of Wisconsin. These lobes they cut through the moraines and were the Superior, Chippewa, Wis- end in large alluvial fans. After the consin Valley, Langlade, Green Bay glacier has melted, the channel may and Lake Michigan lobes. The Des contains a series of lakes. Moines Lobe extended slightly into western Polk County. WISCONSIN GLACIATION—A period of the Earth’s history at the end of MORAINE—A ridge formed by the Ice Age, between unsorted gravel, sand and boulders 10,000 and 75,000 years ago. All carried by the glacier and deposited at glacial lobes and landforms were the outer edge, or front, of the glacier. created during the last part of the Some are only 10 feet high, while Wisconsin Glaciation, unless other- others rise 250 to 300 feet. Moraines wise noted. define the basic route of the Trail, and can be found in many places along it.

OUTWASH PLAIN—A sandy plain formed when glacial meltwater streams in front of glaciers spread over a very wide, flat area. The water swept the sand into both glaciated and unglaciated areas.

POTHOLES—A smooth bowl carved into bedrock by the grinding action of stones whirling around in a river eddy. Many potholes were formed by

National Park Service 72 Harpers Ferry Center National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior

Ice Age National Scenic Trail 700 Rayovac Drive, Suite 100 Madison, Wisconsin 53711 608-441-5610 http://www.nps.gov/iatr/index.htm