PTRD Intro Diving Manual

ISO 11121 CMAS ,



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Collection: PTRD manuals

Contact: [email protected]

2 Edition 2019



CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ...... 5 2. LIGHT OR BASIC EQUIPMENT...... 6 2.1. ...... 6 2.2. ...... 7 2.3. FINS ...... 7 2.4. ...... 8 2.5. DIVING WHEIGHTING SYSTEM AND RELEASING QUICK...... 9 3. SCUBA (Self-contained Underwater Apparatus) ...... 9 3.1. THE CYLINDER...... 9 3.2. The valve: ...... 10 3.3. THE REGULATOR ...... 10 3.4. THE MANOMETER...... 11 3.5. OCTOPUS, ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OR SECOND EMERGENCY STAGE...... 11 3.6. CONTROL DEVICED (BCD) ...... 11 3.6.1. Hydrostatic jacket...... 12 3.7. ...... 12 4. DIVING PHYSICS ...... 13 4.1. THE EAR...... 13 4.2. BUOYANCY ...... 14 4.3. THE IN THE WATER...... 16 4.4. BOYLE-MARIOTTE LAW ...... 16 5. Medical and physiological problems related to diving...... 17 5.1. Medical problems ...... 17 5.2. Direct effect of pressure ...... 17 5.2.1. Ears...... 17 5.2.2. Sinuses ...... 18 5.2.3. Mask...... 19 5.2.4. ...... 19 5.2.5. Other aspects to consider: ...... 20 6. COMMUNICATIONS ...... 21 6.1.1. On the surface...... 21 6.1.2. Underwater ...... 21 7. PROCEDURES FOR DIVING FROM BOAT...... 23 8. Diving environment...... 23 8.1. WATER CONDITIONS...... 23 8.2. AQUATIC LIFE...... 24 8.3. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...... 25

9. Continuous training and career...... 25 3


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1. INTRODUCTION This manual contains all the necessary contents required to participate in the PTRD Intro Diving program, certified with ISO 11121, equivalent to CMAS Introductory Diving and RSTC Introductory Scuba Experience. It has been written based on the guidelines of the EUF / ISO, CMAS and RSTC standards. Once you complete the theory and the immersion, or the dives, of trouble-free experience, your instructor could certify the PTRD Intro Diving level, which accredits you to: - Dive up to -12 mt without and with the need for supervision of an Instructor but without having to repeat the theoretical part, - In places with conditions similar to where you have trained without the need for additional training, - During the day, - In places where vertical and direct surface ascent is possible, - With proper attention on the surface (people who can assist divers), - Using air. You could also participate in a complete diving course with the possibility of doing a less-than-planned practice in the chosen course. PTRD, in compliance with the most restrictive legislation, requires the participants of its courses the following prerequisites to its start: - Medical certificate indicating “suitable for diving”, or standardized medical self-declaration. - Photocopy of valid ID or passport. - Parental authorization for children under 18 years. - Minimum age 10 years (For younger ages we have other programs). - Fill in the student sheet and information about the risks. Your PTRD instructor (which must be at least PTRD 1 Star Instructor) must inform you in advance of the school's own requirements, price of your course, conditions for participation and completion of the course, as well as having at your disposal the documentation of your mandatory insurance "Civil Liability" and accidents. In addition to all the administrative documentation, you will need a specific equipment for the activity, which includes a diving bottle, , vest, regulator, suit, fins, mask, tube ... and that is normally provided by the school, or they must inform you previously in opposite case. Course Procedures: during the course, in addition to diving, we perform control and equipment management exercises and the training is integrated, which means that each exercise is related to the rest as a whole to make you go from not being a diver, to being it. The logical order of completion of the course includes studying the theory beforehand and to do a dive in open water. The instructor can make some changes in the programming, and suggest some practice in the pool before the open water, but always complying with the PTRD Standards. Self-Assessment: 1. How deep can you dive once you get the PTRD Intro Diving certification? a. -25 mt b. -12 mt c. -18 mt 2. When you get your scuba certification you can dive without limits anywhere in the world. a. True b. False

Correct answers:

1. b;

2. b. You need additional training for different situations

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2. LIGHT OR BASIC EQUIPMENT. In this section all the elements of the equipment will be described and its use and maintenance will be explained in detail.

2.1. DIVING MASK. 2.1.1. Description.

The diving mask is one of the most important elements of the equipment, and can make the difference between an excellent dive or a disaster due to the discomfort that a badly adjusted or defective mask entails.

Without it, the human eye cannot focus the images, so we would see everything out of focus.

The mask usually has a plastic frame, a tempered glass screen and a silicone or rubber skirt, although the rubber is in disuse.

It is placed on the head with a generally silicone strap (image 1).

You should know that swimming goggles are not valid for diving.

The nose must be in the same airspace as the eyes to be able to compensate for the pressure when we descend, avoiding damage to the area due to the increase in pressure.

Choose the right mask: You should put it on your face without using the fastening strap, then breathe air through your nose, so that the mask stays stuck on your face without noticing air inlets through the silicone skirt.

If this works and is comfortable for you, then you can look at other aspects such as color, shape, size, etc ...

The nose is important to compensate for the air space that is compressed by increasing the , blowing slightly. In addition, through the silicone skirt, you will reach it to compensate the ears, as we will explain later.

Visual defects: There is no problem if you want to dive with contact lenses, since between it and your eye there are no airspaces.

But if you feel more comfortable, there is also the possibility of graduating your glasses, either changing the glasses for those who come from the factory, or going to your optics with the mask to adapt them.

Adjustment of the strap: to adjust and loosen the strap of the mask, you should familiarize yourself with the mechanism you use, since they vary in each model.

Remember that the mask should not be too tight to avoid breaking the strap and leave marks on your face.

Water in the mask: if you have problems with the adjustment or water has entered for some other reason, you can empty it in 3 steps:

Step 1: Press the top of the frame to your face.

Step 2: Look slightly to the surface.

Step 3: Blow through the nose so that the air comes out from the bottom of the glasses dragging the water.




2.2. SNORKEL 2.2.1. Description

The snorkel is an indispensable element, which is used for breathing while on the surface with the face facing down.

It consists of at least: a mouthpiece, a breathing pipe, a (flexible) joint between the mouthpiece and the breathing pipe and a mask strap attachment.

For divers, it is preferably held on the left side since on the right we will have our regulator.

Many modern snorkels have a purge valve and a splash guard. Both are recommended, but not essential..

2.3. FINS Image 2: Snorkel tube parts. 2.3.1. Description.

The diving fins are used to move through the water easily and thus overcome the increase in water resistance due to the increase in volume we occupy with the equipment.

The diving fins are of many shapes and sizes.

Manufacturers sometimes talk about snorkel fins, but in reality there are not too many differences between snorkel diving or scuba diving fins. In principle all the fins are suitable for . On the contrary, some fins are not suitable for diving because they are too light or short.

The diving fin has an average length between 55 and 75 cm and there is no difference between the left or right fin. Above: Adjustable fins. Adjustable Fins: Adjustable fins do not have the heel part closed, but are open Below: foot pocket fins at the back and have an adjustable strap.

They are the most used by divers because they are usually used with socks or diving boots. It is important that you familiarize yourself with the adjustment straps, as there are different models in the market.

Your PTRD instructor will explain the operation of the ones you use in the course, but when you dive somewhere else do not forget to make sure you know how to operate the system, even if it is different.

Foot pocket fins: It is in which the foot is completely inserted into the fin, that is, with a closed heel.

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2.4.1. Description.

Diving suits are very useful to isolate ourselves and prevent heat loss. Depending on the water we will choose a greater or lesser thickness.

For example, in very hot waters, we usually use 1mm suits, called lycra, simply to isolate ourselves from possible chafing with rocks or stinging animals. In cold waters we can use dry suits, for which an additional training is usually necessary.

But in between we have short or long wet suits of 3mm, 5mm or 7mm neoprene, and semi-wetsuits, which by means of neck and wrist seals or watertight zippers prevent water circulation.

Above we can see from left to right a 1mm Lycra, a short suit, 3mm suit and booties, 5mm suit with hood. All these are wet suits.

In the images on the right we have a , where you can see the inflation valve on the chest, and the one for emptying on the arm and the detail of a semi-tight suit (without filling valves or emptying of air).

In addition to the suit, we can use various accessories such as hoods, gloves or booties with soft or rigid soles, the latter essential for diving from shore in rocky areas.

Next accessories such as hoods, gloves and booties with rigid sole and neoprene socks:





The ballast is an essential element for diving, especially if we wear a . The neoprene has a very low density, and therefore a very positive buoyancy (it makes us float), so we need the ballast to be able to counteract that buoyancy increase and transform it into a slightly negative one (to sink).

There are various systems to carry the ballast, the most common is the belt with lead blocks of 1, 2 or 3 kg. But there are also belts with pockets to put lead blocks or bags of lead, or ballast bags in hydrostatic jackets, which we will talk about later.

Below you can see (from left to right) some models of belt with pockets, lead blocks of different and a belt with buckle to place the lead.

3. SCUBA DIVING EQUIPMENT (Self-contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus)

3.1. THE CYLINDER. 3.1.1. Description.

The is a vessel that contains air at high . They are usually made of steel or aluminum.

The steel is heavier and the base is semi-spherical, so it is necessary to place a piece called boot to hold it up, usually made of rubber.

Surely you are also wondering how long is this air? Well, the answer is DEPEND.

The factors that determine how long a cylinder lasts are: Ambient pressure in which it is breathing and respiratory rate and volume of air drawn due to capacity.

Remember: in case of diving in currents or under effort, you often have to control the amount of air left in the cylinder, because the situation will make us consume more air than expected.

We will insist on the issue of pressures later, in the chapter on buoyancy.



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3.2. THE VALVE: 3.2.1. Description.

The cylinder valve is the part that allows to open or close the air flow, and where we will connect our regulator, which we will talk about later. The material commonly used is stainless steel, and when screwing it into the neck of the cylinder, we use O-rings so that the air does not escape through the joints.

3.3. THE REGULATOR 3.3.1. Description

The regulator is the element of the equipment that reduces the pressure inside the cylinder to a breathable pressure.

This is done thanks to a system of pistons and / or membranes, and in two steps, one of them is done in what we call the first stage and which connects to the cylinder, and the second stage in the second stage, which contains the mouthpiece that we will introduce in the mouth. In addition, a system of hoses that we will use to inflate the jacket and a manometer that allows us to know how much air we have in the cylinder at each moment and which we will talk about later are added to this regulator.

The first stage of the regulator can be of two types: DIN or INT. And this will determine whether or not the cylinder needs a core.

The second stage can be of different shapes but always consists of a rounded piece with a mouthpiece and a purge button on the front, which when pressed activates a continuous flow of air through the mouthpiece. Once you release the purge button, the air flow should stop, if not, close the cylinder and notify your PTRD instructor, the regulator may have to be replaced.

Purge button

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3.4. THE MANOMETER. The pressure gauge or manometer is one of the elements of the regulator, it connects ts to the first stage and informs us at all times of the air that our cylinderder hhas .

In its scale the zone of 50 atm is markeded iin red, which we will consider the reserve.

Once we reach this level of air, we will have to start preparing the ascent to the surface, knowing that thereere is enough to make the safety stop (which will be discussed in practice)tice) and that there is still air left so that it does not enter humidity to thehe cylinderc.

It may be mounted on a piece of plastictic material,m which is called a console, along with h otheroth measuring devices such as the depth gauge or a compass.

It is essential and your responsibility to chcheck how much air is in the cylinder before leavinaving the .

3.5. OCTOPUS, ALTERNARNATIVE SOURCE OR SECOND EMERGENCENCY STAGE. This is the second extra stage that youu wiwill find in your regulator. It should be yellow, , alsoals its hose, and the latter of greater length.

Do not hide it, always carry it in a placee visiblevi by your partner, and check its operation before leaving the dive center.ter.

You should always take it well by meansans of one of the many systems, never loose as it could drag along the bottom,m, whichw carries risk both for you (you might not find it if you need it orr it could break down) and for the environment.

3.6. BUOYANCY CONTROTROL DEVICED (BCD) During the dive, due to changes in ambiebient pressure, the volume of our equipment's airsparspaces undergoes compression (they become smaller)er) and expansion processes (they increase in size).

Because of this, for example, if the voluvolume of air in our jacket decreases when we descend, dueue tto the increase in ambient pressure, we will lose buoyanyancy; and on the contrary it increases when we ascend,d, bebecause the gases undergo expansion due to the decreasese in pressure .

To control our buoyancy and stay att theth same level of depth in the water, we use the tracheaa of the BCD, which has two buttons, to inflate andnd deflate.d

Your PTRD instructor will explain the operationope of the trachea before going to your firsirstt ddive in the pool, where you will practice maintaining a neutral buoyanoyancy (later we will talk about buoyancy in moree detail)de

There is another element that can helplp us control our buoyancy: the dry suit. 11 By having valves to empty and inflate,, we can also regulate the volume of air inside. Página

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If you are doing your course in cold waters and need to practice with it, your instructor will explain in detail its use, which you will practice in the pool before going to the .

3.6.1. Hydrostatic jacket. Description.

The jacket consists of a bag where the air will be stored, a trachea with two buttons to inflate and deflate, a mouthpiece and the connection to the automatic inflator (as shown in the image).

In addition, the jacket has quick-release and safety air valves that prevent the jacket from breaking due to excessive inflation..

Its main function is to help us maintain buoyancy, that is, float on the surface and keep us stable while diving. In addition, with the strap we have talked about before, we will hold the cylinder.

3.7. DEPTH GAUGE It is usually located next to the pressure gauge, in the instrument console. It is usually analog, with a needle that marks the depth to which we are, in meters, and another that will be dragged by it and will remain at the highest depth we have reached.

Like the rest of the equipment, rinse it with fresh water when finished. And if you travel by plane, transport it in the cabin so that it is not exposed to environmental pressures that are too low, or it will break.

During the dive you will often look at your pressure gauge, so you will also monitor the depth at which you are.




4. DIVING PHYSICS Do not with the title of the section, we will only explain some notions about the environment around you and how the laws of physics affect you when you do your immersion.

4.1. THE EAR. It is the organ of the senses that perceives sounds, in the form of sound waves. Next we see a scheme:

From the image it is possible to highlight the following parts:

- External auditory canal: communicates the auditory pavilion with the eardrum or Tympanic Membrane. To dive must be free of plugs, whether wax or artificial. - Tympanic Membrane: or eardrum, it is a flexible membrane that reacts to sound waves by moving the ossicles (Malleus, Incus and Stapes). - Hammer, Anvil and stirrup: they are 3 ossicles that are moved by the eardrum, transmitting the impulse to the snail or cochlea. - The Snail or cochlea, is also the organ of balance, detects our position in the environment. - Eustachian tube: communicates the tympanic cavity with our throat, placing the holes at the end of the nasal cavity.


Swimming goggles are not valid for diving. The nose must be in the same airspace as the eyes to be able to compensate for the pressure when we descend, avoiding damage to the area due to the increase in pressure.

The nose is important to compensate for the air space that is compressed by increasing the ambient pressure, blowing slightly. In addition, through the silicone skirt, you will reach it to compensate the ears, as we will explain later.

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4.2. BUOYANCY Everyone knows that a coin sinks in the water, and a cork floats, but as divers, we need to be like a cork on the surface to float comfortably, imitate the coin to sink, and then adjust our buoyancy to remain weightless and with zero . How do we do it?

To understand this process, we must familiarize ourselves with two concepts: the thrust of water and the weight of the object. So you can vary your buoyancy by adapting it to your needs during the dive.

The thrust and the weight are two opposing , so that the thrust pulls the object towards the surface, while the weight brings it to the bottom.

This follows the Archimedes Principle, which we will understand below.: Illustration referring to the Archimedes Principle.

Our bodies occupy a certain volume that when we submerge, they move an amount of water of an equal volume. If we collect and weigh that amount of water, we will get the value of the thrust.

If the thrust is greater than our weight, that is, the water we move weighs more than us, we will float.

If the thrust is less than our weight, we will sink. And if it is the same, we will not sink or float, we will remain at the same depth.

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In order to modify our buoyancy, divers change the volume that we move thanks to inflating or deflating the jacket, so that on the surface we will inflate it as much as possible, displacing a greater amount of water (positive buoyancy), and thus obtaining a greater thrust to our weight. However, when we want to dive, we deflate the jacket so that we can displace a volume of water that is less and less, and thus make the weight greater than the thrust (negative buoyancy).

During the dive, we will try to have in our jacket an amount of air that balances the weight and the thrust (). Important…

Your buoyancy changes during the dive, but also when you modify some element of the equipment, such as the wetsuit. With a thicker suit, more will float, therefore, you will have to add more ballast to compensate for the increased thrust, or you will not be able to descend.

The elements of our equipment with a greater role in buoyancy control are:

- The hydrostatic jacket

- The ballast 15 - The wetsuit Página

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4.3. THE PRESSURE IN THTHE WATER. In this section we will learn to estimate estim our ambient or absolute pressure, and thehe ddifference with the hydrostatic pressure. Atmospheric Pressurssure Pressure is generally defined as the exerted = 1 atm per unit area. For example, we cann countc the at sea level as 1 atmatmosphere (= 1 Atm or 1 Bar, it is not exactly thee samesam but in diving they can be used interchangeablybly).

But when we dive, we also have to withsithstand the Hydrostatic Pressureure pressure added by the water, by increacreasing the =1 atm column above our heads. We call this increaseincr due

to depth hydrostatic pressure. Everyy 110 meters -10mt. Absolutelute Pressure = 1 + 1 = 2 deep, we have 1 atm more of hyhydrostatic pressure, since the atmospheric pressuresure does not change (1 atm at sea level). -20mt. Absobsolute Pressure 1 + 2 = 3 atm Therefore: at 10 meters deep we haveave 1 atm of hydrostatic pressure and 2 atm in totaltal (we( must

add the atm of the air). At 15 mt we will have 1.5 atm of hydrostatic pressure and addingg 1 atm, 2.5 atm of absolute pressure .

It is easy to calculate the absolute prepressure if you remember that you only havee to add 1 to the hydrostatic pressure.


Boyle discovered in 1662 that the pressuessure exerted by a gas is inversely proportional to its volume (at constant temperature and quantity off gas).gas

Which has as a consequence that:

- If the pressure increases, the volumee decreasesde

- If the pressure decreases, the volumee increasesin

This explains what happens if we hold a breathb while ascending:

As the pressure rises, the air trapped in our lungs will try to expand just as it would if it wereere ttrapped in a balloon. That air expansion could cause certain injuries to our lungs.





5. Medical and physiological problems related to diving.

5.1. MEDICAL PROBLEMS During the dive, our body is in a different medium than usual. Pressure or temperature changes are an example of these differences. And as in any sporting activity, more or less serious accidents can occur.

Do not panic, the information you will receive and training will help you avoid accidents.

The most important thing is to PREVENT possible accidents, but in case they happen, we must have adequate knowledge of what are the symptoms that allow us to identify them.

5.2. DIRECT EFFECT OF PRESSURE All the air spaces of the body will suffer the effects of the pressure change, although they normally react very well to compensation by . If this does not happen, we could suffer barotraumas, or pressure injuries, of different levels of importance.


The ears experience water pressure practically from the beginning.

From practically the first meter of depth you notice the pressure in the ears, which you must compensate (balance) to avoid being uncomfortable and hurt yourself. This is because the water pushes the eardrum and compresses the air we have inside the tympanic cavity. To compensate, we must put air through the Eustachian tube into this cavity to return the eardrum to its original position.

Divers usually use the , which consists of blowing air with a blocked nose, which causes air to enter through the Eustachian tube into the ear. It is important not to make this maneuver too strong so as not to harm us. If you can't compensate, you better leave the dive for another day.

Why could not we balance our ears?

The main reasons are: Eustachian tubes blocked by mucus or inflamed. Wax plugs that clog the ear canal. Stress due to doubts or fear of immersion.

Serious problems:

If you fail to compensate the eardrum and continue going down, you could cause your eardrum to break: if you ignore the pain you feel during the descent and your eardrum reaches the limit, it will break. At this time you will notice pain relief and the cold sensation of the water that enters the inside of your ear. This temperature difference causes a vertigo reaction in the snail or cochlea (balance organ).

Most eardrum breaks heal in a few months and you can dive again. But they are very easy to avoid, just don't keep going down if you can't compensate for the ears.

Once they have occurred, go to your nearest health center or hospital, it is important to prevent ear infection and dry it internally.

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- Compensate your ears frequently during the descent, never wait to feel discomfort.

- If you have difficulties, ascend slightly and try again, if you can't, abort the dive.

- Do not do the Valsalva maneuver vigorously or prolonged, you could produce a .

- Do not dive with a cold or allergy, or with decongestant medication.

- Never use earplugs or a hood that is too tight.

- In case of suspicion of an injury, consult a specialized doctor as soon as possible.


During the ascent, the air that was introduced into the tympanic cavity expands by the decrease in ambient pressure and leaves without the need for any maneuver. If this does not happen, we could have a reverse block. In this case, all we can do is descend until our ears don't bother us and ascend slowly trying to swallow to mobilize the eustachian tubes. NEVER perform Valsalva, this is just to introduce air, and we ascent, what we want is for the one that is expanding to come out. Important…

- NEVER take medication to deflate the throat before diving, it can lose the effect while diving and cause you a reverse blockage. - Wash your ears with saline and dry them well to prevent the onset of otitis after the dives.

5.2.2. Sinuses They are bone cavities that are distributed in the skull.

During diving they compensate themselves, both when descending and ascending, without the need for any maneuver. But it is important that they are not congested. If you suspect of sinusitis or are congested, consider postponing your dive.




5.2.3. Mask. During the descent the pressure compresses the mask, and to compensate for it, the diver blows air inside through the nose. When ascending, the air that expands will leave without difficulty by the edges of the mask.

Important… Never do your dive with a swimming goggle. Because you won't be able to compensate for the air inside.

5.2.4. Lungs. When we dive in apnea (holding our breath without diving equipment), the problems are almost nonexistent. The precaution to be taken in these cases is more related to the consumption of O2 by our body. You can learn more about diving in apnea in the PTRD Apnoea 1 Diver course, consult your instructor.

When we dive with autonomous equipment, we can find the following problems:

- Pulmonary overpressure: The golden rule of diving is "NEVER HOLD THE BREATH", and you must remember it on all dives. A diver always breathes air at ambient pressure.

This means that if we breathe air at 20 meters, hold our breath to ascend and reach the surface, our lungs will have expanded up to 3 times their initial volume.

This is not real because the lungs tear before getting this expansion. It is one of the most serious injuries we can suffer, but, in turn, very easy to avoid. Important…

- A cold or lung infection can also cause blocked air spaces, with the same effect as enduring pulmonary overpressure, and this can cause small pulmonary tears. DO NOT dive if your lungs are not in good condition for it.

- If you are a smoker, you should know that tobacco destroys the pulmonary , a substance that causes your lungs to not collapse and generate internal blockages. We recommend you not to use tobacco 2 hours before and 2 hours after diving at least, in this way you will avoid problems.

Symptoms of a pulmonary overpressure appear immediately, and include: difficulty and pain when breathing, appearance of subcutaneous air spaces around the neck and chest and Aeroembolia (air enters the bloodstream, is covered by platelets and can cause thrombus in blood vessels

The severity of the lesions will be determined based on their location)

In a case like this, the evacuation of the injured person to a hospital is a priority.

While the health services arrive you have to keep the person comfortable, but not feed or drink or any medication. If 19 pure O2 can be provided with a mask in continuous flow. If you want more information about training as an O2 provider, consult your instructor. Página

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5.2.5. Other aspects to consider: Obviously a diver should avoid taking drugs, tobacco and alcoholic beverages before and after the dives and be informed if the medications he is currently taking can affect or be affected with the increase in pressure.

further: VERTIGO DURING THE ASCENT. We can notice an instability when ascending to surface due to a decompensation of the pressure between the two ears. Since it is very difficult for both ears to decompress at the same time, we should not be scared if we notice this slight dizziness.

Even so, if in doubt, or if the dizziness is very intense, consult your doctor. PREGNANCY. Since there are not many studies in relation to this issue, the recommendation is that you do not dive while pregnant. But if you have done some immersion at the beginning of pregnancy not very deep and without incident before knowing your status, do not worry, it is very unlikely that it has consequences on the fetus. DIVING PSYCOLOGY. When we dive, we are in a totally different environment from ours, and it is normal to have sensations that we had never felt before, but do not worry if these sensations are not entirely pleasant at first, it will only be the first time, then you will get to know each other and you can develop your full potential as a diver. MENTAL STRESS Stress is a sensation that appears when reacting to certain situations. It is the way in which the body faces a challenge and prepares to act in a difficult situation with focus, strength, vigor and mental acuity.

The stress response consists of a series of processes. During the event, the hypothalamus sends signals to the adrenal glands to produce more adrenaline and cortisol and send these hormones to the bloodstream. These hormones increase heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure and . The blood vessels widen to allow greater blood circulation to the muscles, putting them on alert. The pupils dilate to improve vision. The liver releases some of the stored glucose to increase the body's energy. And the body produces sweat to cool off. All these physical changes prepare the person to react quickly and effectively when they feel emotional tension.

The advice for this feeling of stress to be positive for your learning is:

-Consider stress as a challenge to overcome yourself.

-Do not focus only on the result, but also on the process. Remember that you are learning to dive to be able to dive. Enjoy as much as you can the course and make the most of it. PANIC Panic appears when we cannot control a certain situation. Let's say it's a stressful situation handled improperly. In diving there are many new situations that can create insecurity. Talking about what worries you with your instructor will reassure you, he or she can solve all your doubts and help you overcome insecurities.

Under water, try to prevent delicate situations, if you feel bad or insecure, end the dive by notifying your PTRD instructor. OVERCONFIDENCE

Most accidents both in diving and in other aspects of life, in experienced people, are usually due to overconfidence. As controlled as you have the situations, respect for the sea, as a changing and wild environment should not be lost. 20 Common sense will be very useful, do not assume unnecessary risks. Página


6. COMMUNICATIONS Given the environment in which we are, communications cannot be through a simple conversation, but we turn to other means.

6.1.1. On the surface. Normally on the surface we use hand signals, or acoustic signals, made with whistles or speakers.

We must also know other visual signs such as diving flags, which we must use to signal our position, whether diving from beach or boat.

Dive Flags

1 AMERICAN FLAG: Dive site.

2 “ALFA” INTERNATIONAL FLAG: Divers in the water, get as far away as possible.

3 FLAG DIVE MASTERS: Divers return to the ship.

Regarding surface signals with arms:

1- Diver signal warning that you have problems on the surface,

2- Signal of “OK” or “I'm fine” done with one arm

3- “Everything is going well” signal done with both arms.

6.1.2. Underwater When we are underwater, it is also understood that we are closer to the partner, so the signals are usually made with the hand and not with the whole arm.

21 1: OK sign or everything is going well. Página

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1: I have no air. 2: Pass me air 3: How much air do you have 4: I am in reserve.

1: something is not going well 2: go up 3: Download

In addition to the signals just discussed, it is convenient that you review others with your partner, so that communication is more fluid underwater. For example:

1: around 2: at this level 3: from above 4: under

5: look at 6: no 7: time 8: depth

9: knot 10: quiet, calm 11: stop 12: continue in that direction 22 Página


13: I don't compensate 14: sinus pain 15: I'm cold 16: I'm dizzy

7. PROCEDURES FOR DIVING FROM BOAT. Although there are many dives to do from the coast, you usually access the dive points from the boat. This is why you should familiarize yourself with the different types of boats and the logistics of diving in them.

In general: The sea always has a slight movement, so pay attention when you walk or move on the boat so you don't fall or hit the material on board. Hold all your material so that it does not fall to the ground or water.

Cylinders should travel normally held by the neck of the cylinder, remember that they are equipment with compressed air at a lot of pressure inside and should not hit or fall.

Advice according to the boat:

- Boats where you enter through the stern: In these boats, you usually enter with the equipment already placed, and in giant step (your instructor will explain the different entrances to the water) - Semi-rigid boats: In these boats, it is normal for you to enter from the side. You can put part of the equipment up and the rest in the water, or all above and then throw your back to the water.

Once we have dived, to return to the ship we will pass the equipment in this order:

1- Ballast: either integrated belt or ballast, we will pass it to the ship. In this way we make sure we have positive buoyancy. 2- Jacket and cylinder: the ideal is that we help the person who is up, pushing from the culot of the cylinder. 3- Near the ladder of the ship, we will take off our fins, and finally 4- The diving mask, which ensures that we see even if there are waves or splashes.

If it is a ship in which there is a ladder to climb with all the equipment on, it is not necessary that you pass anything to the ship, just get on board, and being careful not to fall, take off the equipment above.

The instructor or guide who touches you on each dive will explain how you will enter the water with the boat you use at that time.

8. Diving environment. Keep in mind that not all are equal but also that the same area can vary their environmental conditions. Here are some notions of what you can find. But do not forget the importance of going to a dive center to advise you on new diving areas, or request information on targeted activities.

8.1. WATER CONDITIONS. 23 8.1.1. Temperature. Página

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Remember that the temperature of the water will determine the thickness of the suit we use, or if it is very cold water, the best option is the dry suit. Do not assume that if it were hot, the water will be hot. Inform yourself not to take a surprise and risk .

In addition, especially in the summer, we find an increase in temperature in the more superficial layers, which modify their density and remain separated from the deeper layers. The line that joins them, where there is a sudden change in temperature is called .

Therefore, although you dive in summer, in the surface layers you can have a temperature up to 10ºC higher than in the bottom.

8.1.2. Visibility. This aspect of water is determined by suspended particles, the movement of water and the incidence of light.

That is, in rocky areas, having less small particles and being heavier, it descends to the bottom and the water is usually transparent.

In times of reproduction or greater amount of plankton, such as spring in the northern hemisphere, or episodes of rain that carry sediment into the sea, visibility may be worse.

The movement of water can also impair visibility, raising particles from the bottom, as in case of increased waves.

8.2. AQUATIC LIFE. Most of the life of the planet is in the sea. In the oceans a huge ecosystem converges that provides a key sustenance in the ecological balance of the Earth. Most of the that allows life is produced by the algae that populate the seas, algae that also play a key role in the food chain of marine life. And we must not forget that the first life forms arose in the aquatic environment, so there is a wide range of species with very different forms that populate each marine niche and are part of a global trophic network.

8.2.1. Animals. Within this section we can find an immensity of groups, some of them that we would not even say that they are animals if we do not know them. In general, a marine animal is one that remains its entire life in the water, or depends on the aquatic environment to complete some of the vital functions such as: feeding, growing or reproducing.

If you are interested in the fauna of the place, ask your instructor about the species guides that the center may have to consult them.

8.2.2. Plants. In this section we will differentiate between algae and marine plants.

The algae are vegetables without stems, roots or true fruits, while the marine plants, more evolved, are like any plant that we can find in the terrestrial environment, but that adapted again to the marine environment. A very important example is Posidonia Oceanica, which is currently very threatened by pollution, invasive species and the increase in ship anchorage.

We can also find very small algae that are part of the plankton, and which, as we mentioned at the beginning of the section, are responsible for an important part of the production of O2 on Earth.

8.2.3. Damages caused by divers to the marine environment. 24 As divers we must understand that we are simple observers of the marine environment. It is our responsibility to

Página protect and respect the environment where we carry out our activity to continue enjoying it in the future.


From PTRD we also want to raise awareness with some very easy tips to carry out on your dives:

- Do not throw the anchor of your boat anywhere, you can damage the plants that live there or the corals. - Control your buoyancy to keep you separate from the bottom - Control your flutter, this creates a movement that can damage corals or lift sediments from a distance - DO NOT REMOVE any animal or plant, whether alive or dead. This includes shells without animals. They are there for all to see. - Use a camera to more easily fulfill the previous section. - Collect the small trash you can find, especially if it is plastic. - Try to be an example for others, especially for the little ones, who learn from what we do, rather than what we say. - Do not feed the animals or lean on rocks intentionally or accidentally.

8.3. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. Today there is a lot of awareness regarding environmental protection. But it is important that we also keep it up to date.

Pollution of industries was the main concern a few years ago, but currently the greatest risk to marine and terrestrial life is the accumulation of plastic in the oceans. This material is broken into microscopic pieces that ingest living beings and pass into the trophic network until they reach the human being and slowly poison us.

As a diver and as a person, think about your impact on the environment in your daily decisions so that we can continue to enjoy the wonders of nature.

9. Continuous training and professional diving career. Once you have completed the PTRD Intro Diving training program and obtain the corresponding certification, a range of possibilities opens for you to achieve professional qualification as an Underwater Guide, Baptism Monitor, , Director of a diving center, dive travel specialist, dive equipment vendor, etc.

For some of these professions it is enough to obtain the final certification of the program you are studying and acquire some experience with dives in different places, for others you have to continue your training until you reach the required level.

Of the different PTRD programs you can attend once you have completed the PTRD Intro Diving Training Program are:

-PTRD 1 Star Diver Course, allows you to advance your training and gives you access to the PTRD 2 Star Diver and some specialties.

-NitroxDiver, is a very popular specialty in diving cruises. Your instructor can inform you about the rating you can get with your next PTRD 1 Star Diver course.

-Dry suit, necessary if your diving area is characterized by cold waters. 25 Here is a summary chart about some courses you can find in PTRD: Página

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