PY I HT 1 C O R G , 895 ,

BY

A X D W HI D D EN LE AN ER . . T O T HE MEM O RY

M Y B EL OVED O T H R A RY HI D D EN M E , M ,

A N D O F

M Y L S T BRO T H R C O N S T A N T N E DE E , I E ,

T H I S VO LUME I S RES P EC T F U L LY A N D A FFEC T IO N A T ELY

A T DEDIC ED .

P R E F A C E .

T h e obj e ct of thi s book i s to give a conci s e hi sto ry of th e ans r r m th e n a n Sult of Tu key , f o fou d tio of thei r to th e p res ent d ay ; with a d esc ription th e an rs and s m th e m a of m ne cu to s of Otto ns . I ts p e ru sal will m ak e th e re a d e r b ett e r a cqu ai nte d h th e r s e and th e v en s h are wit Tu ki h p ople , e t w ich ran r am n h m t spi ing o g t e . — T h e question m ay b e aske d W hy s h ould anoth er history of Tu rkey b e a dd e d to th ose w hich are a r a r th e ? I n re an b e a , c s , l e dy befo e public ply it id “ h a m a r s a s m ar h arac er h a e a re a t t , ny wo k of i il c t v l dy . a are am th e s h h i s h a S i r ppe d , ong be t of w ic t t of r a f i n arran m n . . s et s one ers E S C e y ; y , thi di f ge e t , th e e e ra s r th e r h h i s th e re in g n l u vey of count y , w ic s rs a se r a and e r n ult of pe on l ob v tion xpe ie ce . In it a res n a se r s of e en s s ss I h ve p e ted ie v t in ucce ion , r th e e ar s a h e n r r s h n f om lie t ut tic eco d , wit out goi g a n es i n th e sma er r n too much into det il . The ot ll p i t , s r e th e r s h e eas th e de c iptiv of Tu ki p ople , will pl e , r a r e de . I a cknowl e dge with gre at ple asu re th e assi stanc e afforded by th e following G re e k and English auth ors ar a B zanti ns an e Pa arri o ou los Sc l to D . y u s ; Co t tin p g p ; M r m nn h m as r on S i r ar S A . D . o dt a ; T o Go d ; Edw d r a w h ai r h e r a h n s r e s e s A . d C y , M . ; it f om ot ut e tic ou c which ve rifies this wo rk and add s much i nterest to i P REFA CE

T h e a - e ra m r r i ts p ag e s . loy l c o O p tion of y b othe h a e m m a r s . s Nic ol W Hidd n , y . clo e co p nion du ing o ur h m e e s a i s m s ra o lif in Con t ntinople , o t g tefully

h M r . a re a as we as a s . . e s pp ci ted ; ll t t of E S W t ,

’ f r P D . a a a e a as . . . d s A M , l o n tiv of the E t T h e Moh a m me d ans diffe r s o greatly in e v e ry re s r m th e r s a ra s ha i t i s s s pect f o Ch i ti n ce , t t impo ible for any one who h as not liv e d amo n g them for ye ars h r m a n r f r e rs a e O . a e fully to und t nd t ei n life My f th , a a r an r an n tive of New Yo k City , occupied impo t t offici al po sition u nd e r th e I mperia l Ottom an Gov e rn m ent for fifty -h v e s uccessiv e ye ars ; hi s exp e ri e n h m r and r s enc , in co nection wit y bi th , e idence of r ars s a t e and a ar fo ty ye in Con t n inopl , my f mili ity r a an a s a r a with the O ient l l gu ge , h ve been impo t nt a rs l n s r and are e rs for ao f cto thi wo k , vouch the m cu ra cy of my s tat e ents . h a s e e n a ra e r e se r m It might ve em d tu l , und th ci cu s an e s an d m re r s s a h h t c , o cou teou to pe k ig ly of the r s th e s r an m s s e us a re Tu k , but hi to i u t con ci ntio ly dhe to fa cts and rej e ct all inducem e nts to mi s re p re s ent . a e e a and r a I h ve b n led by duty , inclin tion by co di l symp athy w ith th e opp re ss ed m ass e s unde r th e O t a s s an d s tom n yoke , to publi h thi book , thu to fa mili arl ze th e Engli s h s p e a ki ng p e ople w ith th e anna s th e e a r e and i h v arl ou s l of b utiful O i nt , w t the

‘ ph as e s of th e rapidly imp e nding C I l S l S i n Tu rkey . EN E D D . A LEXA N D R W . H I

K N 2 18 . N EW O ov . 0 Y R , , 9 5 L I S T O F I L L U S T R A T I O N S .

A M A S ULT N O S N I . A T uRKI sH LA D Y

S ULT A N ORC HA N

‘ J A N I ZA RI ES

I M PERI A L TU GHRA ‘/ ‘ I HE SU LT A N A N D T wo O FFI CIA LS

C ON S T A N T I N O PLE C ON S T A N TIN E T HE GREA T

ED F T A O A M M ED M A L O SUL N M H I I . R O U M ELI HI S S A R

T OP A S . S HI C O N S T A N T I N E PA LEO LO G U S

‘ E N C W A F G A U U H , D R , A H V ’ EGY PT I A N O BELI S K fl

S T A N E M UL S LI I .

J A N I ZA RI ES CA RRY I N G A KET T LE OF S O U P V J A N I ZA RI ES

M O S Q U E OF SULT A N AH M ED

M A O S N I I . S L RA I S LI T OF [ L US T T ON .

P A GE.

D S ULT A N M URA IV .

A LI PA S H A T EPED ELI N

E S ULT A N S LI M I I I .

M SULT A N M A H O U D I I . T HE ROY A L GREEK FA M ILY Q U EEN OLGA KA ZA Z A RT I N C O I N S B ES HLI K

WA RREN H I D D EN

ABD UL MED JI D

PA LA CE OF D O LM A —BA GT CHE

OY O E . J M RRI S

S ULT A N ABD U L AZ I Z

S ULT A M A BD UL H A M I D N S C O N T E T .

I . HE A I . T OSM N , CONQUE ROR . — O rigin of the Ottomans T h ei r Exploit s U n d er Ertoghrul in — I — His r a — n A sia Mino r R eign of O s man . D e m Co qu est s D eath

A A SULT N ORCH N .

— ’ — A cc es sion of O rch an A IIah - ud - din s Legi sl ation O rganiz a — tion of th e J anizaries Captu re of Nic aea and N i c omidia — — — D es c ent on Europ e Suleyman Pa sh a D eath of O rchan

A A SULT N MUR D I . — Conques t of Thrac e and M acedonia C aptu re of A ngora — — A drianople D e feat of th e S ervians T he Imp eri al ’ T ughra or s Mo nogram— A nnex ation of Kirmian — e n A a ns Caramania a r a a nd er a Exp ditio g i t , Bulg i S vi — B attl e of Koss ova A s sa s s inatio n of Mu rad

A A SULT N B YEZID I . — — A s s assination of Yacoub W a r with S ervia B attl e at N ic opo — — — lis Conqu est in A s ia Cons tanti nopl e N ew Co nqu es ts — — in A sia and Greec e T a me rlan e B attle of A ngora D eath Of B ay e zid

V .

INTERREGNUM OF THE ROYA L PRINCES . Sul eyman and Mu sa i i (TCUNWYQEJVTTEL

I SULTA N MOHA MMED .

— I nsu rrection of the Pri nc es of Ca ramam a and Smyrna N aval — Comb at b etw een the Ve netians and th e Ottomans W ar — — with Hungary I nsurrection of Mus ta fa D eath o f Mo hammed

A A SULT N MUR D I I . — R eleas e of Mu st afa and D j uneid S eige of Co nstantinople — Submi s sio n of Provi nc es in A si a M ino r C a pture of — — — S alonica Hunniad es R es ignation of th e Sultan Battl e — — at Varna R e volt of th e J aniz ari es E xp edition to Pel op — — onnes us W ar in A lb ani a D eath of Mu ra d

VII I .

SULTA N MO H A MMED I I .

rname a h the n e r r Su d F ti , Co qu o . — T he Byzantine Empi re E re ction of the To we r of Rou meli — — Hi ssar Fall of Co nstantinopl e D eath of Const antine — — Pa leologu s Exp e ditio n of G enera l T ourh an Si ege of e ra e — ea h Hunniad es— a re n e B lg d D t of C ptu of Si op , — — A mas sia and T reb izond F amily of Comnenu s C apture — — o f Mitylene W ar aga ins t th e V enetians I skend er — — C a ptu re of Eubo ea Co nque s t of Caramania Siege of — Rhod es D eath of Mohammed

A A SULT N B YEZID II . — — — C ivil W ar Pri nc e Jem W a r with Hungary W ar with — — Egypt R el ations b etween Ru s s ia and Tu rkey I nvasion — — — of Poland W ar with V enic e Siege of L ep anto D eath o f Bay ezid

X . A SULT N SE LIM I .

rn am Y v z Su e d a ou . — — A ff ai rs of St at e R e c eptio n of Fo reign A mb as sadors W ar — — with Ru ss ia B attl e of T c h aldiran C aptu re of T au ri s — — Co nq uest of Egypt T re tty wi th V enic e D eath of S elim ON EN S C T T . xi

A A A I SULT N SULEYM N I THE M GN FICENT . — — Ho s tilities agai nst Hungary C aptu re of B elgra d e Si ege of — Rhod es R evolt in Egypt Di stu rb anc es in Wallachi a — — — Exp editio n against Persi a Battle of Moh acs Dis turb — — anc es in A s ia Si eg e of Vi enna W ar with A ustri a — Haerreddin B arb aro s s a D est ructio n of the Sp anish — — — Fl eet C apture of Nic e Exp edition of Zrinyi Battle of — — — Sz egedi n A llianc e with F ranc e Siege of M alta D eath of Suleyman

‘ A SULT N SELIM II . — D is turb anc es of the J aniz ari es P eac e with Pola nd and A us — — L— tri a Conqu est of Cypru s B attle of Lepanto D eath of S elim

XIII .

A A SULT N MUR D I II . Ho stilities against Hu ngary Commercial T reaties with ' — — European P owers D efe at of th e Po rtuges e W ar with — — Persia R evolt of th e J aniz a ri e s Dis turb anc es in th e — — P ro vinces W ar with Bo sna a nd A u stri a D eath of

XIV .

A A SULT N MOH MMED III . — — W ar with Wall a chi a W ar with Hungary C aptu re of E rlau — - — Battle of Keredj é Su rrend e r of Konieh F rench — Politic s D eath of Moh ammed

A 1 SULT N A HMED . — — W ar l n A si a and H unga ry T rea ty with A u s tri a Peac e of

- — S ilvatorok Us e o f Tob acco D eath of A hmed

A A A SULT N MUST F I . — His Character His R es ignation S CON TEN T .

XVII . A SULT A N OSM N I I . — A mic able R elations with F ranc e Pea ce with Persi a and Po — land D eath of O sman

XVIII . A SULT A N MUST A F I . — — — His Re- acc es sio n Distu rb ance s in A s i a R esignation His

XIX . A A SULT N MUR D IV . — Persi an Conquests Distu rb anc es in E rz eroum and in th e — — C rimea R evolt of th e J aniz arie s C a ptu re of E rivan and — — T aurl s C aptu re of B agd a d D eath of Mu rad

A A SULT N IBR HIM I . — — Conqu est of th e C ri mea W ar with V enic e T reaty B etween — the Sublime Po rte and C andi a Di s turb ances of th e J ani — z ari es D eath of Ib ra him

XXI . A A SULT N MOH MMED IV . — — W ar with the Venetians M ehmed Kiuprulu Ruptu re Be we en ran e and th e me r e— a e t F c Subli Po t B ttl of St . — V — Goth ard V ar 'with Poland and Ru s s i a John Sobi es ki — — T reaty of D a out Pas h a W ar with Hungary Si ege — — of Vienna R evolutio n of th e J aniz a ri es D ethro nement hammed of Mo .

XXII . A A SULT N SULEYM N II . — — C ontinuatio n of Ho stiliti es Mu st afa Kiuprulu D eath of Sul eyman XXII I A A SULT N HMED I I . — — D efeat at S al anke man Exp edition A gai nst A ust ria Succ ess the ene ans— ea h of A hme of V ti D t d . N EN S CO T T . xiii

XXIV . A A A SULT N MUST F II .

— - Victo ry N ear Lugo s B attle N ear Z ent a P eac e of C arlovitz — r l s s e n a sha— es na n s a a Kiup u u Hu i P R ig tio of Mu t f .

XXV . A A SULT N HMED II I . — — s i f h ar es i n r e S uc ces s c f the W ar with Ru s a C l XII . Tu k y — — Turks T reaty of the Pruth R e volt of M ontenegrens — — W ar with A u stri a P e a c e of Passarovitz Exp e dition — A gains t Pers ia R es ignation of A hmed

XXVI . A A SULT N M HMOUD I .

W ar w h A s r a ers a and R s s a— rea e ra e it u t i , P i u i T ty of B lg d — M ari a Th eres a R evolt of Ku rd s in Co nst anti nopl e D eath of M ahmoud I

XXVII . A A SULT N OSM N I II .

A ess n of sman— e es of A s r a ss a and En cc io O D puti u t i , Ru i g — — l and Regul ation of Clothing D eath of O s man 17 0

XXVI II . A A A SULT N MUST F III . — — W ar with Ru ssia Ca ptu re of Ch oc zin R evolt at Pelopon — — — n esus B attle of T ch es mé Tu rkish Outrag es D eath of Mu stafa

XXIX . A A A SULT N BDUL H MID I . — P eac e of K ainardji T h e Re- o rganiz ation of th e Ottoman — — N avy W ar with Ru ss ia and A u st ria D ea th of A b dul H amid

XXX .

SULTA N SELIM II I . — A s semblies at Foxanio A llianc e of th e Subl ime Porte with n a n ss a and w e en— ea e s — rea E gl d , Ru i S d P c of Si tov T ty — — — of J as sy Ruptu re with F ranc e Pea c e of Pari s Ruptu re — with Ru ss ia and E ngland R es ignatio n of S elim : N EN S CO T T .

XXXL

U A A A S LT N MUST F IV .

n an n — A sas s na n a Di sturb anc es i Co nst ti ople s i tio of Must fa .

XXXII .

A A . SULT N M HMOUD I I , THE REFORMER .

— - W a r with Ru5 3 1a T h e G ree k R evolution B attle of N ava — — rino T reaty of A d ri anopl e R evolt of Moh ammed A li — Exti nction of th e J aniz ari es D eath of M ahmoud

XXX HL

A A M 1 SULT N BDUL EDJ ID . — — W ar with Moh amme d A li Pa s h a C rimea n W ar T reaty of — Pari s D eath of A bdul M edjid

XXXIV . A A A SULT N BDUL ZIZ I . — Commerc ia l T reaty with th e United S tate s I ns u rrectio n in — — C rete His Vi sit to Eu rop e Op eni ng of the Su ez C anal — — Di stu rbanc es in th e D anubi an Provi nc es D ecline of — th e Ottoman E mpi re Out ra ges of th e Bas hi -Bozouks in — Bulgaria D ethro nement of A bdul A ziz

XXXV . A A A SULT N BDUL H MID I . — — W ar with Ru ss ia Lo s s of Provi nc es Pu nis hment of the — A ssas sins of A bdul A ziz Organiz ation of the N ew Kur — — dish C aval ry Out rages in A rmeni a P res ent Condition of M N O T T O A D Y N A S T Y .

I T HE A . OSM N , CONQ UEROR .

— 12 99 13 2 6 .

T he man r s or s man s are s o a e d Otto Tu k , O li , c ll r m m a or s m an th e n e r th e r s h f o Ot n O , fou d of Tu ki m r ar a r an e ra e r n r m e . e e e s E pi Th y v y ci nt c , p u g f o shmae son a ar th e s a e w e A rah am I l , of H g , l v if of b , an d h r re are th e n a es en an s h m , t e efo , li e l d c d t of S e , f th e eld est s on o No ah . Th e n e r h s ra e w as h h an w h o fou d of t i c Og uz K , , r n n hi s an e s ra fa h re n h ms e by enou ci g c t l it , d w upo i lf th e an r hi s a h er ara an h s a s n a ge of f t , K Kh , t u c u i g n and o n e e e th e i n h lo g blo dy co flict b tw n two , w ich th e son w as a r s an d hi s rs fin lly victo iou , with followe e in r an se ttl d Tu k est . h r m D . a n t e a 1000 . a About ye A , M h oud G z i e th e m r G aznev i d es and e found d E pi e of , continu d en it ar fi r an r to ext d s bound ie s by e d s wo d . Multi t ud es of S e ljuki an Tu rks h ad go n e i nto P ersi a an d M e so otomi a h er e h e rm e r m s p , w t y fo d fou Kingdo a m m n h a a as s e and n . e s B gd d , D cu , Al ppo Ico iu J g i K han and hi s follow e rs m ad e l arg e co nques ts i n Asi a l and i n r e th e ron e rs erm an . S u e Eu op , to f ti of G y y m an h ah a r s h l or d i n r e r a e r S , Tu ki f o d to void th i r a e m cr ss th e h ra es a m an e d fu y , tt pted to o Eup t , cco p i hi f l i r a r s s ns e l r m h s h s e and w s e . by o , but f o o d own d Erto h rul th e n es h hi s re s ns s g , you g t , wit th e o , Condo , 2 OM A N D N A S O TT Y T Y.

S aruh ani and sma a r m th e a O n , obt ined f o Seljuki n a ni a s e e m s e r b or Sult n of Ico um , ttl ent on the we t n r r a i re a Er h r l d e s of A meni . It s l te d of tog u th at he h ad a e r r am to th e e f h a ra w i d d e , fect t t while t veling in a fore ign l and he w as h o s pitably receiv e d by a

r n r i rin . h n hi . O et e a s r he mit g , fou d book in oom , a n a h e e rm a w a i d sked t h it wh t it s . It s the h r h r ra t e w w as t e e . r Ko n , o d of God , ply the \ Afte h r him Erto h ru l th e and as s e mit left , g took book p ed h r r a ar th e t e enti e night in e ding it . E ly e n xt mo rn i n r sse s e s hi s e s and g , being opp e d by l ep . he clo ed ye ar a a en s a n him A s a he d he v ly voice yi g to , you h ve r a s r s r a r r s s e d with uch e pect my ete n l wo d , you on a nd ra s s a r ear g nd on will be continu lly hono ed on th . T he Ko ran i s the book which contains the doctrine s of the M h amme an a h th e re en e re e a n o f the am s im o d f it , p t d d v l tio f ou hmae e H w r s r h amme a ra t s . e a s n in e a p o to Mo d , c f y I lit bo M cc 6 A and i n he we h ear of hi s am i n A r . t a e e e a p il , 5 9 D t lft y g b c r e n n his n c amel d river in a c a avan b lo gi g to u cl e . Whe n twenty fi e ears h e m arr e in e a a wea h w w r ears v y old , i d M cc lt y ido , fo ty y o f a e name Cali ah ha mme was a man of no e a n g , d j . Mo d duc tio , na e e en rea or w r e and h ad th e ass s an e a e w and u bl v to d it , i t c of J r a h r hr m n n m n th e n ha a t e c e ou s C i sti an o k i co pili g Kora . Mo m

med o hen a an ne his s nes s and re res en e hi s we rs t b do d bu i , p t d to follo t ha he was a h th e A r h an e a r e wh o had a eare t t ug t by c g l G b i l , pp d t o him His s es a er h s n reased in s h n m ers as . di cipl ft t i i c uc u b to rm a wer arm at th e h ea of wh h h e s ar e ro a fo po ful y , d ic t t d to p p a h s a h s w r His r ama n was h a g t e t i new f ith by t e o d . p ocl tio t t h er is n d h a mme is his r h e A rea t e o e an . but God , Mo d p op t g t m was ra s e a a ns him in e a a nd h e fl ed in s s e tu ult i d g i t M cc , di gui to h s h e e ra h h f rm he e na . e en a e t or t e s t M di T i v t , c ll d H gi , Flig t , o h amme an Era rres n n 6 2 2 A He w s re e e Mo d , co po di g to . D . a c iv d a t e na rme a wer arm and a re the M di , fo d po ful y , c ptu d City of 6 2 A He u h n n a les s all e a a . e e M cc bout 9 D . fo g t i b tt , ubdu d

A ra a e en e h is n es s r a and a er an. e en bi , xt d d co qu t to Sy i , ft v tful c areer e a t e na a t the a e s - h ree T h e h am , di d M di g of ixty t . Mo me an re n e s s in ra n m re h an in th e ran and d ligio xi t t ditio o t Ko , m i h a has f or ts es n w b ut e e e n s w . i ultitud k o littl of it , xc pt t i y It s an ard rea her r e and nh man ar ar all wh o re e t d , t c y , c u lty i u b b ity ; j ct th r h aours or infi d l A r e ss m s ee are a e G i e s . an i c d c ll d , t u Mu ul

D S 4 0 T T OM A N Y N A TY. s r a m a an d ask h er a r for h e r a u e of wo n , ed f the h nd arr a th e a th e dis in m i ge , but Sheikh thought th t ar of s a w as re a and re s hi s p ity t tion too g t , fu ed con

n T h r e - h r h s e . e s e e s e t p inc of E ki S hi , w il li t ning to

s an on s m s e v e h M al O m thi the e , likewi fell in lo wit a h a n s e h er h e h e re h toun , without vi g e n . T S ikh s him a s and ar n th e re s re r m fu ed l o , fe i g ult , moved f o

i e e th e O tt n . S ULTAN OS M AN I . Found r of oma Emp r

T h e r a i i h ae a r . th t count y p ince , lly ng w th Mic l

O x e niu s or ea - e ar re r r yg , P k b d , the G ek lo d of Khi e nki a a r e at th e th e hr a , fo tifi d city foot of P ygi n

m s a a e s m a w as e a . Oly pu , tt ck d O n , but def ted ’ ae ta en r s n e r e am e s ma s Mich l , being k p i o b c O n inti Hi a r and w as a e r ar s n e r e . s m te f iend , ft w d co v t d S O TTOM A N D VN A T Y . 5

n a e h ae - O l us e re s n d e s c end a ts , c ll d Mic l g , w di ti

h r w e a h an d w e r i n e re n gu is h e d for t e i lt po diff t h e h Ed eb ali h r . e poch s of th e Ottom an i sto y S ik h e r i n m arr a e s till refu s e d to giv e hi s d aug t i g to

A T urkish Lady . n th e n on e n h r e am e h a h e a d O s ma , who ig t d d t t n th e r n h e Sh eikh w ere s ittin g togeth e r o g ou d , w il ’ r e as s an n r s n r m th e h e h s , th e moo , i i g f o S ik b t k to ’ hi s m h en a re e s ran s rest on O sm an s bo o , t t p g out of h its a e th e b reas t an d gradu ally cov ere d wit foli g 6 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S Y T .

re e n s r e s a an d r a e sse th co tinent of Eu op , A i Af ic ; v ls

W r tra e rs e1r r e rs and s e as e rs for e e v ing th iv ; tow , ' r ss es m a re s s s ra m s e ar th e t e , in t , obeli k , py id b ing r s e n e re th e n r e s e a re a c e c t , cov d cou t i ; th n g t wind aro s e i n w hich all th e tre es tu rn e d th ei r le ave s

r an W h n m n r tow a d s Const tinople . e O s a a o s e he l re a e hi s re am th e w h o n r re e l t d d to Sheikh , i te p t d it ’ to m e an th at O s m a n s d e s c e n d ant s would b e a stro n g

. an d n er th e r H h ra c e . e e n y , would co qu wo ld t con

s e e r n . s th e nt d to thei unio A di ciple of Sheikh , e r s r f a e at th e m arr a e D vi h Tou oud , o fici t d i g of l O s m an an d M a hatou n .

h en a n r w sh e s ma rr h e en a es a m a r m n a W you g Tu k i to y , g g t i o i l ne a r— an old w man wh o w re en th e a h s find a goti to o , ill f qu t b t to Tu rkis h la dy to ans wer th e requi rement s and po s s e s s th e charms b h r s m h n s h a n o d es ired y t e p o p ectiv e b rid egroo . W e uc ne is n sh e is min e es r e and a s is en th e a se th e fou d , ut ly d c ib d , oft c , n man ses his h ear er th e s n and a rran emen s are you g lo t ov illu io , g t ma e h a e him s ee h er e en h h se e e for wh h d to v , v t oug clo ly v il d , ic r s e sh e w a s out in th e s ree a m an e h e n e a r pu po lk t t cco p i d by t goti to . If th e matt er comes to a s ucc es s ful t ermi nation th e old woman is a for her s er es or in a s e h e h as a m her sh e w V s h er p id vic , c ot , ill i it s i ear h of a s a e w e for h er s on A er she h as friend n s c uit bl if . ft ma e a s e e n is re r e h er h s a n a nd he a r es d l ctio , it po t d to u b d , if pp ov h en th e m h er of th e n m an n e s th e r w h the it , t ot you g i vit gi l it n h own am the ama m or r s h a h for a w om . e er of f ily to H Tu ki b t , l h al e am n a n h en h s is m e e h e o th e s c . p y x i tio _ W t i co pl t d t y g to Halvet or e a r m a nd a r h re as ws wh h en as s t pid iu , ic p t follo , ic oft l t h r h n s th e m n ns e n a r ver two s s e e er . o ou ; t i d c o y of i p ctio H i , h er h an on th e h ea a r sh ad is ns e re a b em s h ot t d of Tu ki l y , co id d l i , a r n men is a e h e a th e a h h s n a nd a d epil to y oi t t ppli d w il t b t . T i oi t ment is mad e and supplie d by th e women wh o h ave ch arge of th e h a r n h a hs an d wh o a en t e e s e r a ns . b t , tt d l di du i g t i blutio T h e length of th e N ikeah or l egal ma rriage c eremoni es and festi h h is v es is erne t e nan a n n t e r e . iti , gov d by fi ci l co ditio of b id If it h er rs marr a e and sh e is wea h the es es a s one wee fi t i g lt y , f tiviti l t k ; but oth erwi s e th e wedding t akes pla c e on W e dn es d ay a nd end s on F rid ay ; ut if S he i s a widow th e c eremony occu rs on Su nd ay and ! b one as k a r n e rn n th e th e feast co ntinu es but day . To Tu k co c i g h ealth of his wife i s to commit the gro ss es t po s sible b reach of e tiquette . 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S Y T . 7

T h e r s h law a ws e er r marr r w e s and Tu ki llo v y Tu k to y fou iv , to have a s many s l ave wives as hi s pu rs e will p ermit ; th es e are c alle d d lik He ma a s s mis s at e as re a n one of his e a O a s . y l o di pl u y l g l w es r mes and h e c a n a a n m arr e h er of h em e a iv , fou ti g i y it t l g lly r mes a er h s s h h e w s h to m arr h er is ne c es fou ti , but ft t i ould i y , it sar h a s h e s h m e anwh e h a e e en ma rr e to a nd r e y t t ould il v b i d , divo c d r m an h er h s and in r er h a h s h marr a e m a b e f o ot u b , o d t t t i fift i g y h s rn s n a er a w ma n i s d r ed h e h us e a . a i t l g l If c ild bo oo ft o ivo c , n s r m a n a n h of h em f ra a b a d i re qui e d to i t i bot t or s eve l ye rs . Th e re i s no dis c rimination b etween th e child re n of a wife or a s e h h a r h s n an e is n e er n s h e i n lav ; t ey ave e qu l ig t . I f ticid v pu i d r e Tu k y .

W h e n O Sm an b e cam e an i n d e p e n d e nt p rinc e , h e fulfill ed hi s p romi se to build for th e d ervi s h wh o f a e a t hi s m arr a e a n e n r h e n w e o fici t d i g , co v t , ic ly do d w h a e s an d a s an d w h h re ma n e for it vill g l nd , ic i d en r e s i n th e s s e ss n th e a m r c tu i po io of f ily of Tou oud .

12 r l D . E h r 8 8 . t u e a man o e . s In A , g di d of old g O r e for hi s a h e r b u t hi s s rr w w as m a e g iev d f t , o o itig t d

‘ h a h r h hi n r h an I n 12 t t e s s o . 8 wit joy bi t of , O c 9 sma s e th e r ara s sar an d w as h on O n ubdu d fo t K Hi , ’ re an a h- u d - di n e s ra e h o d by Sult All of S ljuk c , wit th e e m r or es e n an th e r h e titl of E i , d c d t of p op t , and h e w as di sti ngui s h e d by w e aring a tu r b an of

e e s e a- re e n th e r e ar all th e r a e d p g , colo p culi to c of h amm Mo e d .

T h r s h m n h r r m n ar h T he an e ern e is a e e a . Tu ki gov t dit y o c y Sult , c a e a s a s h ah i s an a s e e s and aims b e a ll d l o P di , b olut d pot , cl to re re s en a e of th e r h e h amm e H e d e e a es his s r p t tiv p op t Mo d . l g t pi i t a wer to the S k eikh - ul - s a m wh o ne to him is th e h h e s u l po I l , , xt , ig t h amme an f er H e is a s th e h ea of th e er Mo d O fic ; l o d cl gy , viz mams or ha a ns emas or ea h ers law and re n I , c pl i ; Ul , t c of ligio ; and as or s en s of v n all wh m en man r Soft , tud t di i ity , of o joy y p ivi l e es e n th e s r ers h amme an s m and r m ers g , b i g uppo t of Mo d i , p o ot of bigotry and fanaticism ; in thi s res p ect th ey are wo rs e th an the res th e e h es e all w ear wh e r ans th nea d e t of p ople . T it tu b ; e li l s cend ants h amme th e r h e a ne a re allowed o to wear of Mo d , p op t , lo reen T h e a h i wer th e ran r . e an a s e es s g Sult l o d l g t po to g d vizi , 8 O OM A N D N A S TT Y T Y.

wh o is th e h h es f er of the m n n T h e ve rn rs h e ig t o fic do i io . go o of t r n es and th e h h er f ers th e ern men are a e p ovi c , ig o fic of gov t , c ll d as h as the ves man of he m h we er w e re rmer end e P ; li of y t , o v fo ly d th e ws r n T he s reme r of P r e is a e h e by bo t i g . up cou t u k y c ll d t me r e th e an is th e rea es n th e na n Subli Po t ; Div g t t cou cil of tio .

Du ring thi s p e riod th e fi rst coin w as s truck b e ar ’ I n n r T h e a n h a n g Sulta O s m an s p ofil e . Sult vi g Mich ae l Oglu a s an i ntimat e a dvi s e r and fe llow s e r h ad s e th e n e r n re e r oldi , ubdu d ighbo i g G k p ov i nc e s and e r e r n rs e n na r , th i gov o b ing i dig nt fo med a a a ns s m an a arr on plot g i t O , pl nning to c y it out th e d ay ap p om te d for th e marri ag e of th e gove rn o r

h ha - m e . e e e of Bil jik T y Invited Mic l Oglu to j oin th , h e r h r n h n r but e b t ay e d t e i pla s to t e Sulta . Afte a s r t s an m ar e a a st a a an d t king thi fo , O m ch d g in Nic e e n n hi m s . e s s s a ubdu d it He co ti u d conque t , de Y e ni s h e hi r hi s e a ar rs an d r m e n h dqu te , f o th ce pl anned an a ssault on B ru s a ; aft e r m any v i c torl es i n Asi a Mi n o r h e re ti re d to Y e ni sh e hi r i n c onse

u en c e th e o d is eas e hi s e e q of of f t , In 1 3 2 6 hi s s on O r c h a n subdu e d B ru sa with g re at 1nh mani a m a h e ar n Of h a re u ty . Sult n O s n i g t i s c ptu e e r n h a hi s b u rial s h a e died cont nt d , di ecti g t t / ould t k a i n a w h h h ad be e n a e th e a a pl ce th t city , ic m d c pit l hi m n m a n w as r i n 12 8 th e of s do inio . O s bo n 5 in an d hi s s r i s s re s r i n City of Sugut , wo d till p e ved a n w a a ra e arr i r an e e s n e . s Con t ti opl He b v w o , xc l e n m a an d a r e an h a n e h l t diplo t , c u l Sult , vi g kill d wit

i r r n n r Hi r ss h s a row hi s v e n e abl e u cl e Du b a . s d e s s a ra e a a h e r a w h con i ted of b id d co t , w it tu b n it fe athe rs ov e r w hich w as a re d poi nt e d c ap ; hi s m s re n s a n h e h ad a r m n e n n s e li b we u u u lly lo g , p o i t o , b a a r an d e ar and a s ar h u e h l ck h i b d w thy , w ich 0 T T M A N D YN A S O T Y . 9 colo r i s co nsid e re d by th e Asi atic s as an exce ll e nt m n e e a f r h r e s o s e a . s man o , p ci lly t o of oy l blood O e n e th e e an nas an d i n 1 00 b e b lo g d to S ljuki dy ty , 3 am e an n e en en r H e c i d p d t s ov e eig n . di e d a t th e ag e

se e n t h a n re ne e n - S ix ea rs ea n of v y , vi g ig d tw ty y , l vi g

s s ah -u d - di n and r h an hi s u s e ss rs . two on , All O c , cc o

A A T HE N SULT N ORCH N , CO Q UEROR .

1 2 6— 1 3 3 59 ,

S ultan O rch an succ e e d e d to th e th ro ne ju st aft er n a th e captu re of B ru sa . Upo ssu ming th e reins of the e rnm e b e e e rm ne s h are th e s ov gov nt , d t i d to

erei nt h hi s r h e r a h - u d - din w h o e n a g y wit b ot All , b i g r m an re s e th e ff e r s a n d e p udent fu d o , y i g it would ’ s troy th e u nity of O r c h an s domi ni o n ; an d th at h e o nly d esi re d a vill age on th e pl ai n s of B rus a as a ’ r r h n hi r h r n w e e e s en e . a n a s e s id c O c v lui g b ot k o l dg ,

i r r l ah - - i n w a n ot appointe d h m g and vizi . A l u d d s a n e e r i n arl e a f a rs an d rne hi s a e n n xp t w ik f i , tu d tt tio th e i nte rn al m r e men th e m n n n r to i p ov t of do i io , i t o d u c in a n e w e r en aw s arm re a ns g cod of w itt l , y gul tio ari na e w h e an r h an rs e a are r d coi g , il Sult O c pu u d c e s a r n am n h e r s th e r e n n e of conque t , c ptu i g , o g ot , ow d r resse s s an d me n r a th e a er w h h fo t of Aido Se d i , l tt of ic w as taken in th e follow i ng m an n er : T h e s on of its e rn r h a n e a a e th e as e w as ene gov o vi g di d , g t of c tl op d I O O T T OA/ A N D Y N A S T Y.

for th e r a h e th e r s n e r th e mma bu i l , w n Tu k u d co nd of

A kts a- a r s h e i n and a r h r r T h Hodj u d c ptu e d t e fo t e ss . e

“ m A kts a- a i re r e a a h r n to b of Hodj s still p s e v d s s i e . Aido s w as b e si e g e d by C onu ralp a n d Gh azi A b d u rah ’ r h r r r m an . e s s e s r n b ut t e e a e It i t d t o gly , gov no s d ught s aw A bd u rah m an r m th e ra m a r s th e r r s f o p t of fo t es , and w sh n as s s him h r e w e r i i g i t , t out lett tied to

C H S ULTAN O R AN . a sto ne s howi ng him h o w to e nt er th e fo rtre ss du ring an r h an e n n rm h s th e night . Sult O c b i g i fo ed of t i e n e rm e A b d u ra h m an m a rr th e r and ev t , p itt d to y gi l ,

h e r s on ara- A b d u ra hm an w as s n s i n t i K , di ti gui hed fl I n 1 2 6 N i c od e mi a w as n er m an n s . y co ict 3 co qu ed . and thi s complete d th e e nti re co nqu e st of Bithy ni a by the Ottom ans .

0 T T OM A N 1) VN A S Y T . 3

I n th e re n an r h an th e an ar e s or ig of Sult O c , J iz i n e w troop s w e re o rgan iz e d by th e a dvic e of K ara

a - T c h end e reli h e n a - u l - s e r or e H lil , t K di A k judg of

H r ah - - i n an h th e army . e u g e d All u d d d t e Sultan to r an e re m en s h r s an h re n w h o h a n o g iz gi t of C i ti c ild , , vi g e en i n s a e r re a s m h e r f ers b l v y , would dily ub it to t i o fic , and p rov e mo r e faithful to th ei r maste rs th an the r m ans w h o n ot b e eas n r e Tu co , could ily co t oll d . Thi s c ru e l and mo st inhu man p ropo sition w as a c c e te d an d on e h s an re e s e r e rm p , t ou d G k boy of p f ct fo an d e a res r m s e e n e ars a e an d w ard s f tu , f o v y of g up , er r r m h e r are n s c onv e r te d t o s a m s m w e to n f o t i p t , I l i r nd h am s r w as rm e a s s s e . d ill d , t u thi f ou co p fo d h e r m e m s e es an d th e es h e r f ers T i e bl , d vic , titl of t i o fic

“ n a r n h r ran F r n an er e e . o s e w e giv cco di g to t i k i t c , th ei r comm and e r w as nam e d T c h orb adj i or B r oth dist ributor ; th e oth e r offic ers w e re th e A htc hi - B assi or h e th e a a- as s or a e r eare r an d s o c i f cook , S k B i w t b r T h e h en e e s r a e n e th e fo th . kitc k ttl of O t b lo g d to re m en w h h a e th e s na re rn n gi t , ic g v ig l to volt by tu i g th e m up side down ; th e O dj ak or fi re pl a c e i n th ei r rr a r a m h am r ba a cks w as a s c e d sylu . T i s f ou s co p s rm na m w as exte i te d by S ultan M ah oud I I .

It is cu s tomary for the Mu s s ulmen to kidnap Chri sti an children and m e he m em ra e s am sm in wh h h e are r e e co p l t to b c I l i , ic t y p ot ct d h e a h r s by t ut o itie .

es es th e ani ari e s th e m an ar m c on B id J z , Otto y s s e re ar an d rre ar a e or n an r i t d of gul i gul pi d i f t y , se era s a r ns h rs e ar s n am e S i ahi s a v l qu d o of o gu d d p , r s rre ar a a r a e A ki n d i or ra ers co p of i gul c v l y c ll d j id , n r none of whom w e re p aid but liv e d on plu d e . an r h an n n e hi s n es s an d re n Sult O c co ti u d co qu t , di cti g I 4 O TTOM A N z) Y N A S T Y

hi s i r s ar s a a s th e a a r d e V cto iou m g in t Byz ntine my , fe ated Empe ro r An d ronicu s ne ar Pel eka n or M alte p e i n 1 3 3 0 ; h e th e n p roce e d e d to Nicae a which th e a e m r r h a d r s r a ai Byz ntin E pe o p eviou ly et ken , l d s e e its a a s n ot r n as s s a e i g to it ; inh bit nt , eceivi g i t nc r m an n r m s e e e a e e . f o Con t ti opl , w fin lly co p ll d to yield e a th e s on r a th e mm a Sul ym n , of O ch n , took co nd of i a r h r h r r h c ea an d a a s a . t a e t e N , Mu d t t of B u S o ly ft

ran r a - u d - th e r e r a g d vizi All h din , b oth of Sult n r h a a nd w as s e e m n th e O c n , died ucc ed d by Suley a , es s on th e a e r w h o n m r e a arr r old t of l tt , bei g o of w io h r a i n n Hi a h e r S a a r e e e e s s . s an t n ul , ng g d co qu t f t , ult r h an a r m a r es s a n r re re O c , fte ny victo i in A i Mi o , ti d a n d d e vot e d th e re m ai n d e r of h 1s re i gn to th e i m r m n an m hm n r p ove e t d e b e llis e t of B u s a . T h e By zantl n e Em p e ro rs w e r e e ngag e d i n c on s an e rna arr s and r e r re a th e t t int l qu el , in o d to t in r s th e an ~ h n C ata c uze nu s th e f iend hip of Sult , Jo , re n s e re n 1 a e on e hi s a e rs igni g ov ig in 3 47 , g v of d ught , th e r n e ss h e ra m a rr a e a young p i c T odo , in i g to Sult n H r n a w a r a h e n s ars a e . e s o s O ch n , t ixty ye of g , H lil , a re i c om e di a ra e s an d ra s m c ptu d in N by pi t , n o ed by

n . r m Joh P aleologu s I fo r a l a g e s u of money . Theo ra w as as se as s h e w as e a an d h e r do wi b utiful , by s aga city and good conduct obtain e d th e e ste em an d a ffection of h e r hu sb a nd and th e O ttom an p e ople . ’ a O rc h an s s on e man n an Sult n ; Sul y , fi ding induce

’ m n and e n n ass i st C atac uzenus a a s e t , int di g to g in t hi - - r th e H e] s s on i n law a e s I . sse , John P l ologu , c o d l e s ont an d arr at th e r e a as h r p ived Eu op n co t , w e e he s ubdued Gallipoli an d oth e r Th ra ci an citie s in 1 3 57 . a as h a e en a e d a Suleym n P , whil g g d one y in the 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y. I 5

a r e r sh s r a nr a e a fe ll f vo it Tu ki po t of f lco y , ccid nt lly

r m hi s h rs e an d w as e i n 1 n e ar a r e r f o o kill d 3 59 , iv

’ an r h n h r i n h ra e . a ea n hi s s n s T c Sult O c , upon i g of o h e e e ss e r e at th e a e ea . d t , di d of xc iv g i f g of 7 5 H e h ad h re e s ns th e e eas e e m an a l t o , d c d Sul y , H li r h e him r h n and Mu a d w o succ e d e d . O c a w as a b rav e man and a r m e r e a n an d rel p o ot of duc tio igion . H e res e mbl e d hi s fath e r o nly i n hi s p romi n ent n o se r Hi m an d bl a ck e y e b ows . s co plexio n w as b eautiful ; h e h ad a r h a r r h e e s a r a reh ea a al f i i , b ig t y , b o d fo d , t l re re s h a e h m s a h e s an d ear an d figu , ddi f c , t ick u t c b d , a r n r n hi r n h l s s . s t e e obu t co titution Du i g eig , tit ' ash a h h i s m s e e rs a w r s Pa z P , w ic co po d of two P i n o d , and S ka /z s n n th e h a h w as s e for , ig ifyi g foot of S , u d th e rs m e e n e hi s r h e r ah -u d fi t ti , b i g giv n to b ot All an hi n e m a din d to s so Sul y n .

SULT A N MUR A D I .

13 59— 1 3 89

w a r i n 1 8 and s e e e Sultan Mu rad I . s bo n 34 ucc d d H a ne hi s father at th e ag e of tw e lve . e found di s cipli d Hi ar a s a ern rs and e e . s my , good l w , loy l gov o p opl wi sh w as to e xte n d hi s dominio n ov e r Th ra c e and a n a n h a th e r n e C aram ani a M cedo i , but fi ding t t p i c of and th e chi e f of A ngo ra h ad u nit e d i n a re v olt a a ns th e ma er an ra th e g i t Otto n Pow , Sult Mu d took c ontrol ‘ of hi s arm e a e h em and a r d y , d fe t d t c ptu e 16 0 T T OM A N D Y N S A T Y.

n r H r a . e e s a a e ara a A go w nt to B u , ppoint d K H lil

‘ T c h end erli a nn e n th e r a s e ma r , co ctio of oy l hou by ri a e er r a h e r s s e th e H e l g , gov no of th t city ; t n c o d l es ont and a re all th e as s ra p c ptu d co t citie of Th ce . I n 136 1 Sultan Mu rad obtained po s s ession of

r a e th e s e th e a e m r Ad i nopl , cond city of Byz ntin E pi e , h h a th e a a th e m n h w ic bec me c pit l of Otto a s . Pu s in g

hi s e s ar s a e n a an d th e H e mas conqu t tow d M c do i ,

ra a re and h s th e e r r Mu d took S g P ilippopoli , gov no h h h a fl e d e r a h o f w ic d to S vi . In t e y e ar 1 3 63

V h n r h i Uro l s . t e e a t e n n ar p , ki g of S vi , k g of Hu g y ,

th e r es sn a a a h a a nd a r a e re p inc of Bo i , W ll c i Bulg i , w n i n duc e d by Pop e Urban V . to u it e i n an e ffo rt to r h m r Lal e t e a s e . as h ahi n d iv Otto n out of Eu op , the m an mman e r s s e th e m e m Otto co d , u p cting ov ent of th e a e a rm e s e i n n m e r h h h ad lli d i , doubl u b , w ic r ss e th e r e r M a ri zz a re s e a a e m c o d iv , olv d to tt ck th T h e h r ans as re i s e n . s s v c udd nly by ight C i ti , u d of n h r ne e e all m ar re a s . T e r s to y , gl ct d ilit y p c utio Tu k m ad e th e ass ault and pu rs ue d th e m until th ey plung e d into th e M arizza an d p e ri s hed i n its w ate rs th e plai n whe re th e combat took pla ce i s calle d ’ S i rf S i n d u ghi or S e rb s rout . “ In 13 6 5 th e I mp e ri al Tugh ra w as u s ed for th e

r m w as s n e on th e th e c om fi s t ti e . It ig d top of

m e rc i al re a h ra e th e t ty , whic Mu d conclud d with a s a m i ts h a a s a e City of R gu , co pelling in bit nt to m k a n an nu al p ayme nt of 500 gold e n ducats to him .

h T he Tugh ra i s th e s ignatu re which Sult an Mu ra d ma d e with t e en is use p alm of his h and s meared with ink from la ck of a p . It d a er the manner eas ern s ea s an d s n e hen h as a eare on ft of t l i c t , pp d th e ns and at th e all of a d men s th e r sh coi , top of fici l ocu t of Tu ki o rn n g ve me t . O OM A N D Y N TT A S T Y . 17

Sultan Mu ra d r e m ai n e d at B ru sa to c e l e b rate th e s ounet or r m s n hi s h re e s ns a e ci cu ci io of t o , B y zid , a and a an d h e re m e r an Y coub , S oudji , t n ov d to Ad i

O pl e .

T h e s ounet or r m s n a m n th e r s i s a re s r e . ci cu ci io o g Tu k , ligiou it er s on a h ea h h m s b e r m s e wh en h e is h re e Ev y , if lt y c ild , u t ci cu ci d t ears his h ea h es not erm of s o s e vere an era y old , but if lt do p it op n n n his en h ar I n an a h we e r th is s e e . s e e tio , it po tp o d u til t t y y c , o v , r m n is a w a s a en e rea ea s t n and merr m a n ce e o y l y tt d d by g t f i g y ki g .

I n 13 69 - th e Sultan appoint e d K ara H alil Tch en er ran r w h o e i n 1 86 i n hi s 0th e ar d eli g d vizi , di d 3 9 y

f h r afte r 18 y ears of ait ful s e vic e .

T ughra or Monogram of S ul ta n A b dul Hamid

I n 1 8 I t h e ma s m ar n e m s su b 3 , Otto n chi g up to H o , d e th e ar an r n a Ku stend e an d th e u d Bulg i p i cip lity j , ns a n a a a a a e res ra ma a s tow S lo ic , Vitoli , C v l , S , D ; l o

s sa a s r n er a a en a e r a s e e Ni , t o g city of S vi , t k ft i g of

- h r es ea e w as e fi e a s . e r e s e tw nty v d y Aft t victo i , p c

e are e e e n th e i n e r 1a th e r of d cl d b tw K g of S v , P ince ar a and th e a r e h ns Bulg i Sult n of Tu k y , wit conditio a a r n e S hi sman ar a h r of t x tion . P i c of Bulg i , oweve , O M A N Z) Y N A S Y 18 TTO T .

p referred to obtain pe a ce by gi v i ng hi s d aughte r i n arri a n e r r ns a a m ge to the co qu o , i te d of the p yment

of money .

T h e Bulgarians are an anci ent Sl avonic p eopl e a nd s ettl ed a bout 0 A on he a an en ns a h w er t . e e n er 45 . D . B lk P i ul T y co v te d to h a 8 0 w A . o e r n r s an . t e a e s r s and C i ti ity bout 4 D by c l b t d Mo k , Cy illu e h s a n a M t odiu of S lo ic .

T hi s pe ace l a ste d six y ears ; du ring which pe riod

an ra re - r an e hi s arm n Sult Mu d o g iz d y , dividi g it into re i m n s an d n th e rs h e r a s g e t , fixi g colo of t i fl g which m n r an r h e re r s e d e d . s w , c i o , g e n Wi ing to extend i hi s m re h e as e for th e a h r h e r e E pi , k d d ug te of t P inc rm an i n s a r m arr a e for h i s e s t of Ke i , A i Mino , in i g eld s on a e an d s e n a ar e e e a n a B y zid , t l g d l g tio with v lu a T h e r e i n re r r as h e r ble gifts . b id tu n b ought

r m r as ure and th e e s r e s ; dow y uch t e , k y of fou citi th e e n w as e e ra e at r s a an d w as at w ddi g c l b t d B u , e b re r es a s f e re n r i s t nded y the p ent tive of di f t count e , r h r e s a r s as ts th e who b oug t G e k l ve gi l , gif to a Sult n . r e a a s on ra th e son of P inc S oudji , of Mu d , with m r r n rm n h an e V. e a a a s t e E p o Joh , fo d plot g i t Sult , a e a s ma an r s an d re e id d by ll b d of Tu k , of young G k n r w a a a h an es . a a s t s d nobl Sult Mu d indign nt t i , h h e e a h e r s ns a e r s rs wit Jo n d cid d th t t i o if t k n p i one , s ho uld lo s e th ei r eye s ; S a oudj i an d A n d ronicu s w e re n a n r r i i i i n 1 defe ated a d t ke p i s on e s at D d mot c o 3 8 5 . s a an ra Ou t th e e es hi s s on In t ntly , Sult Mu d put y of and e h a e him or h re e n r e b e d d , two t of the you g G e k l s e r e r at a m e and r nob e w e tied tog the ti , th own into r r M arizza h s m h r sa s the ive , w ile he iled wit g im ti fa ctio n at the rapidity with which they s ank b e

A ZV D Y A S Y 2 0 O T T OM N T .

s s i n ra and a e n a re n r ion Th ce M c do i , by f quent i cu s s arr e at Y e ni s h e hi r and e e ra e h e re ion , iv d , c l b t d t th e m arr a e s hi s s ns a e d an d Y a i g of two o , B y zi coub , h th e an ne r n es s s an d th e r m s o wit Byz ti p i c e , ci cu ci i n hi s re e ran h re n s ns a e b an of th g dc ild , o of B y zid y oth e r wife . e r h s th e ran r as h a an arm Aft t i , g d vizi Ali P , with y of m ar ch e d a gai ns t p ri n c e S hi s m a n of Bul

n h e w a h r a r h m a an ga ri a . O t y t ith e he c ptu e d S u l d hi m n rr n rn a and e s e s . S s a s e Ti ov , b ieg d Nicopoli u

e re as h a an d w as arr e ri s ne r in d d to Ali P , c i d p o to th e re s e n e an ra w h o ar ne him p c of Sult Mu d , p do d , i on con dition th at S ili str a s hould b e giv e n u p . S hi s m an a e e h e s e e rm s b u t r e hi s cc d d to t t , b ok r m s e and w as e e a e a a ash a i n p o i d f t d g in by Ali P , 1 8 an d w as a e n for th e S e m e i n e e rs 3 7 , t k cond ti f tt to

an ra n e m r a r e d him h s Sult Mu d , who o c o e p don t u

m i r Bulgari a w as anne x e d to th e Ottom an E p e . a ar s n e r a e a r n the r re ss L z u , Ki g of S vi , f i g p og of th e ans e are w ar a a ns h e m l an Ottom , d cl d g i t t ; Su t ra s mm e hi s s ns a e an d a Mu d u on d o B y zid Y coub , r m s a and h th e n e ra s as h a a n d f o A i , wit ge l Ali P r n s B e m ar h e a a s e r a h e e am e Ev i o y , c d g in t S vi ; nc p d on th e plains of K ossov a by th e b anks of th e rive r S hi nitza re h r s met re a c on , whe bot fo ce . A d dful o e ns e h th e e r i a s e r s a d e fli t u d , in whic S v n w e ign lly m il i h re e a e . e r an n e s Ka b ov tc f t d A S vi obl , Milo , p en n a e s er e r h m r a s e r s t di g to be d t , wit i po t nt c et to re a th e a w as a o e e er th e m e ve l to Sult n , ll w d to nt I p r a e n an d e e n i n h m a re ra i l t t , kn li g o ge befo Mu d , s tabb e d h i m ; th e Sultan a s h e w as dyi ng o rde re d th e executio n of King Lazaru s T he ass assin w as S t . I . ul an

i i te th e te i . 2 . M n s r of In r or - t e G i i . I n A c ie t . 3 . rand V s r n n Cos um

0 T T OM A N D YN A S T Y . 2 3

s e e an d e th e an ar e s n h iz d kill d by J iz i o t e spot . Mu ra d w as inte rre d i n th e mo squ e built by him i n I n h e a e K a n r s a . t oss ov a ns w h h h ad B u b ttl of , c no ic re en e e e n e r e w e re rs se c tly b n inv t d in Eu op , fi t u d by r an ra a a th e Tu k s . Sult Mu d w s ss as si nat e d i n

” at th e a e r - on e a er a re n en -n ne g of fo ty , ft ig of tw ty i e ars and w as s e e e hi s s on a e su r y , ucc d d by B y zid , na m r m or h n e r h s e ra ed Yildi i T u d bolt , w o pidity of a n s e th e e ctio ju tifi d titl .

A A I S ULT N B YEZID .

— 2 1 3 89 140 . an a s rnam e r m or h n r Sult B y ezid , u d Yildi i T u de was rn i n 1 an d s e e e hi s a h er at bolt , bo 3 59 , ucc d d f t th e a r mm e a e a e r hi s a es s n g e of thi ty . I di t ly ft cc io r hi r h r a b e ea h e re s . he o d d b ot e , Y coub , to put to d t

T h e mu rder of all p ri nc es of royal blood h enc efo rth b ec ame th e s a e ar of th e man na s for a r n S aded din th e f gu d Otto dy ty , cco di g to , “ r s h h s r an th e a n i s the s h a w of G od n e ar h Tu ki i to i , Sult , do upo t , and as th e r of all r e e e ers m s re n in n rm w h lo d t u b li v , u t ig co fo ity it th e ne e a m e a nd w h a n s s of h er a man divi x pl it out y po ibility ot cl i t . O n this a ccount all p rinc es are us u ally k e pt in strict s eclu s ion in th e a a e T h e h e r of th e an a r n to th e man P l c . i Sult , cco di g Otto l aw m s his es ma e re a e wh e h er n e r h e r o r , u t b old t l l tiv , t u cl , b ot ne h ew and not his n r e e e s s on a s i . p , ld t Eu op

’ I n th e e arly p art of B ay ezid s reign h e w age d a s ss w ar a a s e r a and m e e n ucce ful g in t S vi , co p ll d Ki g e h en Lazare v itc h s n a re a h h St p to ig t ty , by w ic e r m n a are S vi a b e c a me th e v assal of th e Otto a s . L z v itc h h en a e th e an h i s S i s er i n m arr a e t g v Sult t i g , an d p romi s e d to re nd er p e rs onal milita ry s e rvic e i n all hi m s ca p aign s . 24 O TTOM A N D Y N A S T V

I n 1 0 he m ar h e a a s a a a sn a an d 39 c d g in t W ll chi , Bo i Hungary ; th e Wall a chi ans submitted i n 139 1 but th e sn a ns ass s e th e n ar a s re s s for Bo i , i t d by Hu g i n , i ted a n r m m n th e n ar e . s lo ge ti Sigi u d , Ki g of Hung y , h hi s re n h I a an e rm an an d r a a a l e s wit F c , t li , G C o ti n l i , r s se th e a e a nd a e rr e e s e c o d D nub , t ibl conflict n u d i n 6 T h r n n 1 at s . e e e s 39 , Nicopoli F ch wh in ight of r s a an e at n e s h re a ra r the Tu k dv c d o c , owing g t b ve y , m i n n th e e e m e a m a h ne a ow g dow n y lik c i , but fin lly th e y w e re ov e rpow e red by th e gre at nu mbe r of mans s m e re h re on th e s e rs Otto ; o e w butc e d pot . oth , h th e re n an d th e a e s r a bot of F ch of lli , we e t ken s a e s and w h a fe w e e ns re m s r e l v , it xc ptio we o t c u lly exec ute d th e n e xt mo rning in th e p re s e nce of Sult a n

a h h r r r e . m n s e w o e s a e B y zid A o g t o we p d , we e s e e ra re h e s e re rans om a r a v l F nc nobl , who w ed fte lo ng time ; a l s o a youth from Mu nich n amed Schild e r e r an a t e n an a a a r a n e ma b g , t d t to B v i n obl n who h a i h a H e w a a h n r d fall e n n t e b ttl e . s s v e d by t e i t e ’ c e ssmn B a ezid s s on re rn e hi s na e a of y , tu d to tiv l nd a e r h r - r e ars a an d e s a a n ft t i ty fou y of c ptivity , giv p i ful de s c ri ption of th e m as sa c re of hi s com rad e s by th e an ar e s at h a m e S e e s r th e J iz i , t t ti ( hi to y of

man r r a s . . e s Otto Tu k , by E S C y , p . Addi tional fa cts i n re gard to th e b arb arity of B ay ezid

h r 2 . c an b e a s i n C r e as s s t . found l o y i o y , p 4 h r a e r h s a B a e s e an d S o tly ft t i Sult n y zid ubdu d , ann e e hi s m n ns a as Kas ta moni x d to do i io , Tok t , Siv , , Si n op e and S ams ou n an d a dv an cin g to th e Th ra ci an s h r s h e m ar h e a a ns ns an i n e w Bo p o u , c d g i t Co t t opl , ith an army of fou r th ou s an d i nfant ry an d s ix thou s an d

a a r re s th e h a - nd e r n e n r n s c v l y , cued lf bli d p i c A d o icu . O T T O/”24 1V D N A S Y T Y. 2 5

w h o w a s n n e i n th e a a e Vl a c h e re na an co fi d p l c of , d e n h r n e hi m w h e th e m e r r h n t o d , il E p o Jo P al e olog u s

w as e os e an d h hi s s on mm an d p d , wit E u e l w as im

r s n e d i n a w e r on th e h ra an a p i o to T ci co s t . T h e

ar s h s w e r e n u a r ans a w e h e gu d of t i to b i g B lg i , llo d t r n r a h p i s o e s to e s c p e . T e y w e n t to As i a a nd im

t ti e Cons an nopl . pl ore d th e as si stanc e of Sult an B ay ezid w h o c om pli e d on con ditio n th at Joh n P al e ologu s w ould p ay th e tax w hich . h ad b e e n p romi s e d by hi s s on n r n s the u l an an d a s s u him A d o icu to S t , l o pply r T h e a nnu ally w ith 12 000 i n fant ry an d c a v al y .

m e r r a e e h e s e e r m s an d th e u an di s E p o cc pt d t t , S lt D A S 2 6 O TTOM A N YN T Y .

p atch e d m e ss e ng e rs to Co nst antin opl e to as c e rtai n which of th e tw o Emp e ro rs th e i n h a bitants wi s h e d h a e on th e ' a ne h r ne a n d e s e e e to v Byz nti t o , th y l ct d a e m e e r Jo hn P al e ologu s . B y zid co p ll d And onicu s a a e and r e n s S ili v ri a H e re li a to bdic t , to li qui h , g , s an d a n a a r w h h h n a e s Rodo to S lo ic , fte ic Jo P l ologu n n n as c ended th e th ro ne of Co sta ti opl e . e r th e e a h th e m e r r h n hi s s on Aft d t of E p o Jo , mma e w h o h a d e e n e as a h s a at E nu l , b k pt o t ge r s a fl e d ns a n n e h re w as ro B u , to Co t ti opl , w e he p a m e m e r r an w as e ra e at h s cl i d E p o ; the Sult n g d t i , a n d r e re him a a e h e re s an d th e o d d to bdic t , but fu ed , h a Sulta n b e si e g e d t t cit y .

ns an n e th e res en a a of th e man m re w a s Co t ti opl , p t c pit l Otto E pi , Ca e an m r m as w h o n e in 6 8 is ll d Byz tiu f o Byz , fou d d it 5 B . C . It S ha e l e a r an e an d w a s e n ar e ns an ne th e rea p d ik t i gl , l g d by Co t ti G t , W h o removed th e s eat o f the Empi re from Ro me to Byz antium in 0 h th n s s t in r nd s s a e o A . as e e e u e a i n a 3 3 D . It fi t i E op , itu t d r m n r se en h s ea h one of wh h is r wne a ma p o o to y of v ill , c ic c o d by g nific ent m s e O n one s e h as th r n s or f . e S ea o o qu id it P opo ti , arm ra and on th e her th e har r of th e en rn es M o , ot bo Gold Ho ; it li at th e m th th e h ra an B os h orous a nd W h its s u rb urb s ou of T ci p , it rms a ma n en res e n n a ea ew r m th e s ea fo g ific t city , p ti g b utiful vi f o . T h e h a rbo r of Co nst anti no pl e i s s uffici ently d e e p to flo at s hip s of th ar est e an d i s s a e mm h as a s alub i us e s a nd s . r o l g iz , f co odiou It ima e i ts a n es th e nes mme r a a anta e s i n the cl t , loc tio giv it fi t co ci l dv g w r b e n nne e r w w h e er ar of r e a a . o ld , i g co ct d by il y it v y p t Eu op It i s th o roughly co smopolita n in populatio n and religion a nd is a of w n er s s e s I n a d n h s its h s r city o d ful po ibiliti . d itio to t i , i to ic re c ord s of ho rrible c rue lty an d opp re s sio n h av e b een s eldom e uaHe d q . wa s ta en th e r s a ers in 1 2 0 a nd re a ne n 12 6 1 It k by C u d 4 t i d u til , wh e n a a n a me n e r th e w f th e ree m r rs I t it g i c u d po e r o G k E p e o . w as a en the r s in 1 a nd w h its a re en e th e t k by Tu k 453 , it c ptu d d re e or as ern m e G k E t E pi r .

r n n s e e ns an n e its i n hab Du i g the lo g i g of Co t ti opl , i tants s f e re re a r m a m n e an d a h e u f d g tly f o f i , fin lly t y

r e th e ran r as a w ho r w b ib d G d Vizi Ali P h , withd e

2 O M A N p Y N A S T Y 8 TTO .

e s s . 1 00 a a e a r a Peloponn u In 4 , Sult n B y zid , fte s r es s e ss es s r re r s a and e i of ucc ful conqu t , eti d to B u , a a n e h m se for a m e r a b ndo d i lf ti to luxu y . intoxic tion and s e nsu a l ex e ss e s of th e foul e st d e s c riptio n e s es s ta n e n o h e r ss e ss s r B id Con nti opl , ot po ion we e h an n m r r n h e s a l e ft to t e Byz ti e E p e o . O t A i tic as th e s h r s a a e e re e a co t of Bo p o u , Sult n B y zid ct d as s r se r e a na i ss ar or c tle , till p e v d , c lled A dolu H H e h r n r An atoli a C astle . t e n e s olved to co qu e ns an and s e a m s sa e th e m r r Co t tinople , nt e g to E pe o h r e r h im a an th e a a and s Jo n , o d ing to b don c pit l elect e a a r i n T h e m e r r re e e in st d p ov c e . E p o fu s d thi s d m an d an d the Sultan fo rm e d th e p roj e ct to atta ck Con stanti n opl e ; but h e w as comp e lled to defe r it in o rd er to d e fe n d him s e lf a gai n st th e e n c ro a ch m e s h a re a arr r am e r a ne ar ar nt of t t g t w io , T l of T t y ,

h i n T h e m w o v ad e d hi s domi nions . two ighty chi e fs m e t th e a ns n ra th e s r n 1 02 on pl i of A go , in p i g of 4 , w h e re on e of th e mo st s anguina ry b attle s re co rd e d i n h r a T h e r a rm i sto y w s fought . Tu ki s h y con si s te d m e n h e a a me r ane w as rea e r of , w il th t of T l g t i n m r e . an a e e n e e a e e n nu b Sult B y zid b i g d f t d , f ll i to th e h a s a m e r an e w h o him an r nd of T l , put into i on

rr im H c ag e an d c a i e d h a bout as a S how . e di e d of r e and e s a r on ar h 2 1 1 0 e h h s g i f d p i M c , 4 3 , ig t mont

- a e r hi s a re at th e a e r r . ft c ptu , g of fo ty fou am e r an e s a e th e T ri rki s h e s r s a T l ck d citi of B u , ae a Kh e mlik A k s h e hi r ara s sar an d h e rs Nic , , , Hi , ot ! K s a n r an d n a the m r a in A i Mi o , fi lly took city of S y n , h th e n h e ld by th e Ch risti an K nights of St . Jo n of e r s a e m and r e re a e e ra m ass a re its i n J u l , o d d g n l c of h r a r sex h a bitants with out m e r cy to eit e ge o . He 0 T T OM A N 1) Y N A S T Y. 2 9 w as one th e m s r e n er rs ha e h of o t c u l co qu o of t t poc , h avi ng bu ri e d aliv e th ou s and s of Ch ri sti an w arri o rs i n s a a e r as e n n h e i r h e a s n e r h e r A i , ft f t i g t d u d t i l egs . ’

S e e C reas s s r . ( y Hi to y , p

U A I NTERREGN M OF THE ROY L PRINCES .

2 — 140 14 13 .

T h r n w a e eig of Sultan B ay ezid I . s follow e d by a e r e e e n e ars a e T h e re a I nte rre p iod of l v y , c ll d G t g h n e a r n num . T i s co si st d of s e i es of co tentions b e t e en h i s S i x s ns e m an sa Erto h ru l w o , Sul y , Mu , g , h mm Er h r l w a a e s s a a nd as s m . to u s e Mo d , I , K i g kill d by T am e rl a ne du ri ng th e si eg e of Siv a s ; K as sim w as er n th e h e r h re e e man h amm e v y you g ; ot t , Sul y , Mo d and ss a es a e r m th e a e e n ra I , c p d f o b ttl fi ld of A go ,

hil M r m n h h w e us a w as a e n r s ne . e a t e t k p i o Sul y , wit ran v r as h a a nd th e h e a n s th e g d izi , Ali P , C i ft i of a n ar e s r e a h e r an e w a C on J iz i , c d Ad i opl by y of s tanti n O l e at w h h a e h e h a d rm e a p , ic pl c fo d m atrimon i a l alli an c e w ith th e d aught er of th e

m r r h a mm n a m s e h e e n e ars E p e o . Mo e d b ei g l o t ig t y a e s e e e i n e s a n th e as e m as of g , ucc d d c pi g to c tl of A ' si a h e nera B a e Z i d w h e re h e e e n e wit G l y , t y d f d d r an T h e th e ms e lv es agai n s t th e troop s of T am e l e . Ottom ans of Asi a Mi no r w e nt to th e as si s tan c e of hamm e wh o h s s m e h m s e Mo d , , wit out lo of ti , put i lf at th e h e a a s r n a rm re a n e s e e ra hi s d of t o g y , g i d v l of ’ fath e r s p rovi n c e s w hich h ad b e e n captu re d by 3 o 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y

h a d e a r sa e u a m e r a . ss a s T l ne I , who c ped to B u , d eav ore d b e r a m e a as an d to p ocl i d Sult n of the E t , m ade a t re aty with th e Empe ro r of Con stantinopl e ; s an e re a m e w h o a a e and a e thi g d Moh m d , tt ck d defe t d him a r a e hi . s s e e s s I fled to Eu op , but b ing dvi d by r e r e m a r rn s a and a b oth Sul y n , etu ed to A i , h ving r a e an ar m m a r h a a s hamm e o g niz d y , c ed g in t Mo d , but h e w as aga in d e fe ated and es c ap e d to Mount h r m n a r ra a r s e e h e e . e a e s e T u u , w di d Sul y , ft ve l n e s s h hi s r h er amm r a m e co t t wit b ot Moh ed , p ocl i d h m h se an at r s a . s e n s usa i lf Sult B u Sub que t to t i , M , ha d e e e i n a a m e r a w as who b n k pt c ptivity by T l ne , ’ e ra e a nd hi s a e r s r s e r sa lib t d took f th co p to B u , wh e re it w as i nt e rre d in th e m au s ol e u m of hi s r e e r p ed c s s o s . th e rs d a e r a r 1 0 a m r a e On fi t y of F b u y , 4 5 , T e l n

at rar at th e a e s e e n - e died Ot , g of v ty one , whil on

m ar h h na e a i n h r - si x s s and the c to C i , l v g t i ty on g ran d s ons .

M e an whil e Mu s a coll e ct e d an army of Bulgari ans . an d e r ans th e e a a n s hi s r h e r S vi , took fi ld g i t b ot m a n w as e e a e an d fl e d m Suley , but d f t d to the oun a n h a a n t i s of t e B lk . s a a a n w an e r a r m s e e r an Mu , g i , ith oth y be i g d Ad i i n 1 1 h e h e n e w a arr opl e 4 0 . W n t i s int llige c s c i e d to e a h e s e e e an d m nan Sul ym n di b li v d it , beco ing indig t with th e C hi e ftain of th e J anizari e s for n o t ag re ei ng

h hi n r r hi r h ff . s a s e e s ea b e s a e o . wit pl , o d d b d to v d h s ras h a c t m m e th e re s e th e T i , co itt d in p enc of an ar e s e te e r n a and r e a a J iz i , xci d th i i dign tion p ov d f t l e man for h e th e a e s r a e to Sul y , t ey op ned g t of Ad i nopl an d e r h e ma a re d liv e ed t e city to Mu sa . Sul y n ende vo d O TTOM A N D YN A S T Y 3 1

to e s cap e to Cons tanti nopl e b u t w as kill e d by th e r h s r n e i s n w n a h J a niza i e s . T i p i c k o s t e fi rs t p ro e r th e m an e s and a r n th e t cto of Otto po t , . cco di g to hi s r an ran s h e m arr e th e au h er h e to i F zi , i d d g t of T o r s r h e r th e m e r r m m an e a e s do u , b ot of E p o E u l P l ologu , whil e hi s b roth e r K as sim re c eiv e d a Gre ek e ducation i n Con stanti n ople an d at th e e n d of hi s life w as b apt i z d a h r s an re e n th e n am e e m r e e s . C i ti , c ivi g D t iu O r h a th e s on e m an e ar n hi s n e sa c n , of Sul y , f i g u cl Mu , fl i r n an n e d w ith h s s s e s e . s e n w i t to Co t ti opl Sub equ t t o h s s a e are w ar a ai ns th e m r r t i , Mu d cl d g t E pe o of an n e and a s e e h a T h e C on st ti opl l id i g to t t city . Emp e ro r Emmanu e l th en implo re d th e assi stanc e of h amme w h o w as i n s a and sa w as c om Mo d , A i , Mu e ll e d re rn h a m s h n hi e p to tu wit out cco pli i g s obj ct . ’ Moh ammed m ad e an oth e r e ffo rt to regai n hi s fath e r s

h r e a nd at th e e a an arm m et hi s r h e r t on , h d of y b ot n ear h a an an e e a e him t e B lk d d f t d . sa fl e d a a h a on th e n d a Mu to W ll c i , but followi g y hi s r s w as n i n a m r a e w h re h e h ad co p e fou d i y pl c , e rr e vid e ntly m et with a tragic al e nd . Thi s occu e d in 1 1 th e a h e e ra s sa a B e 4 3 . Of f it ful g n l of Mu , Az b y a s fl e d a a h a M i c h al o lu w as s e ris ne r l o to W ll c i , g nt p o s a and Bid ridi n S im av nao lu n a s to A i g , bei g kilful s er w as ar e a nd re - a o n e e era oldi , p don d pp i t d g n l in th e ma arm h s h amm e th e n n Otto n y ; t u Mo d , o ly livi g m an r w as r a m e a o f th e. s . b other , p ocl i d Sult n Otto VI . A A M I “ T HE A SULT N MOH MED GENTLEM N .

1 1 — 1 2 1 4 3 4 . m h amm e I . s rna e e e or e a Mo d , u d Tch l bi , G ntlem n , h r n i n s ucceed e d to t e th o e 14 1 3 . He po ss es s ed gre at a e as a s a esm a and as a arr r a biliti s t t n w io . He w s re m ar a e a eara e r r n k bl in pp nce , w ll p opo tio ed , with

- r n hi gre at p hy sic al s t e gth . On s a ccess ion to th e th ro n e h e ma de an alli anc e with the Byzantine Em e ror an d re e e th e n ra a ns th e p , c iv d co g tul tio of am as sa rs n a r e r a ar a e b do of Hu g y , S vi , Bulg i , Venic ,

a s a an na an d h rs h r s rs a R gu , Y i , ot e , wit p omi e of unive l H e e rn hi s a e n n p e ac e . th n tu ed tt tio to qu e lling th e s r a es i n hi s m n n a s e th e arr s di tu b nc do i io , c u d by qu el d u ring th e p re viou s reign of hi s b rothe rs Mu sa an d Moh ammed ; th e n c ro ss ed to Asi a to puni s h th e n r n aram ani a an m rna revolti g p i ce s of C d S y . Me an whil e th e p ri n c e of C aramani a h ad attempted to a re r s a n ot s e and a m e c ptu B u but did ucc ed , Moh m d m n hi m a a e an a re r am not eeti g tt ck d d c ptu d P e g u s . e r h s th e an es e m rna and its r e r Aft t i Sult b i g ed S y , ul , r n e D u ne id s e n hi s m e r w a nd re P i c j , t oth , ife child n m r th e ar n h amm e h w as to i plo e p do of Mo d , whic r r H e h n e r th e an d e adily g ant e d . t e ent ed city r r o rde re d its w alls and tow e s to b e d est oy e d . Sultan Moh amm e d m a de Al e x ande r S hi s man s on r a n a ar s r e r m rna and of the Se v in Ki g L z u , ul of S y , th en subdu e d th e fo rtre s se s of C aramani a an d

e h m e n r n a treatv Koni , co p lli g the p i ce to conclude a 1 1 n a e r s r r e of p e c e in 4 4 . Soo ft thi the p ince b ok th e r a m ar a a ns th e an th e t e ty , ched g i t Sult , but O OM A N D N A S TT Y TY. 3 3 gran d vizi r d e fe ate d him and c aptu re d hi s s on T h e an h M u stafa . Sult like d t e you n g man an d p romis e d th at h e w ould re sto re to him th e subdu e d as e s s a a a e r hi s e ar re a e hi s c tl , but Mu t f ft d p tu viol t d r m s e e e n e and a re h rs e s p o i of ob di c c ptu d a, flock of o h mm b e lo nging to th e Ottom ans . Mo a e d h earing of h s m ar h e a a ns him s e e h h e t i , c d g i t ; ubdu d Koni , w il th e r n C ara m ani a fl e d Kiliki a and hi s s on p i ce of to , Mu stafa w as for th e s e cond tim e p ardon e d by th e an and s n e a re a w h h n e h w as Sult , ig d t ty by ic Ko i anne e toth e man m n n x d Otto do i io . O n th e 2 th M a 1 16 a na a a e a e 9 of y , 4 , v l b ttl took pl c off Gallipoli i n which th e Ottom an fl e et u n d e r th e a m ra T zali B e w as m e e e ea e th e d i l y , co pl t ly d f t d by

’ n an m r n T h an V e eti ad i al Pi etro Lo re d a o . e Sult s troop s also m et w ith re v e rs es i n th e e xp e dition 6 a a ns r a an d n ar e e en 1 1 an d 1 2 0 . g i t Sty i Hu g y , b tw 4 4 his m e th e an e re e th e as e About t ti , Sult ct d C tl of G iu r e v o an d a e r war r ss e s a e re g , ft d c o d to A i , conqu d I zv e ndi ar th e es n e a n hi s s on as a , d pot of Si op , t ki g h a n r I n h e s e a d a re s e e ra ar a e s . t o t g , c ptu d v l T t citi s am e e h a ar ar r e e m rat e r e poc , T t t ib ig d to Eu op , s e e n ear h s an d a e th e a e ttl d P ilippopoli , c ll d pl c

T ar ar azar i t p dj k . S imav n ao lu w h o w as at ae a e e rm n e g , Nic , d t i d to re a a ns th e an an d n r e an h e r volt g i t Sult , to i t oduc ot

‘ a h a n as a c o- e ra r a ru d e T u rc oman f it , h vi g op to , of

r h s rnam e B ore klid é - s a a r a m n low bi t u d j Mu t f , p ocl i i g him a s pi ritu a l fath e r an d o rd e re d him to sp re ad

s ne w / m h amm e r ere S hi s m an thi dog a. Mo d o d d to ar a a ns th e h e re s h e w as e i n th e m ch g i t tic , but kill d a e m n th e sam e a e a s w e th e new eng g e t , f t l o follo d O OM A N D N A S 3 4 TT Y T Y.

e r r ar a r h . a t e son th e a g ov no of S uh n Mu d , of Sult n , w as a n e th e e rn r A m assia an d ppoi t d g ov o of , m ar h e a a s th e h e re s h a him as c d g in t tic , ving with a dvis e r an d com mande r of th e army hi s faithful ran r B r li Ba e . o ek d e s a a s u r g d Vizi , y zid j Mu t f , “ ” n am a s e a an arm ed l o Ded Sult n , with y of m e t ra a e an d a e r a sa u ar m a Mu d in b ttl , ft ng in y co b t h e w as a re an d s e n es s an d hi s c ptu d t to Eph u , on r sa a a hi s a h e w as e ea e efu l to b ndon new dogm , b h d d h m hi r r a an wit s o e of s follow e s . The oth e s e s c ped d S i ma v nao lu e n a a uniting with g , w t to M cedoni to r a h r n ra p op gat e t e new s ect . P i ce Mu d with a e as a e E r m e t Bid re di n B y zid P h w nt to u ope , S imav nao l u ar e re s a re an d g ne S , c ptu d executed him . s re a w as s ar e s r ss e Thi outb k c c ly upp e d , when

a h r re a a h ara r r e not e volution of politic l c cte b ok out . m an a eare re e n b e s a a th e s on A pp d p t ndi g to Mu t f , of a a e h e h e rs h ara e r e hi m a s Sult n B y zid , w il ot c ct iz d

a n m r r a th h r e a n hi m s e . s e i po t Thi iv l to t on , llyi g s e h th e r n e s a a h a m rna an d lf wit p i c of W ll c i , S y , the s ns n e ra s T i m ou rtas an d r n s th e o of Ge l Ev i o , took fi e ld aga in st Sulta n Moh a m me d w h o d e fe ated th e m ne ar S alonica ; Moh a mmed d e man d e d the su rre nd e r th e es e m e r s Le on d ari u s e r r of fugitiv , but D t iu , gov no a r e s e e e m h of th t city , fu d to giv th up wit out the s e mm a e a e s re e h a con nt of E nu l P l ologu , who pli d t t he

c ould not viol ate th e sac re d n e ss of asylum . The Sultan th e n in si s ted th a t th e Emp ero r s hould sign a d re m e m r s m e for ec e , conde ning th m to i p i on nt life , h h e c ons ente d r e to w ich th ough the influenc of ,

h e d r s K orak os ra man th e m r r T o o u , the d go of E pe o a n d th e y w e re s ent to the i sl an d of Limn os whe re

6 j l/ A 3 0 T T O [ N D YN A S T Y.

a nd s s wh h he us e s r n h em e her ma n a tick , ic t y by t iki g t tog t , ki g h rr e n s e th en f w th e a me s ere w h r h em o ibl oi , ollo c l cov d it ic ly r ere reen l h a m an e b s e era m es ere w h b oid d g c ot , cco p i d y v l ul cov d it arr n the m er a re s ents I d n h th r red . n a e s e e , c yi g I p i l p d itio to t , o r h f er n s are ma e th e ma ns th e wea h er as s ic o f i g d by Otto of lt i cl , f m ne a nd a a l h é ns s t n o e ar es . s S ourr ro co i i g o y, of v lu bl tic T i , p c eed s the a a e is ns e e th e an and a e er r m to p l c , i p ct d by Sult , l tt f o his a es a res s e to th e m r e a is en r s e to th e M j ty , dd d E i of M cc , t u t d ourré m n or ea er th e s red ara a n T h e r es s n S E i i l d of ac c v . p oc io s ar s fr m th e a a e re e e a en arme s e t t o p l c p c d d by body of g d , polic a e n s an d a s a r n a a r a m an ed a n m er g t , qu d o of c v l y , cco p i by u b of a em s r s are r n h d ervi sh es nd ul a . T oo p anged o bot s id es of the way for m ar h n rs a nd mmen s e r w s a re a h ered w nes s th e ilit y o o , i c o d g t to it ro n A rr n th e s n as s n th e es s . at a of es h as h p i g of p c io ivi g t tio B ikt , a em a re e s ra ers for tne res er a n of the an a er ul cit p y p v tio Sult , ft w hich th e p re s ents are t aken on bo ard of a n a d mi ra lty s teamer ; h e n mme te a nn n s e ar re for ar n a nd t gu s i dia ly ou c e it d p tu Scut i . O i ts a rr a here th e S ourré Houm a oun is re e e at the a n n iv l t , y c iv d l di g

‘ a e th e ern r th e enera in mman of th e S elimieh pl c by gov o , g l co d ' ara s th e mma n er th e en a rmer of a r and a B ck co d of g d y Scut i , by a r n m f r T h r s n i rme a a n at ar e er e s . e e s s l g u b of o fic p oc io fo d g i Scut i , a nd is es r e n an r a nd ar er a nd e a hmen s co t d by i f t y till y , by d t c t of e th e es s ar a where th e s a re a ra a n rema ns n polic to Mut if t , c d c v i u til he t me its d e art re for h e r a few a s s a t i of p u t e Holy city . A ft d y t y a t Scutari (A s i atic S id e) a Turki s h steamer t ak es the Imp eri a l S ourré the h e of th e s a re ara an and th e en re s e to , c i f c d c v ti uit B e rout a nd h en e e a wh ere S ourré m n s r es th e y , t c to M cc , E i i di t ibut r s en s the he h s h s r es s o n a es a e a r n h p e t to S ik . T i p oc i t k pl c fo t ig t e re ama an or en T h e m n h ent i s r s e b fo R z L t . o t of L vigo ou ly k pt th e r s r m s nr s e s ns e a w h e en s n by Tu k f o u i to u t d ily , it out v moki g ; at s ns e ann ns ann n e th e h r for th e s e th e as u t , c o ou c ou clo of f t , h h a e f ar T h e en re n h t is a s se in e a s n and i n w ic i s c ll d I t . ti ig p d f ti g ar s a m s emen s r n the mon h Rama an th e r are v iou u t . Du i g t z poo e fo h em n ar a e th e re as s a nd a s e a a b e I S s et r . i vit d to p t k of p t , p ci l t l t e or no r is ne r n h s m n h T h e ernmen Littl wo k do du i g t i o t . gov t f es a re en s nes s r a s s en ed T h e e of o fic op but bu i is p actic lly u p d . lif th e r s is m n n s e e r n en or a ma an; T h e Tu k o oto ou xc pt du i g L t , R z s ree s w h he r m s es hea res a es of a m s emen s are t t it t i o qu , t t , pl c u t b rightly illumi nat ed and c ro wde d with Tu rks ; wh o a t night in d ul e in th e rea es mm ra e s s me wh h r i n the g g t t i o liti , o of ic occu a h s ur n th e ni h ts of h s m n h th e r s e public b t . D i g g t i o t Tu k xclude God from th ei r th oughts and a pparently a re trying mo re diligently h e han h r s ans h e en I n the a me h e use to go to ll t C i ti to av . d yti t y T h n r es b e or s r n s ea s aid in e a e e s es . , t i g of b d , to d votio l x ci It e nra es h em e ee n s ee the hr s ans ea n r n n or g t xc di gly to C i ti ti g , d i ki g s m n in h e r rese n e and es e a th e s e r s wh o oki g t i p c , p ci lly old tyl Tu k , are n era nt a na a and w h narr w re c es h a e e ver h n i tol , f tic l it o p judi t yt i g O OM A N D Y N A S T Y TT . 3 7

r h A r th a t i s not Tu kis . Tu k c ann ot b e th e t ru e fri en d of a h r s an is er f re n his na re His . a aren r en C i ti , it utt ly o ig to tu p p t f i d — s h h as h ree e s to rr th e h ne s of a Ch r st an t ip t obj ct co upt o ty i i , o e r e hi m h i s r er y or n er him s lam s m h es e d p iv of p op t , to co v t to I i ; t n r s are a wa s a e mo rta n th 2 co ve t l y c ll d u ts . O e 7 th of ev ery a ma an a r a ss an H al aik s a e r i s res ente to the R z , Ci c i ( l v gi l) p d an hi s m h er or s s er T h e m n h of m an . a a is Sult , by ot i t o t R z o we h e er a ram Or an a s er w h h as s h ree f llo d by S k B i C dy E t , ic l t t a s O n ha d a His m er a a es es h d y . t t y I p i l M j ty go to t e Mo s qu e

i n a r arr a e rawn . r m a n en A ra an h rs es cou t c i g d by fou g ific t bi o , a m an e a r an re n e ma rs h a s en erals and cco p i d by b illi t ti u of l , g s er r n nar es in n f rm e m a ne w h em u p io fu ctio i full u i o , bl zo d it gold r e r and e ra n h ere h e i s re e e th e ran r b oid y d co tio ; t c iv d by g d vizi , the h e h - ul- s am and h er n a r e s and is ree e w h S ik I l , ot dig it i , g t d it “ t e e h ee rs n th e a n T h re h r c of Lo g live Sult . e ligiou s s e rvic e as s a an h r a nd at i ts s e th e an r es on a r h l t bout ou , clo Sult id ic ly cap ari s oned white ch arg er to th e Dolma - B agtc h e p al ac e v i th his s e W h ere h e w h d raw s his r a e a ar men s to res uit , it to p iv t p t t t . eanwh e the m ar and re s n ar es ta e h e r M il civil , ilit y ligiou dig it i k t i plac e s in the th ron e room p rep aratory to the c eremony of h and s sin and wh en his m er a M a es en ers and a es h is s ea ki g , I p i l j ty t t k t on th e h r ne the erem n e ns th e rs i n ran e n h e r t o , c o y b gi , fi t k b i g t i n s th e r n es m er a high es es p i c I p i l . e en a s a ter h e er a ram mes th e es t va of K ourb en S v ty d y f S k B i , co f i l m or eas th e a r e wh h a r a s h e ha e a ra s s . B i f t of S c ific , ic l t fou d y T y v th e s am e r es s ns and e er r i s e to one or p oc io , v y Tu k oblig d buy m re s h ee o p . T h e c ani nes of Cons tantinople constitut e a large p art of its pOpu a n and h e r e s en e h ere i s s a to a e a the me of l tio , t i xi t c t id d t b ck to ti h r s h e se s ar all th e s am e r e he are er t e ee . e e G k T dog of b d . t y v y s r n w h sh r h ha r c ars e h se a and he r t o g , it o t t ick i ; lik t o of fox , t i habitat i s always in th e same quarter of th e city in which th ey w ere rn h s i s a ma er of nher an e and ns res h e r sa e — for bo . T i tt i it c , i u t i f ty woe to the one wh o v entu res b eyond its precints ! He is cons id ered mm a a a e h er d s h s mee n an a en a nd is e e . li , i di t ly tt ck d by ot og t u ti g an n m e a e h es e h n r an ma s are th e r n a s a en ers u ti ly f t . T u g y i l p i cip l c v g of and s warm th rough out th e entire city ; homeles s and r en es s h e li e in th e s ree s a aren a s ee w a n for f i dl t y t t pp tly l p , iti g th e re fus e th rown out from th e h ou s es which i s oft en th eir s ol e sustainance T he n h s a re ma e h e s th e h w n and . ig t d id ou by o li g b arking of th e quad rup eds ; and th eir ins tincts i s remark able for thos e who i nh abit th e Tu rkis h qu arters will not attack any one w ear n a fez i g .

an - h a m e w as rn 1 8 8 s e e e Sult Mo m d bo in 3 , ucc d d H e was su c his a h r 1 1 and e i n 1 2 1 . f t e in 4 3 , di d 4

c e e d e d hi s son ra . by , Mu d II VI I . A M A I I SULT N UR D . 1 2 1— 1 4 4 5 1 .

e th e h r n e i n h e M u ra d I I . s ucc eded to t o t eight i H w a r e e e nth y e ar of h s age . e s gi d d with th e s r s man at r u s a b th e e h h ara wo d of O B y Sh ik of Buc ,

- hi ran a er a a H s on in l aw s e . e of g df th , Sult n B y zid s e n e e a s s a an d ns a n annou nc t d l g te to A i Co t nti ople , hi s a e ss n th e r n e an d a tre a e a e ing cc io to th o , ty of p c for fiv e y e ars w as co n clud e d with Hungary and i n n m mm C aram an a . a e er r an u Pa The Byz ti E p o . E el l e olo u s s n e ra r e g , wi hing to i volv Mu d in t oubl with hi s r a r e as e s a a a nd D u neid r iv l , el d Mu t f j f om the r s n m s an d e s a fa S a p i o of Li no , oblig d Mu t to ign

re a n h a a te r a s ss a t ty on co dition t t, f ucce ful eng ge e a a s th e an h e r s re hi m m nt g in t Sult , would e to to alli o oli ns h ra e an d s e G p , the tow of T c tho on the h a r af r wa r i bo rd e rs of t e Bl ck S e a . Sho tly te d M s a a and D u neid a e a r m n e r t f j joined the Byz ntin y , u d e m e r s Le on d ariu s mar h a a ns a D t iu ; c ed g i t G llipoli , w e e th e e n Of th e as e hich yi ld d with exc ptio c tl , to h h e a s e e and th e re e s r e e M a w ich l id i g , b l p oc ded to

r m r e a ra s e a n e ar and e e s s s . c doni , i d oth y w ucce ful a e as a w h h i s r h e r H am zi e r B y zid P h , it b ot Bey , w e ma e r s ne rs th e rm e r w as e h ea e a nd th e d p i o , fo b d d r r h a a an n i l atte r p a don e d . Afte t i s Mu st f d D j u e d a dvanc e d to Gallipoli : its c astl e h ad s u rre nd e red to e r s Le on d ariu s s a a a D met iu , but Mu t f , in viol tion of hi s r m s h and D e m e r s ar e for p o i e , eld it , t iu dep t d n a e Co st ntinopl . an ra h hi s e s al s and a Sult Mu d , wit G noe e lie Mich l o lu h ad r a r m a a ta g , who been ele sed f o Tok t , t cked 3 8 O OM A N D Y N A S T Y TT . 3 9

Mu stafa and D j u n ei d i n Asi a and fi nally d efe ate d i n hi f r h e m . s a a s e s e s a e w as e t e re t Mu t f , fo t to c p , f t d

his ow n w e rs w h o him r an e by follo , took to Ad i opl , w h e re h e w as m r s n e and a e rw a r e e u e i p i o d ft d x c t d . T h e Emp e ro r s e nt a d e puty to Sultan Mu ra d a s n for a rea ea e h e re se th e ki g t ty of p c , but fu d p ropo sition a nd p re p are d to pu ni s h th e duplicity of mm anu e e s e n n s an n n h E l by b i gi g Co t ti opl e . O t e 2 2 d ne 1 2 2 M i c h al o u w th 10 000 h rs em e n of Ju , 4 , g , i o a an e th e w a s of ns an n h ere dv c d to ll Co t ti ople , w a r ten a s th e r e s t th e m an a rm arr e e . ft d y , of Otto y iv d T h e g e ne ral assault w as m ad e S ept e mb e r 5th both a rm e s h w h re a ra e r th e r s i foug t it g t b v y , but Tu k r h r r h w e re finally epul s e d by t e G e eks . Aft e t i s Sultan Mu ra d m ar ch e d again st th e Gov e rn o r of i n h h a r an him r n r d w o d e e d s e . A i , volt d , took p i o H e a s e e a e I sv e nd iar th e r n e as a l o d f t d , P i c of C t m n w h o n e a r e a e a e n o i , co clud d t ty of p c , givi g to th e an th e e r m n e s as am n a s hi s Sult copp i of C t o i , l o a T h an arr i n i n r d ughte r i n m arri ag e . e Sult vi g Ad i anopl e c e l e b rate d hi s ow n w e dding and tho s e of hi s

h r r H h e n w e n s a an d a er a e e s s e s . e t i t t t to A i , ft s ucc e ssful camp aign i n v ariou s p rovi n c es r e tu rn e d

r to Eu op e . I n 1 2 m e r r mm a e a a e an d w as 4 3 E p o E nu l bdic t d , M s e e e hi s s on h n . a e s . u ucc d d by , Jo VI II , P l ologu rad mad e a t re aty w ith th e Emp ero r Joh n on con di tio n th at h e wou ld giv e hi m all th e tow n s On th e b or d e r of th e Bl ack S e a an d p ay annu ally a tax of a I n h e m e an me an h er re a w as ar duc ts . t ti ot t ty ranged b e tw e e n t h e Sult an an d th e P rin c es of W al a h n l c ia a d S ervi a . M A N D Y N A S 4o O TTO T Y.

I n 142 8 Sultan Mu ra d m arch e d against Sigi smu nd n n ar w h o h ad s e e a S e rV1an for ki g of Hu g y , iz d i m res s and e a e h . t , d fe t d a n a h h ad n r s r B zan S lo ic , w ich bee e to ed to the y tin e Empe ro r by M o h amm e d I w a s s old to th e Ve n eti ans M ra re a th e sa e an d a m e , but u d pudi ted l cl i d r r r H e m ar th e city as h e re dita y p op e ty . ched to M a c e doni a i n 143 0 an d o r d e re d G e n e ral H a mza to ’ a a a n a A e r a r n h s s e tt ck S lo i c . ft fo t ig t i ge and an s na e n i n h h e e th e e n h ob ti t co flict , w ic v n wom foug t es ra th e n w as a e n the a s d pe tely , tow t k by Ottom n , a r a h e h follo w e d by l w l e s s plund e . M ny of t in abitants

e r h man e th e s r s a s e r w e in u ly put to wo d , thou nd w e arr e n a h h r e s m n en s c i d i to c ptivity , w ile c u ch , o um t , m m s etc . e re bas u e and an its to b , , w ely poll t d y of a e r ran r e d r a ntiquiti s we e t s po t d to A i nople . The en e tians re e for th e a re a a V , in v nge c ptu of S lonic , sailed to th e D ard an elle s and s ubdu e d the c astle

n h a M r lyi g on t e co as t of A si a . Sult n u a d then arriv e d at Gallipoli with p art of hi s army and re w e hi s r a th e e n a s th e ne d t e ty with V eti n , while r m r n 1 e ainde w as s e nt t o s ubdu e Y ani a . In 43 1 ani a and r e r a a its a a Y n No th n Alb ni , with c pit l

r a e r s e b th e ma s . C oi , w e ubdu d y Otto n I n th e sam e y ear Co nstanti n opl e w as vi s ited with e ar a es a nd a e r ar a a m n thqu k , ft w d by the pl gue; o g t h e m s h h e re th e a r n es ss victi of w ic w Roy l P i c Yu uf . h am e an d r h a th e l s r rs of Mo m d O c n , two e de t b othe ’ an ra th e thi rd s on th e a r e Sult Mu d , of Roy l P inc e m a h r ran rs A ou z ra ra m Sul y n , t ee G d Vizi , , Dji , Ib hi , a n h h r I n h e am e ar M o d t e S eikh of Buch a a . t s ye amm th e n e re r s on a M ra w as h ed Co qu , of Sult n u d , rn bo . O OM A N D Y N A S T Y TT . 4 1

In 143 3 S hiki n Pash a att ack e d Ge o rge B ranko vitc h th e r n e er a an d m e e him , P i c of S vi , co p ll d to sign a tre aty reli nqui s hi n g th e c as tl e of Al adj a Hi sar and giving hi s you ng e st d aught er i n m arri ag e

h n A n n s rre r e i n r to t e S ulta . i u ction b ok out Ca a man a th e an mm e i a e r ss e s a i , Sult i d t ly c o d to A i , ue e and m a e th e e rn r an f e r i n hi s q ll d it , d gov o o fic r m I n 1 8 th e l an r m e a a n w a y . 43 Su t fo d co litio ith D rac oul r n e W a a h a an d B rank ov itc h , P i c of ll c i , of r a and o th e e h h e m a a ns th e Se vi , t ok fi ld wit t g i t n ar ans e e a n h e m an d a n m an r s Hu g i , d f ti g t t ki g y p i o n e rs . Du ri ng th e n e xt s p ring h e attack e d hi s fath e r- in law an d s u e th e r e m en r a a r n th e ubd d Fo t S d i , c ptu i g a e r n e D ra c ou l w h o w as a e r ar s re ease lli d P i c , ft w d l d an a a n n d g i appoi te d gov e rno r of W allac hi a . 1 th e a n n a e rans an a w h ere In 439 Sult i v d d T ylv i , h e w as m et h n H u nni ad e s its m ar by Jo , ilit y gov e rnor wh o b hi s ra e r e e a e th e m an , , y b v y , d f t d Otto arm n e r en e ra e n him an d w e n y u d G l M djid , killi g t ty

h san hi r r man ad i n 1 2 t ou d of s t oop s at H e s t t 44 . An oth e r d e sp erat e battl e w as fought b e tw e en th e m ans n er S h e h ad e d di n as h a and Hu nni ad es Otto u d P , wh o atta ck e d th e e n e my at Vasag an d rout e d th em w h re a a h r I n he w n ear 1 s e . t it g t l ug t follo i g y , 443 ,

Hu nni ad e s w h an ar m n ar ans e s S e r , it y of Hu g i , Pol ,

“ a s W a a h ans and erm ans n e r a c am vi n , ll c i G , u d took ai n a a ns th e m ans w h h as e s e e ra p g g i t Otto , ic l t d v l ears r n h h h e a e br an ri es on y , du i g w ic g in d illi t victo th e an s th e M ora a n e ar s sa and a re b k of Y , Ni , c ptu d a m e r na th e r s e am e d e nu b of tow ns . Fi lly Tu k b c mo raliz e d and fl e d ov e r th e B alkan pu rsu e d by Hu n ’ ni ad e h h w ar a te n ears re a s . At t e clo s e of t e y t ty 2 O O/MA N D N A S Y 4 TT Y T .

w as S i gned in th e City of Sz eg e di n on co n dition h a e r a s b e n e e n en a a h a t t S vi hould i d p d t , W ll c i to re m a n e r th e r e n n ar i und p ot ctio of Hu g y .

r a e r h e s e e e s a - ud - di n Sho tly ft t v nt , All h , the eld e on M ra T h an w a i n n st s e . e s c o of u d , di d Sult s a e an d re s e 1 a r hi s ol bl , ign d in 444 in f vo of s on M h amm e h r e e e ars a e wh e , o d , t i t n y of g , il th e ad mi n i stratio n of th e gov e rn me nt w as con r e a re e n hi a h i r t oll d by g cy of s f it ful a dv s e s .

T h an n r r hi a a M n e Sult the e ti e d to s p l c e in ag e si a . s e h s e e H u nni a d es a e th e Sub equ nt to t i v nt , viol t d re a an e ari a I n th m e an m e th t ty d s ubdu d Bulg . e ti e re re a a an e hi s re s en e le d n ar m ti d Sult n b don d id c , a y o f a r s s th e ra t s r s an d m et c o St i of Bo pho u , h r r an m m h i n t e en e my n e a V a na . A s e bl e of t e fi d e lit hi s ene m th e a r e re a n s a r y of y , Sult n o d d lo g pe a e e re hi s en a n d i ts n w as to be pl c d b fo t t , to poi t a e e h n e r a a h H nni a f s t n d t e s ig d t e ty of p e ce wit u d es . re a nfl e ns e w h h at rs r A d dful co ict u d , in ic fi t victo y a r th e a e s h e th e m ans a re f vo ed lli . w il Otto w ve d , but th e Kin g Vlad i s l au s ru s h e d on h ors e b a ck to th e r n e and w as e h e a e a a i ar w h o f o t , f ll , b d d by J n z y , e xpo s e d hi s h e a d on a s p ear i n vi e w of th e Ottom a ns

i i h h n w a . and h r s ans . H u nn ad e s s e e n a t e s C i ti , g t t Ki g fl h h a an e r e s e e a ed t e a s . d d , wit W ll chi Aft th vic a T h e to ri e s th e Su ltan re tu rn e d again to M agn e si .

ani ar es e n s e as e a n h e r s ma J z i , b i g di pl d on ccou t of t i ll

a re e rn e th e mar e r an e an d p y , volt d , bu d k t of Ad i opl

" it e h e r am s ar th e as e h re a e n n p ch d t i c p ound c tl , t t i g ll v iol e nc e to a . T h e gran d vizi r H alil i n c re as e d th ei r compe nsa tio n an d implo re d th e Sult an to as su me ag ai n th e

r i n T h an m e a e e ns of th e gov e rnm e t . e Sult i m di t ly

T /11A N D S 44 O T O YN A T Y .

a e m a ne him s a a m a e a nd s u m S 1 n g g i d in t nt d itt nc S o . ’ h r S e e C re as s s . w as e n a e r m ( y i to y , p He g g d f o m e m e a n r n s h a ti to ti , in umbe of co flict wit the Sult n a nd w as s ucc ess ful . ’ T wo e ars r s M u rad s a Em y p eviou to de th , the e ro r h n s an n e e w h ss e p Jo of Con t ti opl di d it out i u , a nd Cons ta nti ne P ale ologus s ucceed e d to th e th rone i n 1 449 . I n 1 1 e th e a w as as n hi s 4 5 , whil Sult n fe ti g with

r i n s at r a n e h e w as a a a f e d Ad i opl , tt cked by poplexy

h r - n ar hi a Hi a nd di e d in t e fo ty ni th y e of s g e . s h r r H e , re ign of t i ty y e a rs w as an illu st iou s one . f i r r n a r w as conspic uou s or h s b av e y a d gg e ssiv e ne ss . H e e rect e d th e mo s qu e c all e d O u tc h s efe rli or “ re e s i n r an w as s e e e Th e St p , Ad i ople . He ucc d d m hi s a m s and u n me r s on a m e . by bitiou ciful Moh d I I , w h a n h r n i n o s c e ded th e t o e 145 1 .

VI I I . A A 11 SULT N MOH MMED .

rnam h he n er r e a t . Su d F ti , Co qu o

41 - 1 1 5 1 48 1.

n the e a h h r r O an ra . t e a d t of Sult Mu d II , g nd vizi a as h a at e e s a h e r m r a a H lil P onc d p tc d f o Ad i nople , cou ri e r to Moh amm e d at M agne si a to announc e th e

e a hi a h r T h r n h s m s e . e e s e d th of f t p i c , wit out lo of ti , m a s h rse an d hi s e rs hu r~ ounted wift o , with follow , ried to th e s ho re s of th e D a rd ane ll es an d t henc e to r an e as e n th e h r e on e r ar th Ad i opl , c ndi g t on F b u y 5 ,

1 1 at th e a w - n e e o e . 45 , g of t nty O OM A N D Y N A S T Y TT . 45

m r m a h r h h am . s na e o t e n e r r Mo ed I I , u d F ti Co qu o , comm e n c e d hi s reign by an a c t of u np arall e l e d b a r ri H e a e hi n an r h r h b a t . s s e t e s on y c u d i f t b ot , of ’ M u rad s s e n w e a r n ss er a b e co d if , p i ce of S vi , to and th e m e rcil ess command w as ex e cute d at

e S t e M dal of ul an Mohamm d II . ” V i ti e b c t B za n i ol . e 8 . e d t S t us . Cop from Cons an nopl y arla o y I . pag 3 9 th e r m m e w h e th e m h e r n ra n h e r ve y o nt n ot , ig o t of ’ h s m as ff e r n h er n ra a ns th e c ild doo , w o i g co g tul tio to mu r e re r n hi a i n T h e u an e r e i i n d o s cc ess o . S lt p c v g that hi s at rocity w ould c au s e th e i ndignation of h i s s e s e n e a re a e r t i t th e re e e h a ubj ct , d vo d to v by p t nc t t D 46 0 T T OM A N Y N A S T Y .

th e a bomi n a bl e a c t w as don e by an offi c e iz w ith out hi n w e e an n an r e r d hi n s d s s e e . k o l dg , i t tly o d e x cutio

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’ Hi s domi nion w as not e xt en siv e ; it comp ri s e d th e

h a s a n r i n - r h ra e a c e a lf of A i Mi o ; Eu ope , T c , M doni , ’ l ar a an d e ssa h e i n A lb ani a th e ra e Bu g i Th ly ; w il , b v Geo rg e C as tri oty o r I ske n d e r B e y co n ti nu e d hi s su c f l r l T h e r h a c es s u st ugg e s . A c ip e l go w as h e ld by th e re e ks e n e se and e ne t ans th e as e r ar G , G o V i ; E t n p t of Asi a Mi n o r w as occupi e d by th e C ara m anogl u s

' a n d Z ou c ad ris ; a nd th e re s t by th e S e ljuks ; C om n e nu s rul e d at T re bizond ; th e M a m el uk s i n Syri a and Egypt ; and o n th e E ast e rn s id e of th e Eup h rat e s w e re th e dy nasti e s of th e B la ck Ra m and of

th e Whit e Ra m . a ash a h h n ot a a r e th e ne w H lil P , t oug f vo it of Sul

fan w as re - a n e ra n i r s aa as h a w as , ppoi t d g d viz ; I c P a n rn r th e re ns i n s a r ppoi ted gove o of gio A i Mino ,

- wit h th e o rd e r to t ak e W i th him the co rp s e of Sul r r tan Mu ra d to B ru sa an d i nt e it th e e . D e putie s a rri v e d to co ng ratul at e th e Su lta n on hi s a cce s sion to th e th r o n e ; to th o s e w h o c a m e fromthe Empe ro r ns an n e h e r m s e r e s h h an of Co t ti opl , p o i d f i nd ip , wit annu al p ay ment for th e s uppo rt of hi s fugitiv e n e h e r h an i n h a an d h th e e n s p w O c t t city , wit voy of ’ H u nni a h a h r e ar r d e s e conclud e d t e y e s t uc e . ri n th e re n ns an n e a l e s th e Du g ig of Co t ti P ologu , as th e re e m e r rs th e a ne m re l t of G k E p o , Byz nti E pi w as e e e th e wa ns an n th e xt nd d to ll of Co t ti ople , e e s e ss esse al a a an d th e s h r s w as G no po d G t , Bo p o u

a r . h r n e t e s . s a p tly occupi d by Tu k Con t tinople , h ow e v e r with s e v e ra l i s land s of th e A rchipelago

M D S Y O TTO A N YN A T . 49 and th e e nn es s e re th e re mnan s th e P lopo u , w t of do m n n w h h for a h s an e ars h a d e e n e i io , ic t ou d y xt d d from Ch arc hid on and Sicily to th e Euph rat e s an d th e r s a nd r m th e an e th e a s th e Tig i , f o D ub to f ll of T h e m e r r w as a re e n e r r n Nil e . E p o g t ov T e bizo d r a W a a h a a ata and e n e e . S vi , ll c i , G l , Mityl Although a tre aty h ad b e en p romi s e d by th e Sul ’ tan a e s et h amm e s n en s u n to P l ologu , y Mo d i t tion , d e r th e i s e r en s h e re h s e n e s gu of f i d ip , w t o of co qu t T h m r r n a nd es r n . e e s an n e h ow d t uctio E p o Co t ti , e er s s t n th e an n ot e e re i n v , u pec i g Sult , did xp ct to g H e e n e e a e s as n h im n h in p ea c e . s t d l g t ki g to sig t e re a as r m i s e th e n re h sa e t ty p o d , but o ly ply vouc f d to h r e w a th e r e r e h ea h m I h s e s s e . n t e t i qu t , o d to b d t me a m e th e r n e C aram ani a w h o h ad n ti p i c of , unwill i n l s m e a e m e as s e r hi s i nd e end g y ub itt d , tt pt d to t p e e a er an e f e a s r e w as e ea e nc ; but ft in f ctu l t uggl , d f t d an d n u e a re a i v m a s hi s a h e r i n co cl d d t ty , g g l o d ug t I r h n m a riag e to t e Sulta . Fin ally th e Sultan u n d e rtook to c a rry out th e d e S i re hi s re e ess rs th e a re ns an n of p d c o , c ptu of Co t ti o h h a a h a m n . s e e s e t e ple With t i in Vi w , e c d to p y ou t p romi se d annu ally for hi s n eph e w a n d ord e re d th e e re m e ssar or th e E r an as e ction of Rou li Hi u ope c tl , a fiv e l e s a ns an n e a n th e bout mi bove Co t ti opl , f ci g w e n G u ze ld é or a ssar on th e ll know j An dolu Hi ,

s a s e hi s ran a er a e 1. A i tic id , built by g df th , B y zid H e comm en c e d th e e re ction of thi s c astl e on th e 7th o f r 1 2 on e ea r e re th e a re C on Ap il , 45 , y b fo c ptu of s tanti no l e th e ma e r a for h h w as a e fr m p , t i l w ic t k n o th e r n s th e an en h r h e s i n h a l a ui of ci t c u c t t oc lity , ’ a r m h h r h en a a s ma il nd . a s v f o St Mic el c u c of St i , ll O T T OM A JV D N A S SO Y T Y.

h h r h a i r l age on t e Bo s p o u s . T i s c stl e s e po rted to na e t i n r m n h s an w as a e ve b en buil fou o t , d c ll d “ a - e ss e n or h r a on a n its Bogh z K , Cut T o t , ccou t of loc atio n at the n arro w es t p art of th e ch ann e l s o as .

r h e a m I t r to cont ol t p s s g v ess e ls . s con st uction w as s e r s e th e a ran r and th e up vi d by Sult n , g d vizi ,

as h as S arid é Z a anos and S e h av e d i n th e a e r a P j , g , l tt h n chi e f eun ubh of t e Sulta .

On the e h s of me s s ar one th e m s b ea h ig t Rou li Hi , of o t utiful s o s on h h r s s an s ert e e n m s t e s . a n s ne p t Bo p o u , t d Rob Coll g i po i g to n m r i s n er hr s h er e e a e fo t . er N ew dific , d fou d , C i top R Rob t , of w a r n r h er s n of Re r s e e e e t e s v . r s a m n Yo k . It ct d u d up vi io Cy u H li , D D of s n rs r d en of h s a m s A mer an in . e s s n Bo to , fi t p i t t i f ou ic titutio , h n n i 18 D r am n s w o went to Co sta ti n ople n 3 9 . . H li i a cous in of ’ ann b a am n e - re s en r n n n s rs a m n s ra H i l H li , vic p id t du i g Li col fi t d i i t n ear er l e i s a e e or e r s h he . e n en t tio N Rob t Co l g T k , D vi co v t of f h o n rs I a d n h r r r er o e a s r re e h e . n t e e a e hree o d B kt i , f t i k ditio , t her r ers of er s h es the a n n th e b owlin a nd the wan ot o d D vi , d ci g , g , er n e r s hes or m n s the a s Of wh m h a e no e a e d i g d vi , o k , l t o v fix d pl c of h h a e nd are n a e . e a are e a e e er m n bod T y go bout b d d b foot d , v co bi g h a r or h eard ear n on th e r s h ers e r s a or e ard i ; b i g i ould tig , t g, l op s ns wh h he us e a s r s n w h h to f er th e r ra ers ki , ic t y ug , upo ic O f i p y , and n m s on a ms wh h a re ree es w e n hem livi g o tly l , ic f ly b to d upo t h a by t e f ithful .

h e th e a s was m e r u h a W n c tle co plet d Fe z Ag , con r an ar a a n e i m m 00 s w s ts a e r . t olling 4 J iz ie , ppoi t d co nd r its ns r n Ur an a a r a n ann n Du ing co t uctio , b , Hung i c o ns r r w h o w as i n th e e m t h e e r r co t ucto , ploy of Emp o stan n e re s ne on a o n hi s l ow of Con ti opl , ig d cc u t of w a e and f e re hi r e th e a I n s s s e s . g , o f d vic to Sult n ’ a r a e th e an s r e rs a ar e a n cco d nc with Sult o d , l g c nno w a m e re ss f r u i n th e r i s ould d exp ly o s e p opo sed S e ge . O n 2 8th s 1 2 th e a am e the of Augu t , 45 , Sult n enc p d , t m e n th e a s s a and wi h , by w ll of Con t ntinople , a te r re r its e rs w a s and e s re f connoit ing tow , ll ditch , r A d ri ana ole h hi s e e 1 0 sse s tu ned to p , w ile fl t of 5 ve l

2 O OM A N D N A S 5 TT Y T Y. and re h r all e r t a r s ne rs s e i n c w , t i ty in , w e ken p i o , nt e e rs th e an at D idim oti c o e e a e a f tt to Sult , , xc pt b uti n s a r s c ri v ane ll o ae st r am e ful you g ilo ( ), M o by n , who

e th e a a T h ri w as s e e . e s a a clud d in p l c hi to n Duk , wh o w as s e nt the re as an envoy by the P rin c e of

a e r h a th e r r l es s s s s s e s e e r e . L bo , t t t co p w e ft unbu i d ’ m n r S e e M ord t an s s . ( Hi to y , p

hen a hr s an t wn is a re th e r s h e s e e a s W C i ti o c ptu d by Tu k , t y iz man h ren of h se es a s h e c an fin d and s en th e m s y c ild bot x t y , d o t er e in rm and ea res to ns a n n e for the s a e ma r e p f ct fo f tu Co t ti opl l v k t , a nd of rea e a h e w e re a wa s a e n n the a a e if g t b uty , t y l y t k i to p l c . S ee T h e r of r e an e ane e ( . Sto y Tu k y , by St l y L Pool , p

T h e e n an s at s a n e e r n m s V eti con ul Con t nti opl , J o i u M i n oto e arn n th e a re th e c a tai n 'an d , l i g of c ptu of p s a rs s en Fab rotzo C orne ro th e a ilo , t to Sult n to e r e e for e m but h e w r e e e a e re int c d th , t y e b h ded b fo hi rri a an h e r e re a r and s a . s s e s e v l M y ot v l w c ptu ed , m I n h w r h h m et th e s a e a e . s e t e n s f t t i to , K ig t of

‘ a a e re n ne an d s n d e n h as s r e for M lt w co fi d , i e th it e v d a p ri s o n for th e Ch ri sti an s l a v e p ri n c e s ; many of th e a n ar e s at th e m e e r e in n h a m J iz i , ti of th i xt ctio by Mo m e re m r ne and a e r ar s b h ea e d . s I I , we i p i o d ft w d e d d th e re . ns an s s th e m e a r Co t tine , con ciou of i p nding d nge , e an re ar h r e n e an d r for a b g to p p e wit p ud c vigo , cont e st th at w as to d e cid e th e fat e of hi s Empi re . H e res olv e d to invoke t h e assi s tan c e of Pop e h n n h a th e as V. w o s e Nichol , con ted on co dition t t H e t G re ek an d Lati n chu r ch es s h ould b e unit e d . s en ar na s re w h o s a e h 0 m en a e C di l I ido , il d wit 5 on G no e s e v s se h e re h e w as oin e d b 1 0 m re e l to Scio , w j y 5 o , Hi em an w as an d th e n we nt to Con s tantinopl e . s d d O TTOM A N D YN A S TY 53

a e e th e m e r r b u t re e e th e e o cc pt d by E p o , j ct d by p n an a e n r h l e . e e s e t e mm an p Two V ti g ll y , u d co d of a a n a r e re s an w e re s e n ns a n C pt i G b i l T vi o , t to Co t ti

n O l e a ss s a e s . n h e r ar e e s s e p , to i t P l ologu A ot l g v l

n e r th e mm an a m es s a e r m u d co d of J Cok , il d f o re n an d a r a h n th e e r w a s s u r T bizo d , , pp o c i g tow ,

r n e s e e ra a s . a a n at e m e ou d d by v l bo t C pt i Cok t pt d , h r h r e s e s a e th e f e r r m th e t oug b ib to c p , but o fic f o “ n th a h h r r n f as e e s s o e s en . c tl fou d b k i , b ib , i u fici t H e th re w it in to th e Bo spho ru s an d retu rn e d to th e to w e r to g et fu rth er o r d e rs from th e comm an d e r of

n r e e n e an h r n a r h th e garri s o . Cok p t d d to c o e t e as e as s n a s th e f e rs an e h e r e th e c tl , but oo o fic l d d t , gall ey s ail e d at o n c e an d r e a ch e d Con stantin ople

r h 1 2 an h h m r e e m e t . e e t e e r h ad D c b 4 , 45 M w il E p o as e th e ai d th e e n e s e wh o s en ann k d of G o , t Giov i u s n ani w h tw o a e s a n d 00 m en arr Gi ti i , it g ll y 7 , iving at ns an n e i n an ar 1 w h h r e Co t ti opl J u y , 453 , ic p ov d to

n r r r b e th e o nly assista c e p ocu e d f o m Eu rop e . T h e m e r r h av m e e n a ua n e h s n an E p o g b cq i t d wit Giu ti i i , re e e him w h re a h n r a n n h im c om c iv d it g t o o , ppoi ti g m an e r th e arm a n d r m s e him th e s an d of y , p o i d I l d of mn s ns an n e s h b e s a e r m th e Li o , if Co t ti opl ould v d f o n m n n n n th e er na e a e e e . s a e s e e y Co t ti , i g v y i d qu t re ara n for th e e e n e th e t re es e p p tio d f c of ci y , qu t d hi s m s a h r e n e r e ran s e t r m o t f it ful f i d , G o g F zi , to g f o n h s e ach comm and e r a li s t of th o s e i n his divi sio . T i a m n e w h h e re r e e s c on ou t d to of ic w G k , I t s s n m n s and h e rs an d re n ers . i ti g of o k ot , fo ig w as with much g ri e f tha t F ranzi s h an d e d thi s li s t to th e m e r r w h h w as m a e as w as E p o , ic not d public , it d ifficult to coll e ct ~ a ddition a l troop s i n Const anti 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y 54 . n o l e for hi s r t e rs D e m e riu s an d h m as e re p , b o h , T o , w e n a e i n a n t w T ou rh a n th e P e lo on g g d co flic ith , in p nes u s an d n ot re n e r th e m e r r a n as s s , could d E p o y i t an e h e s m e am e s h ad e ns an l e c , w il o f ili l ft Co t tinop s ec re tly . Co n stanti ne m ad e e v e ry e ffo rt to p re s e rv e the an n e m re h h h ad a re a as e on e Byz ti E pi , w ic l dy l t d h s an e ars s a e e a r n ani t ou d y , by con t ntly nd vo i g to m a e his r s and th e n ha an th e t t oop , i bit ts of city by hi re s e n e an d e ra e h e m hi s e am s e . p c , to ncou g t by x pl O n th e s e cond of Ap ril h e o rd e re d B artolomeo Soligo to s e cu r e th e e ntran c e of th e Gold e n Ho rn a s r n h a n s re h e r m a m u B a tc h é by t o g c i , t tc d f o St bo l g

a a a r m l - m a a t C ou s ou ou a a e. c pou , to G l t g z

T h e ra n r a i as h a n rm e th e m r r g d vizi , H l l P , i fo d E pe o p riv at e ly of a ll th e p re p aration s agai nst Co nst a nti n o l e and r e s s a hamm e r m p , t i d to di u de Mo d f o r n h d e st royi ng th e city . Acco di g to t e re co rd of an t man h s r an e h m e a a as h a w as O to i to i , M d S id , H lil P r e th e m e r r w h ar e s h e s th e e e s b ib d by E p o it l g fi , b lli w h h e re e h an d s e r n of ic w fill d wit gold ilv coi s . H alil P ash a w as i nvite d by th e Sultan to vi sit him at nig ht ; be i ng s u spiciou s of th e i nvita tio n for s uch a n n s a h ur h e e m ra e hi s e an d h re n u u u l o , b c d wif c ild , hi m a ar e su m e n th e took with l g of gold , w t to h h a a e an d a ve t e an . T e an e p l c , g it to Sult Sult b ing “ s r r se a t s s a him : a e m re i e u p i d thi , id to I h v o to g v you ; I only w ant of you th e ca ptu re of Cons ta nt l T h e ra i zi r a s e re hi m affi rma i nop e . g nd v n w d h a a ti v ely and th e n l eft t e p l c e .

i Ha a s h a was a e Giavour O rta i or ar n er ot th e i n lil P , c ll d y , p t fid els and was e the an wen a s a er th e a re , kill d by Sult t ty d y ft c ptu of n n n e Co sta ti opl . O OM A N D Y A/A S T Y TT . 55

I n th e begi nni ng of Fe b ru a ry th e l arg e cannon

re s re e rre w as rans r e r m r p viou ly f d to , t po t d f o Ad i m n i n ano l e th e a e . a u s ns an n e p to g t of St Ro Co t ti opl , w hich i s n ow call e d Top - capou or th e Gat e of th e ara a B w h w h an arm ann n . e o C o K dz y , it y of h an n a rr a m en ran s r e t e e t . e an t po t d c no , iv d St St f o , a a e i n th e s r s C onstantin ol e an d vill g ubu b of p , h c aptu re d it with g re at s l aug t e r .

T h e Tu rks w ere en cou rage d by th e Sh eikh A xam S edin wh o h ad s ered in a s n th e l en rn th e m of E oub di cov vi io by Go d Ho to b y , f a - ul - K raib o f M e na He is s s e h a s on o Z id o di . uppo d to v e b e en ’ the e a re r of th e r h e M h a mme s s an ar and w as e b p op t o d t d d , kill d i h r n th e h r s e e Constant no ole t e A ra s 668 A . du i g t i d i g of p by b , D . a m w an M hamm wh h O n h s s s e as e . t i pot o qu built by Sult o d II , ic ever sinc e th e fall of Const antinopl e h a s b een co n s id ered th e mo st ll s h I n s re er th e s w r s a c re d of a its pla c e of wo rs ip . it i p s v ed o d a s man I and a s ea h s es s e an i r a me n . s of Sult O , c ucc iv Sult p ocl i d , h e h as me h ere in e rs n ac c om an ie d a ll th e n ar es to co p o , p by dig it i a nd f a s of th e m re i n r a r es s n h a e h s s w r o fici l E pi , oy l p oc io , to v t i o d hi h s erem n is e a en to th e r na n of b elt e d on m . T i c o y quiv l t co o tio a r ean s ere n a nd wh h h e a a ns th e n of Eu op ov ig , by ic tt i dig ity a e n h s m s e e s a h s r r s h eme er and C liff . B yo d t i o qu , li i to ic Tu ki c t y , on a n of its s an th e m s n e and a h w ers of ccou t ctity , o t obl f it ful follo a r n e rre h r I s l am e i t d t e e .

T h e an h e n th e mm an hi s r s Sult t took co d of t oop , th e m e r w h h i s ar s e s ma a r nu b of ic v iou ly ti ted , cco d i n ar ar w h o i s ns ere th e m s g to Nicolo B b o , co id d o t a ccu rat e ; it w as a mo ng w hich w e re many

e r s h e s m a ms an d m as w h o u r n th e h d vi , i ol , d i g fig t e n ra e th e arm h e th e r sh e e c on cou g d y w il Tu ki fl t , si sti ng of 1 50 v e s s e l s of v ariou s siz e s was u n d e r th e

mm an a a - u e m an ash a s on a co d of B lt oglu S l y P , of r h ar an am e a a a re h e n ic Bulg i n d B lt , c ptu d w il you g an d n r h amm n m co v e te d to Mo e d a i s . O n r a r 6th 1 a er ra e r th e F id y , Ap il , 453 , ft p y , Tu rki s h army an d n avy we re o rde red to atta ck th e V D Y JV S Y O T T OM A Z A T .

T h an w a ar e a . e s ar e s city Sult gu d d by J niz i . a n d a p a rt of hi s a rmy w as e n camp e d n e ar th e ga te

T o - a h e th e res e r i n f ere a e s of p c pou , w il t w e di f nt pl c

i a Z a an r h e r- i n-l aw ar ts s . os ound w ll g , b ot of the an and ara a h a ar hi s arm Sult , K dj Bey wit p t of y h e h ra e an n e re t s s e . w on ill of Pe , oppo it Con t ti opl

ar ar 1 8 ran s . S e e . ( B b o , p ; F zi , p Co ns tanti ne P a l e ologu s e n c a mp e d with a p art of hi r m th e an ear th e a s a s e . y , oppo it to Sult , n g te of St

- a th e m e r r a h Romanu s or Top c pou . By E p o w s t e e ne ra in mm a ann s t n an h hi s g l co nd , Giov i Giu i i i , wit re a v e D on Fra ns c e s c o h 00 e n e s e w h o l ti , wit 5 G o

th e as . S e e ra n i s . 2 ar ar fought to l t ( F z , p 54 ; B b o , T h re ma in e r th e re e ar p . e d of G k my w as pl a c e d a round th e w alls of Co nstanti n opl e one p art at - n e r th e mm an e e r Soulou coulé , u d co d of the xp t a r h e r h e re C a ris tri os th e s e w as e n c , T odo ; cond

am e at rne- a or r a e a e n e r c p d Edi c pou Ad i nopl g t , u d th e h re e r h e rs B roc ki ardi a A n n an d t b ot (P olo , to io

r a n h e r n e r th e e ne a ns e r T oilo); ot u d V ti n co ul , J o / m M i n oto at E h ri - a f rm e r a e th e ino , g c pou , o ly c ll d

a e C h arsi a or G alli ari a at e r or e r G t of g , T ki T kfu ’ ra r h r a a s e i o t e Lo d s p l c e . T h e rem ai n d e r of th e w e ak w all w as gu ard e d by a e rm an f e r h n ran an e e r m e r G o fic , Jo G t , xp t in ; a nd th e n r e rn ar Of th e r an e A i v assar o th p t t i gl , y , ar s E ou b w as r e e ar na s re tow d y , p ot ct d by C di l I ido n T h e r r m i mans and a s . e s A v as with Ro Sci tow , f o s ar a e ri - a e re n d e r th e n r y g t to Pet c pou , w u co t ol of en e s e e r n m an d e n ar r m e r two G o , J o i o L o do ; f o P t i a B alo uk a ar on th e rn w as c pou to B z , Golden Ho ar e d th e ra e c N otaras h a n th gu d by g nd Duk , vi g wi O OM A N D N A TT Y S T Y. 57

him one hu n d re d h o rs e m e n an d 500 a r ch e rs ; th e e rs as s e n a nd e s n e ar B a htc h é tow B ilio , L o Al xio g a w e re r e a re w a C r eti a n v es c pou , p ot cted by c of s el h h a e h es e s a rs h e n th e a r e , w ic pl c t ilo ld u til c ptu of Constanti nopl e S e raglio poi nt w a s p rote cte d by r h an th e e h a fe w r sh w e rs O c , fugitiv , wit Tu ki follo ; h e w as afte r w ard fou n d n ea r th e h ou s e of th e Gran d

- Duk e Luc a Notaras .

T he r n e r- era am a r m an a s th e a a e of e s ui T kfu S i , f ili to y p l c B li ar s s me mes a e th e a a e of C ns an n e th e rea is a iu , o ti c ll d p l c o t ti G t , ar e s are d n s ma s on ar w h e a e rn am en a l g qu buil i g of olid y , it d lic t o t l wo rk ; it h as many wi ndow s an d s tan d s as a landmark upon a

hill . e tween T ch atl a di - a and A h r- a a n th e r n s B c pou y c pou , f ci g P opo ti , h ere is a r sh h s e wh h ar a h es the w n ih t Tu ki ou , ic p ti lly id follo i g s cription upon th e w a ll :

>I< A OY 1< N OT A PA A I EPM HN EY T OY

’ r m h s w e ea rn not n th e a n of ara s h s e F o t i l o ly loc tio Not ou , but h ra m a h m a ls o th at h e was t e d go n of t e E p eror.

T h e a e s th e A h r- a T c h atl a di - a g t of y c pou , c pou , w e re gu ard e d by th e Sp ani s h co nsul Pi e tr o Giuli an o w h o c a m e to Co nstanti nopl e ju s t aft e r th e c om m n m n h T h an e e w e e n e c e e t of t e si e ge . e di s t c b t Coum- c apou to S am ati a w as gu ard e d by th e V en e

an a o Kontari ni e - or th e s e en ti J c b ; Y di coulé , v w e rs w a s r e e th e e rm an mman e an d to , p ot ct d by G E u l the e n e an Ca ar n h a n n er h e r m man V ti t i o , vi g u d t i co d a bout 2 00 ar ch e rs ; th e di s t an c e b etw e en Y e di - coulé and Silivri - c apou w as p rot e cte d by th e V en eti an C orne ro with th e M ath e m atici an Th e oph ilu s Pal e ofi

l o u s th e e n e s e M av riki o K atan e o and th e g , G o V e neti an Nicolo Moc e ni go ; i n th e c entre of th e D S 58 O TTOM A N YN A TY.

n ear th e r h th e A s s city , chu c of Holy po tle (on which a e i s th e m s e a h a mm w as pl c built o qu of Sult n Mo ed), p rot e ct e d by D e m e t riu s C ata c uze nu s and hi s

r h e r-in n l aw N iki h or u s a e s 00 b ot , p P l ologu , with 7 m m en as a re s e r th e m s n re e s . ve , o t bei g G k onk th e e n ran e th e h ar r S e e ran 1s . ( F z , p At t c of bo ’ l e s a r s e - e or th e M a e s r i ocky i l t , Kiz coul , id n Towe , which w as gu arded by th e V e n eti an captain

T re vi sano .

T h e w all s and towers mentio ned a bove h ad b een / erec ted and enlarge d in s ucc es s ive yea rs by the Emp ero rs T heodo s iu s I I s on of th e m er r A r a s T heO ilus s on h a e a s s E p o c diu ; p , of Mic l ; B iliu , T h e s r n es a r re h e s n a n mnen s and a e s . s a t Ju ti i , Co u P l ologu t o g t p t ’ h n r and w e e w er z r m an wa s m r s in one e s . e . l d ll , co p i g u d d t lv to , , f o th e s ea e — é or A e w er f r e en wers r m to Y di coul qu duct to , ou t to ; f o u - é rne- a or a e of A r a n e n ne w e rs So lou coul to Edi c pou g t d i opl , i to r m E hri- a or e a e e e e n we rs r m E hri f o g c pou Obliqu g t , ight to ; f o g r r e en wers T h e an wa s are a th e en n . c pou to Gold Ho , fou t to l d ll an e a e row m ra wers e en e a m a fl k d by doubl of u l to , d f d d by o t a r e T h e wa s are a ee h h and about eight y d s wid . ll bout fifty f t ig h n vary in t ick es s .

The h arbo r w as p rot e c te d by a s trong ch ain an d r e n e se re e C re i an an d I m by fou G o , th t two

e r a e ss e s n r th e mm and C a a n p i l v l , u de co of pt i A n ni h e n n e e e n v ess e ls 'w e re m re h n to o , w il i t oo d wit i

th e h ar r re e r na e ss e . bo , nd ing it i cc ibl O n th e 1 1th of Ap ril th e Sultan o rd e re d fou r larg e

ann s b e a e at - a n n th e c on to pl c d Top c pou , i cludi g imm e ns e on e m a d e by Ur ban th re e i n Siliv ri - c apou

w i n - an h re h r a n t o Y e di coulé d t e s t in ot e loc tio s . ’ th e rs s h ar e th e e rr b e re r Ur an s At fi t di c g , t i l po t of b cann o ns t e rrifi e d all th e i nh abitants of Co n stanti nO l e a e r a s h r u s e rs a n d th e p , but ft o t it bu t , body of its m ak e f w as blown to atoms ov e r th e w a lls an d fell

h - an r h r m t e a s A t o t e e . on pl in of Meid , Hippod o

6 M N D A S C) O TTO A YN T Y. looking fr om th e w alls an d th e Tu rks f rom th e s e a a w a m an n ar an d r e a h co st . It s os t s gui y d dful ; t e re e s an d en e s e s e th e re e fi r e n en e d G k G o u d G k , i v t ' e r e th e m e of h r s h h r h r a b fo ti C i t , w ic b oug t g e t es r n th e r s an d th e i r w as on th e d t uctio to Tu k , V cto y h an er n r m s e th e h r s t an s . T e e id of C i i Sult , p c ivi g f o th e s e a sh r e h a h i s e e w as e ea e e a e s o o t t fl t d f t d , b c m excit e d th at h e r u sh e d on h o rs e b a ck into th e s h a llow s e a Z ei ti n - rn w h h i s e r s h s w et of bou ou it follow , t u n hi s h e s h s a n a s e th e e e ra ti g clot t i ctio c u d fl t to lly , but afte r a s ho rt figh t th e Tu rki s h v e ss e l s gav e w ay in con fu s ion an d re tu rn e d to th ei r sta tio n at B e shik h h n w er ta s . T a t n igh t th e fou r Ch ri sti a ves s el s e

e a n h h ar r T h h e r s tow d s f ely i to t e bo . e lo ss of t Tu k w r m n as e a wh e h a th e r e e s w as s a . O g t , il t t of G k ll th e 2 i s t d a A r th e an w i h h rs e ~ y of p il , Sult , t o m e n w en t to B es hiktas h s ton e c ra d l e an d o r d ere d th at th e Admi ral S ul e ym an P ash a should b e d e ri e hi an ' a n e T h e i n di p v d of s titl e s d e x e cute d t o c . g

a n of th e as h as h w e v e r a s e hi m re a n tio P , o , c u d to c ll th is atr ociou s com m an d ; b ut hi s p rop e rt y w as c on

fi s c ate d an d v e e w e en th e an ar es an d th e di id d b t J iz i , u nfo rtu n at e Ad mi r al re c eiv e d on e hu n d r e d blow s ’ r m h - n h am f o t e Sult an s h e avy b attl e m ac e . O t e s e d ay on e of th e to w ers of Top - ca pou w as d e stroy ed ’ th e en e m s ann n a e an d a r n th e by y c o d , cco di g to h s r an s ten th s an r s e as a e i to i , ou d Tu k could ily h v a r e th e tn en th e an w a s a sen at c ptu d city , but Sult b t h a h n e s s w h e r e h e w as h n a w ar . B ikt , oldi g cou cil of T h e ran r a as h a r s e h a th e g d vizi , H lil P , p opo d t t s i eg e s h ould b e r ai s e d an d a tre aty of p e a c e c on e w h th e m er r m e n him a a clud d it E p o , co p lli g to p y M A N D Y N A S T 6 1 O TTO Y.

h ara h or an a n n a tax h e th e u a n s h tc u l , w il S lt ould h av e th e autho rity to appoi n t th e polic e offic e rs i n th e h e h A ks e mze d i n w h ns an n e . o Co t ti opl But S ik , am e w h w e n h san e r s h es Z a anos c it t ty t ou d D vi , g , an d th e h e r as h as e a a ns a as h a an d ot P , vot d g i t H lil P n h r rej e cte d hi s p ropo sitio s . In t ei s ub se qu e nt arran e m e n s en e r th e e rn a an w as g t to t Gold n Ho , pl p ropo s e d by th e Ge n o es e of Gal ata to Sultan h am me for th e n e an e hi s a e s e r Mo d , co v y c of g ll y ov an an d h r a n h n th e h ar r for th e a a l d t ei l u c i to bo , tt ck by l and w a s difficult an d th e ch ai n co nstitut e d an

r r T h e an w a a ; imp enet rabl e b ar i e . pl s s follow s T h e di stan c e fr om D ol ma b agtc h é up to th e v a ll e y Pan alti and Y e ni s h e hi r h e n e assi m as h a of g , t c to K P , s ho b e a e w th an s s m h e w h re as e uld p v d i pl k , oot d it g , an d th e a e s s e e n - i n n m e r n e e g ll y , v ty two u b . co v y d

r m ma-b a tc hé th e en rn w h e f o Dol g to Gold Ho , il Z agan os Pas h a a nd K aradj a B ey gu ard e d P e ra with artill e ry to d e fe n d th ei r g alley s i n cas e of an atta ck

I r m h r o t e G ee ks . r n th e h s r an ar ar an e e nes s Acco di g to i to i B b o , y wit , th e nh a an s a a a w h o e re e n e s e ass s e d i bit t of G l t , w G o , i t i n h m n h r r h n h t e co pl etio of t i s wo k . Aft e t e l au c of th e Tu rki s h g all ey s i nto th e h arbo r of th e Gold e n

rn h e as se r s - h a s e e ra nav al m a s Ho , t t t v l co b t took pla c e b e tw e e n th e T u rki s h fl e e t and th e Imp e ri al

T h r n r a r w e e n v es se ls . e Tu ks co st uct e d b idg e b et e r as h a and A iv as s ar c ns s n a h s an d P i P y , o i ti g of t ou w e arre s r re th e e n es e a a a ood n b l , p ocu d by G o of G l t , w hich w e re fast en e d tog eth e r a nd cov ere d with pl anks ; a rtill e ry w as pl a c e d upo n it for th e ge ne ral ass ault ; th e Ch ri sti an v e ss el s att e mpt e d to d e stroy 6 M N D Y A S T o 0 T T O A N Y. looking from th e w alls an d th e Tu rk s f rom th e se a a w a m s s an nar a nd re a th e co st . It s o t gui y d dful ; re e s a n d e n e se s e th e re e fi re n e n e d G k G o u d G k , i v t ' e re th e m e of h r s h r u h re a b fo ti C i t , w ich b o g t g t

e s r n th e r s a n d th e r w as th e, d t uctio to Tu k , victo y on h T h an e r e r m s e t e h r s t ans . e id of C i i Sult , p c iving f o th e s e a s h re h a h is e e w as e e a e e a e s o o t t fl t d f t d , b c m e xcit e d th at b e ru s h e d on h o rs e b a ck into th e s h allo w s e a Z ei ti n- r w h hi s e rs h s of bou nou it follow , t u wet n hi s h e s h s a a s e th e fl e to ra ti g clot ; t i ction c u d e t lly , but afte r a s h o rt figh t th e Tu rki sh v e ss els gav e w ay i n co nfu sio n and re tu rn e d to th e i r statio n at B es hik

n r h r n e r tash . Th at ight th e fou C i sti a v ess el s w e

e a n h h ar r T h e ss of th e r s tow d s fe ly i to t e bo . lo Tu k w a r h r ma n s e a h e h a t e e e s w as s . O g t , w il t t of G k ll th e 2 i st d a r th e an w h rse w y of Ap il , Sult , it ho m en e n s h tas h stone c rad l e and r e re , w t to Be ik o d d th at th e Admi ra l S ul e ym an P a sh a s h ould b e de

' ri hi n T h e i n d i p v e d of s titl e s an d e x e cute d at o c e . g na n of th e as h as h w e v e r a s e hi m r a tio P , o , c u d to ec ll this atrociou s comm an d ; b ut hi s p rope rty w as con fi s c ate d an d e e w e e th e an ar e s an d th e divid d b t n J iz i , u nfo rtu n at e Ad mi ral re c eiv e d on e hu n d re d blow s ’ r m th e a h - n th e am e f o Sult n s e avy b attl e m a c e . O s d ay one of th e tow e rs of Top - c a pou w as d e s troyed ’ th e e n e m s a nn na e an d a r n th e by y c o d , cco di g to h s r ans te n th san r s e as a e i to i , ou d Tu k could ily h v a re th e h n th e an w a s a s e n at c ptu d city t e , but Sult b t

e sh a h r h a n s e e e w as h n w ar . B ikt h , w oldi g cou cil of T h e ran r a as h a r s e a th e g d vizi , H lil P , p opo d th t s i e g e s h ould b e rai s e d and a tre aty of p e a c e c on e h th e m e r r m e n him a a clud d wit E p o , co p lli g to p y O OM A N D Y N A S T 6 TT Y. 1

h ara h or an a nn a tax w h e th e u an s h tc u l , il S lt ould h av e th e autho rity to appoi nt th e polic e offic e rs i n h h e h A k m i ns an n e . t e s e z e d n w h o Co t ti opl But S ik , am e w h en h s an e r s h es Z a an os c it tw ty t ou d D vi , g , an d th e h e r a s h as e a a ns a as h a and ot P , vot d g i t H lil P n I n h r rej e cte d hi s p ropo sitio s . t ei sub s equ e nt

arr an e m en s e n e r th e e n rn a . an w as g t to t Gold Ho , pl p ropo s e d by th e Ge n o es e of Gal ata to Sultan

h am me for th e n e an e hi s a e s e r Mo d , co v y c of g ll y ov an an d h e r a n h n th e h ar r for th e a a l d t i l u c i to bo , tt ck by l an d w as difficult an d th e ch ain co nstitut e d an m rr r T h e an w a a i p e netrabl e b a i e . pl s s follow s

T h e di s tan c e from Dol ma - b agtc h é up to th e v all e y Pan alti and Y e ni s h e hi r h e n e ass m ash a of g , t c to K i P , s h b e a e w th an s s m h e w h reas e ould p v d i pl k , oot d it g , an d th e a e s s e en - tw o i n n m e r n e e g ll y , v ty u b . co v y d

r m m a- b a tc hé th e en rn h e f o Dol g to Gold Ho , w il Z agan os Pas h a a nd K aradj a B ey gu ard e d P e ra w ith artill ery to d e fen d th ei r g all ey s i n cas e of an attack I r m h e r o t G e eks . r n th e h s r a ar ar an e e nes s Acco di g to i to i n B b o , y wit , th e n h a an s a a a w h o w re en e se ass s e d i bit t of G l t , e G o , i t i r r h a n h n th e compl etio n of thi s w o k . Afte t e l u c of th e Tu rki s h g all ey s into th e h arbo r of th e Gold en

rn h e as s e r s - ha s e e ra n a a m a s Ho , t t t v l v l co b t took pla c e b e tw e en the T u rki s h fl e e t an d th e Imp e ri al

T h r n r e a r e e w e e n v e ss e ls . e Tu ks co st uct d b idg b t e r as h a an d A i v as s ar ns s n a h s an d P i P y , co i ti g of t ou w e arre s r re th e en es e a a a ood n b l , p ocu d by G o of G l t , \ w hich w e re faste n e d tog e th e r a nd cov ere d with pl anks ; artill e ry w as pl a c e d upo n it for th e ge neral ass ault ; th e Ch ri s ti an v e ss el s att e mpte d to d estroy 6 2 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y.

th e r s h e e an d th e r e b ut h e ere b e Tu ki fl t b idg , t y w

r h a a a h t a e d t e e . O n t e th M a y by p ople of G l t 7 of y , ar s e e n n h r san r s as sa e tow d v i g , t i ty thou d Tu k ult d th e a h e re re s h r a city by l nd , but t y we pul ed wit g e t

ss i s a e as e a h re ur h e lo ; th b ttl l t d bout t e ho s . On t h 12 h M a h night 0 1 t e t of y fifty t ou s and Tu rk s m a d e a n e r assa u on th e an d a s e r- s era n ar oth lt l w ll of T ki i , e

- h 6 E h ri a s e s s . th e 1 g c pou , but wit out ucc On th of M a a a r th e r s fl e s as h y , p t of Tu ki h et of Be hikt s a a r a h e th e h ar r th e h r s a t tion pp o c d bo , but C i ti n r e h e n m T h m ves s els s oon epuls d t e e y . e s a e d ay an

, e xcavation w as di s cov e re d n ear th e fou n d ation of T h m e r r e n n rm th e w alls . e E p o b i g i fo e d of it by th e G rand Duk e Luc a Notaras o rd e re d him to s e arch for w as th e e rm a f e r h it ; it found by G n o fic , Jo n ran r h s n e n m an th e e e m G t , th oug who e i g uity y of n y

f a n th e i th M a fi r h e re s e . O v e s w u foc t d 7 of y , Tu ki galley s a pp ro a ch e d th e ch ai n of th e h arbo r but we re h h r an n h 1 atta ck e d by t e C i sti s . O t e 8th of M ay th e garris on of th e city di s cov ere d a l arg e mov abl e t e r e re h ox - h e s h r h h th e ow cov d wit id , t oug w ich b e si eg e rs s afe ly att a ck e d th e Ch risti ans ; but it w a s r n h 2 d e stroy e d by th e G e ek s . O t e i st of M ay a s u bt e rrane an p ass ag e w as dis cov e re d from which th e ‘ n h Tu rks w e re d riv e n out by e xplo siv e s . O t e 2 2 d M a tw o h e r e a a s th e s am e e re of y , ot xc v tion of kind w

r T he an h e e r s e n hi s s n- i h s e e . o di cov d Sult , ow v , t l aw s m ae am a B e s on th e I s fe ndi ar h an , I l H z y , of K , to th e Emp e ro r Co ns tanti ne to p ropo s e th e s u rre n de r th e a r an d r m s n s a e all of city volunt ily , p o i i g f ty to h s e w h o s h e e a e th e m e r r a e a t o wi d to l v , but E p o c ll d c ouncil of w ar a n d a n egativ e ans w e r w as giv e n to M N D Y N A S 6 0 T T O A T Y . 3

n h e r e a a n a i th e Tu rki s h envoy . A ot xc v tio w s d s e re on th e m rn n the 2 d M a w h h cov d o i g of 3 of y , ic w as d e st roy e d ; tw o wo rkm e n w e r e ca ptu re d an d n r h an h th ei r h e a d s w e re th ro w ov e t e l d w alls . T e Sultan i n d e sp ai r o rd e re d a g e n e ra l as s ault to b e m a e on th e 2 th M a and e n ra e hi s d 9 of y , to cou g ’ t roop s p romi s e d th e m th re e d ay s plu n d e r of th e e e n e e s h s h re as res city , xc pti g public dific , wit uc t u ’ T h e an r a nd captiv e s as th ey could g et . Sult s p omi s e re e th e arm and ha n h t an m na n joic d y , t t ig illu i tio took pl a c e w hich w as thought by th e Gre eks to b e a fi re i n th e Tu rkish c amp ; but th ey s oo n b e cam e n n a w are of its real m e anin g . Giu sti i a i e n cou rage d th e arr s n w h all hi s m h an d a r n g i o it ig t , cco di g to

’ s h e n ar s re r th e an w as w n e r Bi op L o do co d , Sult o d s r ri s e th e h n e s s n an w h o fully u p d by o ty of Giu ti i i , s co rnfully r ej e cte d all hi s brib es to b e tray th e Em

r n n n p e ro Co sta ti e . h re e a s re i s the assa t th e a s w e re T d y p v ou to ul , w ll bomb ard e d ; thi s p artly d e stroy e d th e m l e avi ng n o outl ets th rough w hich th e Gre e ks could atta ck th e m f w m n n w n h a a e ne . e e t a a e e y A old k o i g t g t , c ll d ' th e e n a e h ad e s e n e r th e al ac e near Wood g t , xi t d u d p

E h ri- a th e re s e n re e e m e e r re r e g c pou by p t G k c t y , po t d it to th e Emp e ro r and h e o rd ere d it to b e op e n e d for an a a a a n h m r h e a a ss s t e e ne . e t s s ult g i t y Aft ult , it w as a i en a e en a n m er T rks en e r cc d t lly l ft op , u b of u t ed r but w e e kill e d . s an ne w h o w as s s for hi s e as Con t ti , con picuou pi ty

’ \ e as for hi s va r s h e h i m s e m s r h of w ll lo , ow d lf o t wo t y hi s crown at th e tim e wh en h e w as about to lo se it r r T h r n f fo e v e . e c itize ns fought b av e ly i d e fen se o 6 O OM A N D Y N A S 4 TT T Y .

e r m es and h ei r am s m m ers Wh m th i ho t f ilie , e b of o took p art i n th e e nga g e ment by p e lti n g th e e n e my

i h w a all a n W s s b ut s . Un r th e t tone , it in v i de gloomy m a th e ra a n d o e of St . Sophi b v e d u n fo rtun ate Em p e ror Constantin e c am e du ri ng th e l as t n ight of hi s l ife an d r e ceiv e d sol e mn ly an d t e arfully the s a c ra me nt f h ari w n n 2 o t e s . a o th e th M a Holy Euch t At d 9 of y , 1 h h a r a f r h e e . s e o t e a e 453 , l ft St Sop i , on ho b ck , pl c h r h a a a m a T h r w e e t e fat l ss ult w as d e . e Tu ks began t h e a a s n th e s a n a e rs— s an tt ck , u i g c li g l dd two thou d i n m e r — ns r e h e m s me h nu b co t uct d by t , o of w ich w e re e s r e an d th e ass a e rs e r e e h d t oy d , ult w kill d wit s s and r fi re w e h s e w h o re re a e tone G eek , hil t o t t d h r e w r T h we re cut up b y t ei f llo Tu k s . e s e co n d as sault w as m ad e again st th e gat e of Top - c apou man s h e re th e m e r r s th e (St . Ro u ), w E p o tood , but Gre e ks re pul s e d th e Tu rks with con sid e ra bl e lo ss ; th e an h e n r e re th e an ar e s r e Sult t o d d J iz i to p oc ed , n h n h a T h e a d t e d efe ce of t e city w s ob s tin at e .

as saul t co nti n u e d n e ar th e gat e of Top - c apou but h e f e and the s an ar e ar n th e e m e m wit out f ct , t d d b i g bl of th e doubl e h e ad e d e agl e of the Emp e ro r co n tinu e d

to w av e i n its pl a ce . Du ring th e mo rning a l arg e c annon b all de s troy e d a ar th e a e re th e e n e ans s an d p t of w ll wh V ti tood ,

a re h n re r s r sh i n re re a e bout th e u d d Tu k u ed , but t t d

" T h e r h a e n i n he with g re at lo ss . Tu ki s g ll y s lyi g t h ar r n e r th e mm an Z a an os as h a bo , u d co d of g P , d re e h e r a a a a ns anar th e ra i ct d t i tt ck g i t F , but G nd a ara r h e m a T h e a Duk e Luc Not s d ove t b ck . Sult n e n ra e hi s s e rs s m m es th r s cou g d oldi , o eti wi kind wo d ,

‘ a nd a a h re a en n h m w ith hi s r n h h g in t t i g t e i o club , w ic

66 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y . th e Chri sti ans ran tow ard s th e ga tes of th e h arbo r i n

r e r e s a e n th e s h s n r a e th e o d to c p i to ip , but u fo tun t ly

ar s h a e re s a n e e r e i n th e s n gu d t t w t tio d th , confu io ,

e h e m an d h re th e e s e r th e w a s ! lock d t , t w k y ov ll into

th e s e a . T h e Emp e ro r tri e d o n c e mo re to oppo s e th e e ne m w as m s s e for all h e h a d n e y , but it i po ibl , op go . H e h e n r s e on rs e a s w r i n h a a e m t u h d ho b ck , o d nd , co

ani e d hi s e rs a r s - a h n p by follow , tow d Top c pou , fig ti g hi r h th e r s . O n s s e D on ran e s r m Tu k ig t id , F c co , f o e and h h s a e s e re a s fi ht Tol do , T eop ilu P l ologu , w l o g i n ra e an d on th e e C ata c u ze nos an d hn g b v ly ; l ft Jo , th e a m a an w h o a te r m an r l an a h e e D l ti , f y b i li t c i v m e n s e e a T h e e a r s e s w as s o h h t , f ll d d . h p of co p ig th at th e e ntran c e to th e g at e w as a lmo s t imp a ss abl e W hil e Co nstanti n e w as fighti ng h e re c e iv e d a wou n d i n th e a r m an ra m h e ns a n e f ce f o A b who i t tly kill d , an d i n a fe w m om e nts m e t with th e s am e fate him s e r m th e an s a n h e r one th e e e lf f o h d of ot of n my , Thu s th e las t Sov e re ign of th e E ast e rn Empi re fell

on th e 2 th M a 1 at th e e ar a e r .. 9 of y , 4 53 , ly g of fo ty e a ra e and r s e n e hi s n r nin , in b v glo iou def c of cou t y

i h r T r r n h and h s t on e . h e Tu ks u s h e d i to t e city m e e h n o re s s an m a n re a h a ting wit i t ce , ki g d dful voc a m n th e re e h th e e as s n o g G k s . wit out l t di ti ction of ran a e or s ex es r n m e r a e m e s k , g ; d t oyi g the I p i l bl m on th e public e dific e s an d rep la c mg th e m with th e r T h r r e a s a a . e e s Ottom n t nd d c w of the Tu ki h fle t , s e ei r s an ar s a n th e a e ng thei t d d w vi g in city , l nd d r sh e a nd e e r h s e h h e u d into it , into v y ou w ich t y ente red hoi st e d a Tu rki s h fl ag as a sign th at it h ad n r b e e plunde e d . O OM A N D N A TT Y S T Y. 67

G e era s n an w h o w as s f e r n r n l Giu ti i i , u f i g f om the effe cts of th e wou nd which h e h a d re c e iv e d du ring th e s e e n s a n e r ss e a a a a i ge , l ft Co t nti opl , c o d to G l t on ss and sa h e re sh r a e r ar s ve el iled to Scio , w o tly ft w d r n r T h r h e di e d from a b oke h ea t . e b ave C retian sa rs w h o ar e th e w rs B azili os e ilo , gu d d to e of , L on and s th e e n ran e th e h ar r s Alexio , by t c of bo , till h er a h a th e e as a foug t h oic lly , wit out p ying l t ttention its a re an d th e an s e e n h e r ra r to c ptu , Sult , i g t i b ve y , a e h m e m ar on h e r es s e s an d e ar llow d t e to b k t i v l d p t , h r r r h m a m . an 1 a e s S e e s . t king with t t ei ( F z , p r h e rs a n n an d r s rnam The b ot P olo , A to io T oilo , u ed B rokiardi ere s h n th e a , who w till fig ti g by g te of

r a or rne- a e s rr e Ad i nople , Edi c pou , b ing u ound d by th e enem s e e i n e f e n h e r es a e and y , ucce d d f cti g t i c p a a a r n h h i r ss . a a s re u d s c o ed to G l t C di l I ido , t o g s e was a re an d s at a a a r gui d , c ptu d old G l t , f om h h a r r T h ri an w e nce e ft e w a d s es cap e d . e hi sto Franz1s and his family w ere c aptu re d an d bought by ’ h r m Hi a h r an a s on t e a s e . s e s d Sult n chi f g oo d ug t , ur e ars n a e h re m ar a e for h e r fo teen y old , m d Jo n , k bl t i a ere re s e e hi s m as e r and r be uty , w p nt d to t , we e h a T h l a h w as assas s eclud e d in t e Se r glio . e d Jo n si nate d s a e r th e an h ms e his oon ft by Sult i lf , with

wn i mi ar ra . ran o s . S e e s s c t ( F nzi , p F zi , with hi s e re ra s m e th e h r s ans and sa e wife , w n o d by C i ti il d Pel o on e su s h e n a and a e r ar s to p , t ce to It ly , ft w d to r a r e s an w ere h e a e am e a Co fu , G e k i l d , h fin lly b c monk .

e r e ran s es en e r m a n e ree am l w as rn G o g F zi , d c d d f o obl G k f i y , bo in in 1 0 1 n d e in 1 H e was a t r ns an n e a . e Co t ti opl 4 , di d 47 7 cul u d man a nd a r a r H was th e an a e and a ma s e . e , bl loy l diplo ti t , t u p t iot a h r a a a e h s r th e a of ns an n e wh h in ut o of v lu bl i to y of f ll Co t ti opl , ic ’ 68 O TTOM A N D YN A S T Y

c ludes his ar es m n and the n a rrat es th e s f er n s ocul t ti o y , iv of u f i g of h ms e and h ers at ha er th e er sa l of wh h e en a er i lf ot t t p iod , p u ic , v ft ' he a s e me i s h arrowm o th e rea er was she n t t . i l p of ti , g d It publi d ree in enna i n 1 6 G k Vi 7 9 .

e th e h r s an e ss s e re a r Som of C i ti v el w c ptu ed , h ers e s a e one h e e ot c ped with fugitiv s . of t m b ing ar ar th e e ne a h s r a T h e n Nicolo B b o , V ti n i to i n Ve e a r a s s a e w h o e r h i n ti n me ch nt of Con t ntinopl , w e idden r r T h n ars e e a e . e a s s r cell , w c ptu d Sp ni h co ul , Je on Minoto th e e n a s r a imo ; V eti n con ul , Piet o Giuli no , r a a h r e s s a r . a t e a w e l o t ken into l ve y Fin lly , G nd e aras a a n hi s m en Duk Not , b ndo ed by , went to the towe r wh e re hi s family liv e d and fi n ding th e re a r ur s w h o r e r its e ra e numbe of T k t i d to fo ce nt nc , h e ra a m fought b vely gain st th e but w as wound e d . T h e Sultan o rd e red th a t N otaras s hould be confi ned hi I h a m r an s r . n t e s e a e a r in towe pl c , O ch n , the g d n a a w a n s s as a s o e I . s of Sult n B y zid , fou d di gui ed m a e r th e a re of s a n e an d w as onk ft c ptu Con t nti opl , hi m ra e r s e a . bet y d to the Tu k , who beh ded r th e s r a ar ar th e a s Acco ding to hi to i n B b o , c ptive e re a s sa numb d bout ixty thou nd . r s r t th e h rr ar ar Tu ki h c uel y , with o ible b b ity of s am s m i n i ts re a m th e r s a s w as I l i , t t ent of Ch i ti n , h a a a w a r s at . a s s s s hown St Sophi . T i v t b ilic c owded men m e n r s an d e r its by old , wo , gi l littl child en , s rrane a as sa e s r h a rr rs im ubte n p g , po ch , c pel , co ido , ens r s r ms th e a rms and es l m e o t u , pl tfo dom , cou d hold m any th ou s and s ; i ts pond e rou s gates we re r a e s one e s c r th e b oken open by x ; long pit ou y , e m a s ar s ar s e a i n bl nding of ny voice , o e tow d h ven ; an s a th e r s ru sh e d i n a rr e in t nt Tu k , m king te ibl a l th e r s s and men and h voc , ki ling p ie t old , commit O TTOM A N D Y N A S T Y 69

r h ting barbarou s out ag e s . Yout and b eauty at

ra e e r h e m en w m e n an d h re n t ct d th i c oic ; , o c ild , h an s n n w e re e i n e s th e wit out y di ti ctio , ti d coupl , men w e re bou n d w ith co rd s ; th e w om e n fast e n e d

h h e r r es and ra s n h a r m wit t i gi dl b id of lo g i . So e of h e m w e re h r n th e s h s h e rs arr e t t own i to ip , ot c i d to th e man am r a as sa e ‘ s an d Otto c p , b ut lly ult d , old r a r h a a h a m t e t e d wo s e t n c ttle . Suc l entations w e re n e v er h e ard in any p art of th e w o rld ; th e wom e n e re se ara e re er r m h e r h s an s th e w p t d fo v f o t i u b d , h r n r m h e r m h e rs for th e r s c ild e f o t i ot , Tu k took th e ir living booty from Con stan ti n opl e to differen t r a T h r n h a n all h e r a s s . e s o s s o p t of A i Tu k , t i ot

asi ns rea e th e an sh e w h th e m s re occ o , t t d v qui d it o t m ors el ess c ru e lty an d m ass ac red t h e m by th ou s an d s i n T h e re h e re e n h are cold b lood . st of t G ks s oo s d th e a e t h e r a a e e a fe w w h o es a e d f t of i c pit l , xc pt c p to It aly ; and thu s Cons tantin opl e b e c am e s ubj e ct to h h n t e Mo am me d a s .

T h e Sultan e nt e re d th e city by th e gat e of St . ma s a m an e th e ra r ash as Ro nu , cco p i d by g nd vizi , p , an d gu ard s ; h e aligh t e d from hi s h o rs e b efo re th e r a e h a and e n ere n er th e f ont g t of St . Sop i , t d u d m as h e s o h e s r h hi s s m ar a do e ; did , t uck wit ci it , r wh o w as s n th e m ar e a e m e n b e Tu k plitti g bl p v t , cau s e h e did not wi s h any public e dific e to b e n r i ju ed .

T he n r th e mar e a emen th e ur for wh h h e i ju y to bl p v t by T k , ic was s r th e an l s ra es th e an a s m wh h i s nna e t uck by Sult , il u t t v d li ic i t “ to th at rac e ; for th e hi sto ri an M ordtmann s tat es th a t h e oft en s aw r s in A s a n r es r n m an ea s re s ; Tu k i Mi o , d t oyi g y b utiful culptu on as n h em the reas n for in s o h e w re B ou ki g t o do g , t y ould ply , tas hl ar b izé arama or h es e s n es are s e es s us . , y z , T to u l to ’ T h e day of Sult an Moh amme d s triumph al ent ry i nto th e city o 0 T T OM A N 1) YN A S T Y 7 .

,

" a nd h en e th e h r u h . h a was ma or r a t c to c c of St Sop i Djou F id y, wh h h a s s n e een s erve a s the ham me an a a h .o ic i c b ob d Mo d S bb t , r

d a res . n e h en th e e a m or the a en an e y of t Si c t S l lik , tt d c of the an for ra er at a n m s e a wa s a es a e on ha d a Sult p y y o qu l y t k pl c t t y . A t his e n ran e w h hi s s e h e i s met th e re - t c it uit , by g en tu rb aned ma n or s em r es a nd mmen es his ra ers th h r I Mo l p i t , co c p y ; e t ong in th e h a of th e m s e ns s s n men the w men who ll o qu co i t o ly of , o come a e an d s s s it in a e a er es T h to g z go ip l ttic d g ll i . e p ageant is a b r an one a rr a e s h rs es me n and s m n e h illi t , c i g , o , dog i gl d toget er i n

c n s on . A er his e ns are n sh e th e e es warn o fu i ft d votio fi i d , bugl giv i ng of his i nt end e d d e p artu re from th e mo s qu e, th e t roop s p resent “ “ a rms and th e s hout goes up Pa dis ha C hok Yasha ; or Let the S an e re er ult liv fo v .

T h e re a r g t chu ch of St . Sophi a w as immedi ately

ra s rm e a s e and r s r s t n fo d into mo qu , the Tu ki h c e cent m r r ss h a upon the do e , whe e the c o d s tood for age s ; the muezzin or c rie r as cended its e s rre and a a r l , A o l i a ofti t tu t g ve the z n , pub ic inv t t ra th e am e and Hi s r ion to p y in n of God p ophet ,

a M am a h r while Sult n oh med I I . s cended t e alta and o f r th e N am a or ra e r h e r a a s fe ed z p y , w e but few d y

r s th e ra e - a s a e the as p eviou , b v but ill f ted Con t ntin , l t o f hi s m e r a ra h ad re e e a ra I p i l ce , c iv d the S c ment . I n a r an e r l aw h s th e cco d ce with th i , t ey implified i e r r and all th e ri a mosiac r s r nt io , b lli nt figu e we e whit e w as h e d .

T h e na na ens n th e r s is th e res en or ha m n tio l ig of Tu k c c t lf oo . It c an always b e fou nd on th e domes and minarettes of the m s ues s as th e r ss is th e em em th e ree and m an o q , ju t c o bl of G k Ro a h h r h es ra n es as the r n h a th e C t olic c u c . T ditio giv o igi of it, t t e ra or h h e r r h e h amme r m e a H gi , flig t of t i p op t Mo d f o M cc to M edi na was at th e time of th e new moon th erefo re th e us e of the es i s a m m r h a e en c r c e nt e o i al of t t v t . T h m s e of h a rmer a hr s an a h e ra was e . o qu St Sop i , fo ly C i ti C t d l , A an d w as o riginally foun ded by Const antine th e G reat in 3 2 5 . D “ e i a e th e ne w s m of wh h its name d d c t d to Divi i do God , ic , h a n es h s h r h wa s re S t w s m s . . Sop i ( i do ) ig ifi T i c u c built by ns an s the s on and s es s r ns an ne the rea Co t tiu , ucc o of Co t ti G t ; it s tood until the reign of the Emp ero r A rc a dius and was one of th e

M D S 74 OT TO A N YN A T Y. ing th at they h ad killed the Empe ro r, but neithe r One w as su re of it ; \ th erefore it w as necessary to ex ami n e m any bodi e s in o rde r to id e ntify th at of a w as r a Constantin e . Fin lly it found unde the he p s

t ti e P t e t ti e . Cons an n ale ologus X . Las Emp ror of Cons an nopl

e i n c t i numorum v e terum c c i t os e h o Eckh el . From a s al Do r na ons r p a a J p , Vol VIII . e x is tl n i n h e Of 1e n p . g t e Mus um V na .

e a and w as r r m er a of the d d , ecognized f om the I p i l a h m r r i e gles whic we re e b oid e e d upon h s bu skins . Hi s ea w as d h amm as h d conveye to Mo ed , who ked M OTTO AN D YNA S T Y. 7 5 th e Grand Duke Notaras if it w as th at of th e Em r h af rma h r r aras e e t e e . am pe o . Not pli d in fi tiv Mo me d o rd ered it to b e expo s e d on a stak e in th e r me r er h a th e a sh e e e Hippod o , in o d t t v nqui d p opl

not hi s ea h or h e for hi s re - a e ar would doubt d t , op pp ’ ance ; he th e n di re cte d th e Emp ero r s body to b e bu ri e d

Constantine Pal eologu s X fourth s on of E mpe ro r Emmanu el and m res s e en th e a h er of ns an ne ra as s r n e E p H l , d ug t Co t ti D g i , p i c n a wa rn on th e l t Feb 1 0 H Was e of a e s . . e a e M c do i , bo of , 4 4 duc t d in ns an n e th e am s ea h er C atacuzenus a nd w as Co t ti opl by f ou t c , w hl S W es e ea n no s s e He w as marr e e . ro i d t ic , but iv di d l vi g i u p a me m er r ns an n e on th e 2 th M ar h 1 cl i d E p o of Co t ti opl 4 of c , 449 , and in th e fou rth year of h is reign fell fighting gloriou s ly to th e as and was r e a r n th e h s r an M ordtmann at a l t , bu i d , cco di g to i to i , rner a h an near e a-meid ani or e a a n wh h i s now co of K , M f M f pl i , ic e sh ema ers occupi d by o k .

Moh amm e d by d e c eit and treach e ry d re w from otaras r 1118 1nte rc ou rs e w h him th e am s N , du ing it , n e , all th e r e n es and se n for h e m r e of G e k obl , ndi g t , t i d h m to con cili ate t e . th e e d a M a 0 h amm e s e th e On n xt y , y 3 , Mo d vi it d h ou s e of th e Gra nd Duke Notaras an d w as co rdi ally r e e a r a h n b e d hi s s e eceiv d ; th n p p o c i g the of ick wif , b e e ncou rage d h e r w ith fals e p ro mi s es ; as w ell as r r s s f e re h r s m ss an d thei th ee on , who o f d t ei ub i ion , h r a h n r h s m afte r a s o t st y t e Sulta l e ft . Du ing t i ti e the plunde r and c ru e l outrag es of th e T urks s till continu e d . Sultan Moh amm e d gave a b anqu e t at th e Impe rial a a and e n a e r e r th e ar p l ce , b ing i toxic t d o d ed Kizl Agh a or chi e f of hi s eu nuch s to go to th e Grand ’ ara s s e an d r n - hi m hi s e s Duke Not hou , b i g to young t

’ T h r n so a b o r ars a e . e a n , y fou teen ye of g g d duke 6 M YN A S T Y 7 O TTO AN D .

hi h n “ refu s ed to delive r s son to t e Sult a . (See Fall M r mann 6 of s a n . . o dt . 1 Con t nti ople by A D , p 4 ;

. r P rri ar a . 2 0 e as . 8 a a o Sc l to , Vol I , p 9 ; C y , p 5 ; p g l s Vo . . poulo , V , p

T h e eu nuchs w ere divid e d into th e bl ack and th e whit e ; th e black eun uc h s were A fric ans and formed the guards of th e I mperial “ r h e r h e was a e ar A ha s si or as er th e H a em . T i c i f c ll d Kizl g M t of ” r s hi s r e wa s wh e w h a n r a hea d ress the s ame gi l , ob it it cyli d ic l d of r T h e wh e e n hs h ad h ar e th e a e s he r h e c olo . it u uc c g of p g ; t i c i f “ s a e a A h as s i or a s er th e a e h ere w ere w a c ll d K pou g M t of g t . T a s m es and w ar s wh o s er e a s f ns a m se the an l o ut d f , v d bu foo to u Sult and his h seh A ar e n m er th e a e n hs and a ou old . l g u b of bl ck u uc few war s s e s in th e a a e d f till xi t p l c .

Sult an Moh ammed in a rage o rd e red N otaras and hi s a ea e s f mily to be put to d th , xcept the younge t n T h e ran e ara aw h e a hi s o . G d Duk Not s s the d s of s e e s s ns a an d a e r a fe w m m s two ld t o f ll , ft o ent in ra r h e a s m e t th e s a a an d as p ye , l o me f te , they died r n r e a r Ch i s ti a s . Thei bloody h d s we e pl a c e d in a row e re th e a on th e a a and “ b fo Sult n b nqueting t ble , e r e re f n r M r m . d ann s e S e e o t . th i bodie w l t u bu ied ( , p 66 Pa arri l h n 1 ou o os . s ; p g p , p T i , in con ection with t h e fi e ndis h i ns tigation of a ren e ga d e F rench m an s e a r he n i n th e are m w as a , who d ughte , t h , s p e ci al favo rite of the Sultan ; with hi s co nst ant

t a s e r e e e th e rm a r in oxic tion , v d to xcit do nt fe ocity h1s n a re and h e r e r th e e s of tu , o d ed nobl whom he h ad r n the d a e re e e e and b ibed o ly y b fo , to be x cut d the mo st b e autiful of thei r child ren to be con fined in h h ar m h t e e . Then t e Veneti an cons ul J e ronimo M i noto hi s s on r th e a s ns r , Geo ge , Sp ni h co ul Piet o a his s s r all u r Giuli no , with two on , we e exec ted ; othe a s ere ra h Veneti n w libe ted by p aying eavy rans oms .

The pillag e of th e city lasted for, th re e d ay s afte r its 1 2

I Ki z A h assi i e c h . . lar g or Ch f Eunu

2 D ud é w . . j g or D arf

A W i te c . 3 . gha or h Eunu h

O OM A N TT D YNA ST Y. 9

r T h e e e an h arm c aptu e . fl t d t e y carri e d aw ay m e reas re s an d man a T h im ens t u y c ptiv e s . e con dition of th e Ch ri sti ans w as piti abl e in th e e xtre me th e m ean est Tu rks insult e d th e m o s t h ono rable

h r s ans ; h m n h e r r e r e s th e C i ti wit i pu ity ; t i p op ti , h onor of th e ir wiv e s an d child ren a nd th e i r ow n liv e s d e p en d e d on th e c ap rice of the s e ferocious b arb ar ans not h e s a e mm th e s i , who did it t to co it vile t m r n nn n h ra s e e a ess . O t e r d a out ge , in w to fou th y Moh amm e d commence d to regulate th e affai rs of a h ma m n n the ne w c pital of t e Otto n do i io . H e w as anxiou s to app e as e th e fears and stop th e fu rth er

th e an -s r e n e s s h s a e exit of p ic t ick citiz n , who oug t f ty i n e e r r n and se rn hi s a en v y di ectio , wi ly tu ing tt tion th e h r e e th e a a a r ar h a to c u ch , d cid d to fill v c nt p t i c l h r at n an d r re th e e e a n e w t one o ce , o de d l ction of a r ar h re s e th e h e th e r e p t i c , which ult d in c oic of e udit G ennadiu s I L S c h ol ariu s a a e s an e , , n tiv of Con t tinopl , w h o re a e th e f e for m re h an fi ve e ars h t in d o fic o t y , t en r an d e h hn h e signed w nt to t e convent of St . Jo t e i n a n a s ear ere s e a . B pti t , n S M c do i

T h re e n th e a r ar h a th e a a e was a r a one e c ptio of P t i c t p l c oy l . h an r n e en s af A r n Wh en e l eft th e Sult p es e t d him a gold t f . cco di g th e an ne s m h e m n e a r h a ar s ne s ee to Byz ti cu to , ou t d ic ly c p i o d t d , a nd wa s escorted by th e cou rt official s and a body gu ard to his res en e at th e a r ar h a h r h th e A s es where id c p t i c l c u c of Holy po tl , the m s e of h amme now s an s A er a few ears th e o qu Mo d I I t d . ft y a r ar h a e w as rem e th e h r h of th e r n wh h P t i c t ov d to c u c Holy Vi gi , ic in 160 8 was t aken by th e Tu rks and tu rne d into a Moh ammedan m a Fet h n th e h r h of s e now e ié D amessi e . o qu , c ll d j , t to c u c St e me r s at X lo orta a a e on th e en rn and af e r D t iu y p , vill g Gold Ho , t war s th e h r h e r e a t anar wh ere rema ne n d to c u c of St . G o g F , it i d u til th e res en me h s s m th e re e n a t th e e e n of p t ti . T i cu to of c ptio l ctio h e t rm n the ear 16 t P atri arch was ob serve d in h e s ame fo u til y 57 . r m ha er the res en me has een in a eren F o t t p iod to p t ti , it b diff t manner ; an aid - d e - camp of th e Sultan attend s upo n th e Patri arch O OM A N ~ D YN A S Y 8 0 TT T .

e e es rts him w h his s e in r arr a es th e a e l ct , co it uit cou t c i g to p al c .

~ There h e is rec eived in s olemn audi enc e by th e Sultan ; ins t ea d of th e en s af h e is n es e w h t he e ra n th e ran Gold t f , i v t d it d co tio of G d rd n h e m er a r er th e a Go o of t I p i l O d of e M djidie. On le vi ng th e ala e th e a r a rch and his s e r ee in s a e the me p c , P t i uit p oc d t t to Subli r e r m h en e th e Patriac h a l h r h at th e anar where Po t , f o t c to c u c F , hr n s a h a n men a e e . mme n r the e e . er e n th e t o t t k pl c Mo d II , co f d upo rs a r ar h e e rs a en th e n t hnar h or hea of fi t P t i c , by l tt p t t , dig i y of Et c d th e r h mm n nd er th e r sh r e W l th a O t odox co u ity u Tu ki ul , judici l wers all ma ers min n er i h in e es as a n r “ T e po , tt co g u d ccl i t c l co t ol a r a r h th e ar h s h s an d s h s were e em e r m th e P t i c , c bi op bi op x pt d f o p ayment of all tribut e and tax es . T h e Sultan h aving qui e ted th e Ch ri sti ans of Con stanti n0 l e s a a a on th e 2 d and p , vi ited G l t of June , o rde re d a li st of the i n h a bitants an d hou s e s to b e a e and n s a e th e r r se w h o m d , to co fi c t p ope ty of tho h T h a a a a re e r h ad . e s s e e fled w ll of G l t we d t oy d , w il h n an n e e re re a re h r t o s e of Co st ti opl w p i d . S o tly a r th e an a s e th e ha rs a th e fte , Sult dvi d S h of Pe i , a and th e h e r a th e Sult n of Egypt S if of Mecc , of captu re of Con s tantinople an d re c eived c ongratu r r r la ti ons from th e e nvoy s of v a iou s ul e s .

ar h e f r f m a h e ra h a i s A t- M eid a m o th e t a a e . r e N d c t d l St Sop i , r me th e m s h s r s a re of a n en and m d ern Hippod o , o t i to ic qu ci t o n a n n e T h e r me w a s e m e sh e Con Co st ti opl . Hippod o b lli d by stantine th e rea and his m er a re e es s rs ere the G t , by i p i l p d c o . H , Emp ero rs in th ei r s pl endo r witnes s e d th e ‘ h ors e and chariot ra c es h ere politic al manifes tations w ere h eld manifestations which re en le d m a s and h an es in h r n e and f qu tly to bloody co b t , to c g t o s a e O n th e a re ns an n e th e a ns th e t t . c ptu of Co t ti opl by L ti Hippo r m e wh h n a ne man an es in me a and in mar e d o , ic co t i d y tiqu t l bl r h r m all ar s of th e w r wa s rans a e h es e h r e s b oug t f o p t o ld , ck d by t o d , wh o n er the s e of hr s an mm e as man ra es , u d gui C i ti ity , co itt d y out g a s th ei r Moh amm e d an ene mies ; th e res t w ere d est roye d by th e n m M us lmen va d ali s of bigoted u . A ll h a rema n th e m n men s s a e s and s en w r s t t i of o u t , t tu pl did o k of art th at a do rned th e Hippod rome a re :

1 T h e s s s s an s n ow as h as for. m an ears as mo . Colo u t d , it y y p t , mentaril hre a e n n a wa s rmer a rne w h ra s s y t t i g to f ll . It fo ly do d it b

a es in b as re e and w as res re the m er r ns an ne . pl t li f , to d by E p o Co t ti T h e b raz en pl at es which were . upon it w ere c arried a way by th e

r h r s a e e n m s ta en for n s . fou t C u d , b i g i k i got of gold

O TTOM A N D YN A S T Y 8 3

T h e er n ne mn a h e a es s mem r th 2 . e e as w a s S p ti colu , dl o y of p t , h e r 8 n re e a t e h a n C . a e n s in ree e i t e a . d i c om c t G c y 47 B , ct d D lp i m r of h r a ea I t wa s a 1 h h me a n t e t . ee o tio vic o y of Pl t bout 5 f t ig , rme of h re e s er en s rne s ra and n h e r h ead s was fo d t p t tu d pi lly , upo t i mou en r ns e ra e A h n plac e d the fa s gold t ipod co c t d to pollo . Not i g rem ai ns of thi s fa mou s wo rk of art a ft er its mutil ation by th e h n here i s an n r n h e r r s t e r . s n t a s Tu k , but t u k T i c iptio upo pill , e a i r a s aid to h ave b een writt n by P us an us of Sp a t . T he an e s or th e e s h e s s i s . 3 3 Egypti Ob li k , Ob li k of T odo iu , , m n h red ran e ere w h h er h s wa s r h o olit of g it , cov d it i oglyp ic ; it b oug t f r a a n h m rom H eliopoli s an d e e ct ed g i by t e E p ero r Th eodo siu s . s tan s on r s ma s r n e res n on a s red It d fou ll block of b o z , ti g culptu mar e e es a bl p d t l . ’ an n s mn now a e T h mb rlita sh i is c om . ns e c e e 4 Co t ti colu , c ll d , s e of e ht e es an d a r n th e h s r an Zonara w a s po d ig pi c , cco di g to i to i , it b ro ught from Rome ; other h isto rians stat e it c ame from Phil ad el h or m M a navra O n th e w a s a th e r n e s a e a r . e p i f o g top pl c d b o z t tu , of ns an ne th e rea wh h a e th e a s was a Co t ti G t , ic f c d E t ; it tot lly d e s r e a h rr ane in A r 1 10 a nd w as re l a e a t oy d by u ic p il 5, p c d by r s n er th e n a n h s mn h a e een a e c o s . U d fou d tio of t i colu v b pl c d re s wa r th e r s m any valuable and s ac re d lic . It s bu ned by Tu k a fter th e c aptu re of Constantinople a nd h as b een s upp ort ed ever s n e h s r ns i c by oop of i o . ear h s a e i s th e s ern B in-b ir- ere or th e h s an N t i pl c ci t d k , T ou d and one umn is s s e h a e ee n u Philoxenus , col it up po d to v b b ilt by i n th e re n of - ns an ne th e rea 0 6- 0 A i s s a e ig Co t ti G t , 3 3 7 . D . It itu t d n ear th e r me meas res 60 1 m e re s and th e r f Hippod o . It u by 5 t oo i s s r ed b y 2 12 mns and not the n m er ha its na me uppo t colu , by u b t t he re are s e vera h er r s m h ar er would i ndic at e . T l ot cis t e n of uc l g dimens ions th an thi s one ; one near Yedi - coulé ; one u nd e r th e m s ue e m and an her a le the as a near th e o q of S li , ot c l d B ilic era s r e 66 ran e umns S glio , uppo t d by 3 g it col .

I n th e sam e y e ar T ou rh an B ey m arch e d to th e as s s an e e m e r s an d h mas r h ers th e i t c of D t iu T o , b ot of Emp e ro r P al e ologu s (w h o h ad b e e n comp e ll e d to taxation by Sultan Moh amm ed agai nst th e re an n r h h e r n h e r a s a d s e t e . volting Alb i n , c u d ebellio t In th e sp ring of 1454 th e Sultan m arch e d aga in st e r a s e s ev e ral forts an d h en e re u r e S vi , ubdu d t c t n d to Constantinople to s upe rint e n d th e e mb e lli shme nt hi n w a a H a n a ra s e . e e s r of c pit l ppoi t d g nd vizi , 84 O TTOM A N D Y N A S T Y

ah ash a M i c h alo lu w as e M moud P g , who b loved by hi s m aste r and h ad rec e iv e d hi s educa tion at th e a a p l ce . S ultan Moh amme d built his S e raglio on th e s ame spot wh ere th e famou s e qu e st ri an s tatute of th e Emp ero r Ju sti nia n fo rmerly h h es r h m n e hamme s w w as t e i . tood , ic d oy d by Si c Mo d II we n - five ans ha e e in the era a nd ea h one in t ty Sult v liv d S glio , c h m a ns an h e a h s es s n a s a e . e t er ucc io d dditio to it Sult M dj id , f t o f th e resen ru er rans erre his res en e the a a e p t l , t f d id c to P l c of ma - Ba tché and s n e hen the era h as e en s e as Dol g , i c t old S glio b u d h s e e h me n for th e w es of the e eas e ans t e clud d o o ly iv d c d Sult .

I n th e s am e e ar th e m a e e r m ra y , Ott n fle t und Ad i l

G i u niz as a e re ! s a n s m s P h , conqu d the i l d of Le no , T h assos am ra an d r s an d m a e a e , S oth ki Imv o , d pe c h a T h n mar with t e inh a bit nts of Scio . e Sulta ched a a ins e ra e me n and 00 a s g t B lg d with 3 c nnon , in th e me antime th e Ottoman fl e e t of 2 00 galley s r w e nt up th e D a nub e and an cho re d n ea th at city . Hu nni ad e s h aving u n de r hi m a combi ned ar my of a e e 2 00 a e s a a e th e with fl t of g ll y , tt ck d a s a an d s ea and e a e e m h a Ottom n by l nd , def t d th wit \ r a ltan M ha mm r e ss S u o e d . e g t lo , wounding Th e w eeks afte r thi s th e famou s h e ro Hu nni ad e s died at r Belg a d e . an h am r r r a e e e Sult Mo med etu ned to Ad i nopl , c l b rate d th e re with g re at pomp th e ci rcumci sio n of hi s s ns a e an d s a a and h n m ar a a ns o B y zid Mu t f , t e ched g i t

r a h s s r e r e r e I s fe ndi ar- O Se vi , w o e de potic ul , G o g glu , h ad s e an d w as s e e hi s s on a a ju t di d ucc ed d by , L z r h hi r H I u s w o s e s a e . S , oon follow d f th widow , n i m r th e ass s a e th e r e a Hele , plo ed i t nc of Eu op n rs r m s n e r a th e as a e powe , p o i i g S vi to Pope pledg ; ar a ra a nd a e r . u but M o , widow of Mu d I I d ght of r I sfe ndi ar as th e r h h r d e mand e d th e Geo ge , ig tful ei ,

6 M A 8 O TTO N D YNA S T Y.

r n an n i of its i nh abitants we e s e nt to Co st ti opl e . S n h o e h th e T u rk om en w as a s a en . e th e p , eld by , l o t k T enc Sultan p roc e e d e d to T re bizond King D avid C om n enu s su rre nde red and w as tre ache rou sly e x e cute d

h 1s s e s s hi s e h e and hi s r h er with ven on , n p w b ot e e r e r e r r h Alexi s . Th y w e l ft unbu i d by o de of t e a e e e n e th e K atac ou ze ne r Sult n , but Q u n El , , du ing n h a ax e a rav and r e the ig t , took pick , dug g e bu i d

e h e r a h her w n h an s e r th e bodi s of de d wit o d . Aft r an i n a s h o rt tim e s h e als o di ed of g i e f . M y h ab i tants w e re to rtu re d with all th e c ruelty th at savag e e n a nd on e - h r r num cunning could inv t , t i d of thei n an n b er w as c onv ey e d to Co s t ti ople . The Wa lla a D ra c ou l ra ar n a a mm e i n chi n B d , he i g th t Moh d are w ar a a ns r s a e tended to decl g i t him , p opo ed pe c but a r war s a a e h th e a r an s fte d , by lli nc wit Hung i , r h r an am tran sg es se d t e t e aty . Sult Moh med de sp atc h e d del e gat e s re qu e sti ng him to de sis t from hi s s e s ns D ra c ou l h a e h m ho tile d ig , but be e d d t e . mm e a e th e man e e e n th e a e I di t ly Otto fl t w t up D nub , arr e at se m ar e th e arm iv d Vidin , di b k d y of m n re a e as a e r B ra a an a e s d . , p ding d v t tion ov il Kili D rac oul a a e th e a s r th e n h tt ck d Ottom n du ing ig t , and ru shi ng fo rw ard e n de avo re d to e nt e r th e Sul ’ an s n w as re s e th e a ar s and t te t , but pul d by J niz ie n a r h e re w as m r s ne M a fled to Hu g y , w he i p i o d by i n i e as C orv u s s on Hu nn ad e s . th , of T he Sultan s ubdued Wall a chi a and appoint e d as r r hi s e e C ad ul r h r D ra c ou l gove no b lov d , b ot e of , 6 a r a 1 6 who in 14 2 w as as s assinat e d by s e v nt . In 4 3 — th e Sultan w as engage d in th ree w ars th e fi rst th e e a s s a a s th e r e s with V neti n , the econd g in t P inc ar m ni h r h a of C a a a and the t i d wit Bo sn . 0 T T OM A N D Y N ASTY. 8 7

T h e m an e e n e r a hm as h a s a e Otto fl t , u d M oud P , il d h an w as re s e n e th e a gai n st M ity l e ne . T i s i sl d p t d by P al e ologu s to a Ge no e s e fa mily call e d th e C ata l z r r at h a m e w as C atalu zz z I ts e o . u o . ul t t ti Nicolo T h e an arr e at A d ram iti s e e n e Sult iv d , oppo it Mityl r T h m ar m to which h e could e asily c o ss . e bo b d e nt a gal nst th e fo rt of Mityl e ne laste d 2 7 d ay s ; th e w all s w e re d es troy e d an d th en th e gov e rn o r p ropo s e d to s rren e r on n n h a th e an s ar u d , co ditio t t Sult would p e hi T h e r n a a e an r s e . s w s e d n e lif p opo itio cc pt d , P i c h hi s r h e r w a s s e nt ns a e Nicolo , wit b ot , to Co t ntinopl but its i nh abitants w e re t re ate d with g re at i n h m an T h n h n rn hi a n n u ity . e Sulta t e tu e d s tte tio ar s th e e es n e re b e e re e tw o c as tow d H ll po t , wh ct d s o ne on th e r ean th e h e r on th e A s a tle , Eu op ot i tic H e a n n h e n h n s id e . ls o built o o e of t s ev e ill s of C o stanti nopl e th e mo s qu e b earin g hi s n am e— Sultan M ehm e or a h D am essi er h s h e mar h e d , F ti j . Aft t i c d a a ns r n e e h e n s na th e a th e g i t P i c St p , of Bo , lly of n e ans w h o w h hi s s on w ere a en r s Ve ti , , it , t k p i one rs ; and thu s Bo sm a b e cam e a Tu rkis h p rovi n c e . T h e e e ans e ar th e s s h e r as ern os V n ti , f ing lo of t i E t p s ess s i n i e h e re e s th e e n n e su s ion , c t d t G k of P lopo to rev olt a ai nst th e m an e r and th e h s es g Otto pow , o tiliti

h r I n 1 6 th e w ich follow e d l ast e d s ixte en y ea s . 4 5 Veneneti ans a s e e e n e h su c l id i g to Mityl , but wit out ess e e re s e s m e th e h a an s an d c , xc pt to cu o of in bit t n h I n 1 66 aram ania w as co v ey t e m to Eu bo ea . 4 C an e e th e man m re and h se a n n x d to Otto E pi , t o mo g ! its i nh abitants w h o w ere i nge nio us w o rkm e n w e re n s e n e r s e t by th e Sulta n to Constanti nopl e . I k d ’ B e e e r at th e e rm na n hi s h re ars y , how v , t i tio of t e ye 8 8 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y

r a e a r h m n s t e a s . r t e ty , b g n to di tu b Otto Th ee dif fe re nt e ns re s a a ns him an d e exp ditio we ent g i t , onc th e an th e e h m s e an ar Sult took fi ld i lf , with my of m en w a a s e s s . s s , but without ucc He nxiou s e e th e s r e r B e s e for and to wo d of Iskend y , nt it , p e r ceivi ng th at it w as n ot remarkabl e eith e r in ap earan c e or r m ansh h e re rn e s a p wo k ip , tu d it , ying , r th at h e him s elf o w n e d b e tte r s wo rd s . I sk en b e

‘ B e re e a th e s r n h ad e s e y pli d th t wo d o ly be n nt , not h a h a rn an t e h nd w ich wi e ld e d it . He w s bo in 1403 d at ss i n 1 6 a n e e s n sh died Li o 4 7 , h vi g b n di ti gui ed in n T h r n s e e s es s a e s . e s ve t en ucc ive b ttl Tu k , believi g hi m m re an m r a v e hi s n s to be o th o t l , di id d bo e a m n m an r m am o g th e s elv e s d wo e the as ul e ts .

A mong s up erstitio ns of th e Tu rks are th e following : When one s uffers from hea da ch e or e rys ip el a s h e cons ult s an Emi r (a es en an h amm e wh o a es his h an on th e hea 01 d c d t of Mo d), pl c d d th e a en and w h hi s h m r s his reh ea rea s a few p ti t it t u b ub fo d , d ers es the ran and i n r er e e th e e s ir w s v of Ko , , o d to xp l vil p it , blo thr e i ime s on his reh ea h en a e of th e ran is w r en e fo d . T t xt Ko itt on a e e a er wh h is urne a nd the s erer nh a e s th e pi c of p p , ic b d , uff i l s m e or is s a e in w a er wh h h e r n s or ma b e ok ; it o k d t , ic d i k ; it y a fold e d in a t ria ngul ar s h a pe a nd c a rri e d by him for s everal d y s . h i s a r w ra e a er s e us a o . T i c ll d M k , pp d up p p A phy s ician c annot e nte r the h arem exc ept in c as es of s eriou s illnes s ; th en he is c alle d a nd a ccomp an i ed to th e b ed s id e of , th e p ati ent by a n eld erly w om a n or one of th e eunuch s b elo nging to the a a e he ne er th e w me n of th e h arem are a na e h e p l c . W v o v cci t d is not a w e s ee h e r a es a h n w en ar n is llo d to t i f c , but t i ood p titio put for h a r s e and a h e in h r h wh c h ea h one in up t t pu po ol cut it , t oug i c rn as s es h er a rm for rea m en T h e r s a s ear th e e tu p t t t . Tu k l o f vil e a a n h f h e r or an old s h e e . s e r t e e e o t y Jug pl c d ou d dg oof , o s fill e d with garlic and blu e b ea d s are consid ere d a gu ard again t it . Whe never a p retty child i s m et upon th e s t reet th e p as s er will s a : Oh wh a a n h or w s wa r hree mes y , t ugly c ild , ill pit to d it t ti for fear f n n h r a a ns o i citi g t e evil s pi it g i t it .

Afte r th e de ath of I ske nd e r B ey th e Sultan s u b dued H e rz egovina a nd re tu rn e d to Con stanti n ople

90 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y.

th e an r ra . S e e reas . s g y ty nt ( C y , p Thu e a th e s m r a s an th e e e a Eubo , mo t i po t nt i l d of A g n S e a s m th e s re amm e an d , ub itted to cept of Moh d , h r s he e re a ll th e e r s an s h r t ough thi conqu d oth i l d , t ei a m n h am a e inh bitants eeti g Wi th t e s e f t . Soon aft e r th e Sultan m arch e d agai nst O u zou n as sa s u e d se ra r s as as A ks e rai H n , bdu ve l po t , well , c arryi ng its inh a bitants to a qu arte r of Co nst anti nopl e which h as sinceb e e n c alled A k s e rai . O u zoun assa h ad e n r ear i n r am e r a e H n be ed the cou t of T l n , ra e r m th e art w ar and w as t in d f o childhood in of , p roclaim e d p rinc e of th e Tu r com an ra ce of th e h m 1 66 h e e r e h r a i W ite Ra . In 4 d s t oy d t e iv l dom n of th e a Ram s r n ion Bl ck , ubduing the p ovi ce of Korass an an d e s h a h a n e , follow d thi wit c lle g to a mm Sultan Moh ed .

T he Tu rkomans are divided into th e tw o rac es of th e White l ar and th e a Ram s o- a e r m th e s m s n h e r Bl ck , c ll d f o y bol upo t i fil gp

’ O u zou n H as san atta cked Tok at and c aptu re d it

' r h I n 1 - an am me e a s a e r . with g t l ug t 47 3 , Sult Moh d

’ and O u zou n ass an th e1r re s e c ti v e a r e s H , with p mi , m et in bloody co mbat n ea r Sev asti a ; the Ottoman s e re e fe a e an d m an h e e re a e n r s n w d t d , y of t m w t k p i o e r m n a r h h an a h e h e a s . e s e s t e t t Fiv o th ft t i , Sult , d a e r arm e e a e O u zou n assa w h o of pow ful y , d f t d H n , fl e r m h h hi d f o t e b attl e fi e ld with t e lo ss of s son . I n 1 th e s an mn s h w as 47 5, i l d Li o , whic occupied by th e e e an w a a a k e m an a a s s e s . V n ti , tt c d by Sul y P h It w as s av e d a e r re e m a a m e ar a by h oic G k id , n d M ul , Wh o s e e n h e r a h e r a ea h e h n an d , i g f t f ll d d w il fig ti g , bei n g anim ated by a spi rit of re v e nge and the lov e of M A N N A S O TTO D Y T Y . 9 1

l e r his s r an d s h e ra e h e r n r ib ty , took wo d i ld , lli d cou t y n h m h m en arou nd h e r a nd e cou rag e d t e to fight . T ey e re s ess u i n re e n th e O m ans and S u le w ucc f l p lli g tto , y h n m an Pash a w as oblige d to rai s e t e s e ige a d to l e av e . T h e mm an e r th e s an h e ar n h s i n co d of i l d , i g of t i , ’ ra e for ar a s s e r es a e h er i n marr a e g titud M ul vic , g v i g

‘ t o a en e a f e r n e r h and s h e w as V ti n o fic of obl bi t , r m h r a r richly e n dow e d f o t e public t e s u y . I n th e s am e e ar th e Rou m eli an e rn r S u l e y gov o , y man as h a a e a a h m e n P , inv d d Mold vi wit , but an th e ran r m w as e ea e . e e e d f t d M whil , g d vizi , Ah d Ke dik as h a w h a r e e s a e th e P , it powe ful fl t , il d to ' a S ea an d a a e T h e od osi a or af a a r Bl ck tt ck d K f , fo ti h w n wh h rre n ere h r a T h e e d to ic su d d in t e e d ys . w as rea a e its nh a an s booty of g t v lu ; of i bit t ,

“ e r rans r e ns an n e th e m s r m w e t po t d to Co t ti opl , o t p o i ne nt e n ar ar s r re an d e an d b i g b b ou ly to tu d kill d , s e le cte d Ge no es e youth s we re comp e ll e d to e nte r th e

r s an ar e s . S e e reas . co p of J iz i ( C y , p T h e V en e tians e n d eavo re d to m ak e a tre aty with th e an b u t h e e m an e h a h e s h res re Sult , d d d t t t y ould to r a w h h e r w ns and a an ann a tax C oi , it ot to p y u l of a s th e e e a e n ot h av 1n th e au duc t , but d l g t g thorit e e ar e h re s s n y to conclud it , d p t d wit out ult ; oo a e r h e re r e an d re r e th e an h a ft , tu n d po t d to Sult t t th r i h amme e e public a cc e pt e d h s con ditions . Mo d _ re e h a it w as a e a nd h e e m an e a s pli d t t too l t , d d d l o h r h h e an t e s rre n e S c od ra . a n s t u d of F ili g in t i , Sult m ar h e a a an a s e C r0 1a ss an d c d g inst Alb i , ubdu d , Li o , h o e r r s b t not s e e i n a r n S c od ra . t fo t , u did ucc d c ptu i g O n hi s re tu rn to Con s tantinopl e h e foun d a Ve n e ti an d e e a e a w a t n him m e e a rea r m s l g t , i i g to co pl t t ty , p o i 9 2 O TTOM A N D YNA ST Y ing th at S c od ra with th e oth e r town s s hould be r r esto e d . 1 th e man arm i n a e rans a a In 479 Otto y v d d T ylv ni , with littl e re sult ; in th e m e antim e th e Sult an c ap ture d Z an e and an a a ra h r r e t S t M u ; but t ei p inc , n ar h ad fl e d th e r a h Leo do , to no th of It ly , A med K e dik Pas h a s ail e d thith e r and s ubdued Otranto ' ’ e ar r n I s a e r r n a s s r e . ts n B i di i , ft fou tee d y t uggl e rn r w as s a w e m an th e h a an s gov o d in two , y of in bit t e r h m a mas sa re and a r e a m e r w e in u nly c d , g t nu b of th e youth of both s ex e s w e re take n to Co nstanti n o l e p .

man e s s e r 100 v e s An Otto fl et , con i ting of ov s e s e r M e ssih as a a re e r h e n l , und P h , G k by bi t , w t i n 1 8 0 e s e s h w as r th e 4 , to b ieg Rhode , w ich unde con ’ r th e n h s n s re m e r usa e m t ol of K ig t of Joh gi nt of Je l , a nd aft e r tw o mo n th s d e sp erate re si st anc e re tu rn ed e e s to the H ll pont .

is a remar a e a h a th e ans wh o were so s e ss It k bl f ct t t Sult , ucc ful in e e n n the man we r i n a ll re ns w ere in a m s xt di g Otto po di ctio , l o t e er as e the s ns h r s an h ers v y c o of C i ti mot .

th e s r n 1 8 1 th e a r are for an In p i g of 4 , Sult n p ep d e n a a n s at m a e a xpeditio g i t Egypt , but Nico edi , d th r H e put an e n d to hi s c are e r of co nqu e s t an d c u e lty . n re e s e ns a n e an d re co que d , b id Co t nti opl T bizond , s r twelv e ki ngdom s and two hu n d re d towns . He wo e th at h e would trampl e with hi s ho rs e all th e altars

“ A c r s and e s r th e h r s a re n . of Ch i t , d t oy C i ti n ligio r n m an h s r ans a am co di g to the Otto i to i , Sult n Moh m a r th e a r n an n r e d e d . s I I , fte c ptu e of Co t ti ople , tu n tw e lv e Ch ri sti a n chu r ch e s into Moh am me d an m os qu es

0 T T OM A N YN A S T 94 D Y.

an d for th e s ar s r th e B ak duct , cu tom y di t ibution of h h h re e re ra s i s ; bot qu sts we g nt e d .

T h e s r n h e se m er a s on ea h a es s n di t ibutio of t I p i l gift , c cc io to th e hr ne whi h h ad e me r ens me the reas r was t o , c b co bu d o to t u y, s h A - a m a boli ed by bdul H id I .

hi s arri a th e r s hi s a r amm On v l , co p e of f the , Moh ed m him w a n rr s . a . s I I , i te ed in the o que built by B ye ‘ r - zid as c e nd e d the th rone at th e ag e of thi ty fou r . s aa as a a n e r e an an w as a “ I c P h , co v t d Alb i , ppointed gra nd w a r an d at onc e took vigo rou s measu re s a a s r e e m w h o h ad a re a e e an g in t P inc J , l dy coll ct d ar e a e a as a a r r sa and my , def t d Ay z P h , c ptu ed B u r a m m n a e r h r p ocl i e d hi s e lf Sulta . Soon ft t i s p o c a a s e hi s r e r a e ma l m tion he nt to b oth , B yezid , d nding a th e re s e tw o ar s th t Empi hould be divid d into p t , i m h w a a s ere th e Asi atic to be giv e n to h . T i s s n w d h T h e r e r me t th e b at in t e negativ e . two b oth s on tl e fie ld w as e e a e an d fl e d e re , Jem d f t d to Egypt , wh h e w as kindly re c e iv e d from th e nc e he vi site d th e a an a holy citie s of M e din d M e cc .

e a l S s e ann a a s or r ms r m all ar s M cc vi it d u lly by H dji , Pilg i f o p t of A s a for th e ra n e n ns e er ss ma n ss e to i , Ko joi v y Mu ul , if po ibl , ma e h r ma e at ea s n e n hi e me men are k t i s pilg i g l t o c i s lif ti . Wo n ot exclud e d from do ing s o b ut th e la w p res c rib es tha t th ey mu st b e a n h e r h s an s or a ma e re e m a e a . cco p i d by t i u b d , l l tiv

e m r rn a r and i n 1 8 2 as s s J etu ed to C i o, 4 , i ted by th e an r e r m a e a h e r a e m s e e Egypti ul , d not tt pt to iz his an e s ra h r ne w as e a e and a a c t l t o , but def t d g in h e He a s ought s afety in flig t to Eu rop . ppli e d to ’ Fra r D A u b u s s on ra m as e r e s Piet o , g nd t of Rhod , w h o re e e hi m h hi s s e a nd ra s rre c iv d wit uit , t n fe d hi h h m a r e s . ran e e e e was to Ch l VI I I , of F c ; t nc

' s e n a h e re h e w as a e r ar s s t to It ly , w ft w d poi oned by O TTOM AN D YNA ST Y 9 5

e an e r r a s e s s r e nn e n Al x d Bo gi , ucc o of Pop I oc t VI I I . It w as rumo re d th at h e re c eiv e d a b rib e of ’ a r m h e an for h s n am d uc ts f o t Sult t i i f ou s d e e d . A fo rmal e mbassy w as s e nt by B ay ezid to as k for hi s

" h h r r a r I n 1 1 re m a n s e e e t sa . 8 i , w ic w bu i d B u 4 , Sultan B ayezid p roclaim e d w a r ag ainst Italy and I n 1 h n ar w h s ess . 8 t e tan c on Hu g y it ucc 4 3 , Sul clud e d a t reaty of p ea c e for fiv e y e ars with M athi as C orv inu s ar h e n r ss e th e an e , of Hung y , t c o d D ub , e n e re a a h a w h e re h e w as f e re an ann a t d W ll c i , o f d u l tax and s er I n 1 8 a e r e e e oldi s . 4 5 B y zid p oc d d h h hi h r h m arr t e s s a e a e . to c y out wi of f t , Mo m d II , h h w as e r w as s ess w ic to conqu Egypt, but un ucc ful an a n d pe ac e w s co clud e d . I n 1 2 h a r an s en a e e r t a e 49 t e Cz Iv I I I . t l tt o B y and r s e m a i r e a ns e e en th e zid , p opo d diplo t c l tio b tw tw o e m re s i n 1 th e rs ss an n pi 49 5, fi t Ru i E voy ,

’ h a Pl e ts c hi e ff am e s an n e as n Mic el , c to Con t ti opl , ki g th e Sultan to giv e comme r ci al p rivileg e s to th e Ru s s a m er h a s i n th e m a m re as i n c nt Otto n E pi , bu t Mich ae l did not confo rm with th e cou rt u s ag e s of th e r s h e re rn e w res and w as s u c Tu k , tu d ithout ult , c e e d e d s G olok v astov w h o am e s by Alexio , c to Con tanti n0 l e w as re e e r a th e a a nd p , c iv d co di lly by Sult n hi h i r r h s re qu e st w a s granted . T i s s e co d e d as t e fi rst diplom atic re lations b etw e en th e Ottom an s an d th e Ru ssi ans

T h e Imp erial Ottoman Divan or Co uncil a s s emble d fou r times a wee on n a es a a r a and n a n er the k , Mo d y , Tu d y , S tu d y Su d y , u d res en of th e l an r a wa s s er e a s a da ra er p id cy Su t ; F id y ob v d y of p y , e nes h a r r s T h e arm ns s e W d d ay a nd T u rs d y we e d ays of e t . y co i t d at th s me of 6 000 men wh e th e ee 2 60 a e s was rea i ti 3 , , il fl t of g ll y dy to sa at an m men il y o t . 6 M N A S T 9 O TTO AN D Y Y.

T h e peac e b e tw e e n the V e neti an s an d th e Sultan w as s h ort d urati on a n th e man i ntri of ‘ , on ccou t of y r a a a r h g u e s of oth e mb ss do s to t e Sublime Po rt e . I n e 1 a h s a a B e l e rb e Jun , 499 , the Sult n , wit Mu t f y y , m e a re r h and an arm 1 0 of Rou li , G ek by bi t , y of 5 , 000 e s ant a a an h th e l ft Con t inople to tt ck Lep to , w ile m ra a as h a r W h th e Ad i l D oud P , p oceeded it fleet in r r n r i n the same di rection . Aft e a st o g es sta c e Le a T h e an r rn s an p a nto w as t k e n . Sult etu ed to Con t t l h n r a r i no e e t e e e t . p , whil fl et wi te d Co inth The Ven e ti ans s oon afte r s ubdu e d Ceph aloni a and h a T h re e a n e t o t e s . e P v z , which belo g d Ottom n Eu rop e an rule rs we re alar me d at th e p rogre ss of th e O m a r and a n w as rm e tto n powe , co litio fo d between e e e ran n ar and a for a n Rom , V nic , F ce , Hu g y Sp in n f r w n a e es e e e . atta ck . Th y b i ged Mityl e o t ty d y s T h e Sultan b ei ng e n raged set E rsek Ah med Pas h a and K e m a l Reis to defend the isl and ; th e admi ral s of th e co mbi ned fl e et not re ceiving the assistanc e of th e knights of Rhodes in prop er tim e rai s ed th e si e ge an d left ; on th e i r w ay a fe arful s to rm d e s troy h r e d a gre at e r p art of th e F renc v e ss e ls . Anothe re h n e a s s a F nc fleet , with the Ve ti n , ubdued the i l nd r M au a . I n th e sam e y e ar a disastrou s fi re b roke out at a a a s s a r h th e G l t , oppo ite Con t ntinople , du ing w ich S h eikh -u l- I slam an d th e grand vizi r w e re kill e d by th e explos io n of a gu n- powd er m agazin e ; and Ali ash a w a a mte d hi s s s s r T h e an P s ppo ucce o . Sult s e e nd th e r a a rs e re re wi h d to Eu ope n w , th fo con an an c luded a tre aty with th e V e ne ti ans . M e while i ns rre n r e C aramani a h h w as u ctio b ok out in , w ic

M 9 8 O TTO A N D Y N A S T Y .

w as ss an d r n h m h ad r who childle , P i ce A ed , who fou s s am e A llah u d din u ra e m a and O s on , n d , M d , Sul y n m an and s e Ve n a rs s e ra re , d ughte , ev l of whom we rr m a i e d . Sultan B ay ezid w as mild and gentl e in di sp o siti on s an d a r s s a , tout of obu t con titution , with h hi r M ah mm s e e a s a e o e d . hooked no lik t t of f th , I I “ ” w as a e s s r an s or s He c ll d by ome h i to i Sofu , wi e , and w as ju stly re g arde d as on e of th e wi s est and m s s r s s r s r e e n a a r o t illu t iou ove eign of Tu k y , b i g p t on n e re a of e duc ation an d the s cie c e s . He cted mos qu e “ s a ari his am a a in Con t ntinople be ng n e , Sult n B ye D am e s si a s a m s e A d ri ano ol e and zid j , l o o qu in p , h r e s . a n s e te n r othe edific In dditio to t e , othe C h ri sti an chu r c h e s w e re ch anged by him into m a m H e w a n a Moh a med n o s que s . s the s o of V lidé

G iu l- ah ar- a a re h a w h o w as a r b k din , F nc l dy c ptu ed ra s on th e r e rs a es ne and for h er by pi te bo d of P l ti , , r r n a a M h m m a e a s as o a e d I I . be uty , e t gift to Sult n r n th e h s r a s s h e w as th e r a Acco di g to i to i n , of oy l m r r h e r h e r fa ily of Bou bon . Du ing lifetime t F e nch a mb assado rs we re re ceiv e d with speci al favo r at th e i a r . ar a a ns . . Ottom n cou t (Sc l to Byz nt . Vol I , p

X . A 1 Y Z SULT N SE LIM A VOU .

1 12 — 2 5 1 5 0 .

r a Y a z r th e r e so a e I . s v ou o Selim , u n med , c u l , c ll d 6 s e hi s r s w as r 1 . in con quence of c ueltie , bo n in 4 7 On hi s a cce ssion to th e th ron e h e t ried to abolish th e A N YN A 0 T T OM D STY. 99

c st m a s h s h th e an ar e s bu t na i n u o of B k i to J iz i , fi lly , r e r a s r an e s a e th e res en s on a o d to void di tu b c , g v p t r r a I n n n h th e n h a a n l a g e s c le . co se qu e c e of t i s i bit ts th e m re h an s n n e re h e a of E pi , wit out y di ti ctio , w vily T h a r h e r h me t ax e d . e Sult n appointe d hi s b ot s A d n K rk d n ar han a d o u v e rn rs A m assi a a d . , go o of S u

Y v z I M A ou . S ULTAN S EL I .

T he I s la nd of Mitylen e w as al so assigned to

en A ah -u -di n h e th e rme r . se d t son fo Sub qu tly ll , of hm as m a e b hi s a h e r s e e r w sa . A ed , t d y f t to iz B u ' h s ras h a n a e re th e an w h o at T i ctio ng d Sult , once a r ers hi s s on e m an h a the s a g ve o d to Sul y , t t A i tic I O OM A N D Y ZVA S T Y OO TT .

as s h b e s e u a r e s o h a n e th e co t ould clo ly g d d , t t on of r a r e s e s a e H e r s s e s a an d oy l p inc could c p c o d to A i , a e r e n th e re re rn e ns a e ft qu lli g volt tu d to Co t ntinopl , w h e re h e d e po s e d a nd strangl e d th e grand vizi r s a a as h a an d i n hi s s e a a n e rs e Mu t f P , t d ppoi t d E k ’ h T h n n an Ah me d Pa s a . e e xt i st ce of th e Sultan s barb arity w as the e x e cutio n of hi s b roth e rs an d e h w s i n a s a r s m an ne r h h rr n p e mo t t ociou , w ic occu ed m r h fi n r na r n i n e e 1 12 . e s e v e e e s Nov b , 5 T u fo tu t p i c h a d b e e n l e ft in th e c are of s om e of the c hi e fs of T h e e man n ri n A ll m h ah ru sa . e s s s o e e s B ld t , O , of P c

w as n e ars and the n e s M ah omme d . twe ty y old , you g t ,

r n h a h n h h w a n n an s on e s a s s e e . of P i c S i , o l y v J i z ari e s w as s e nt by th e Sultan to tak e th e m to th e n h m T h n e a a ar p al a c e a d s e clud e t e . e xt d y fe ful ra e w as e na e e re h e r n e t g dy ct d th , of w ich th i u cl , Sul tan e m r m a n a n a ar m e n w as a S li , f o dj oi ing p t t , cool

r H r r hi m a nd u nm e ciful sp e ctato r . e o d e e d s ut e s to s ran h m and as h e r e e arr ou t t gle t e , t y p oc ed d to c y his n am s mm an s the o n e s th e a es i f ou co d y u g t of c ptiv , a m r e hi s ne e s and e s e child , fell upon k pit ou ly

f hi hi a r begged or s life . But s pl e dings w e e of no m n r r l T h avail with thi s o st e of c ue ty . e e lde s t of th e ms r n e s man w h o e a victi , P i c O , w ll knew th t th e re w as h e for h e m r s h e n th e no op t , u d upo a n n h ra ne th e m s w as ass s si s a d foug t b v e ly . O of ute h hi ar m r e l m e hi m a er h a d s . kill d by , not b ok n Se i

h r m a i n h e e n e re th e s s s s . t ent d oo , to i t t i bloody d ed a h e e re e r e re an d e e Fin lly t y w ov pow d , bow d qui tly h h re n a e a e to th e fat e whic t ey w e u bl to void . Th y w e re s trangle d an d th e i r bo di e s w e re inte rre d ne a r

S r a . th e s e re ra i n r sa . ee s pulch of Mu d B u ( C e y , p

1 2 O M A N D S 0 TTO YN A T Y.

T h e h a s m ae th e S efev i e rs a h a d S h I h l , of P i , who r e e th e h re e s s hm e h a d s an p ot ct d t on of A d , not ent e nvoy to Cons ta nti n opl e with co ng ratulatio ns to th e F r h r n e w an . o s e as e m w as an r and Sult t i on S li . g y , ar h n him i l e a a s . H s s on e a decid d to m c g i t , Su ym n , r r a n e s a w as a e a e h ar e gove no of M g i , c ll d to t k c g of r r m th e e . e a e r ra e a t th e s e Empi Th n , ft p y o qu of E ou b h e r ss e ar th e th M a y , c o d to Scut i on 7 of y , 1 1 and arr e as h an arm 5 4 , iv d at Siv wit y of From th e nc e th e Ottom an army e nt e re d th e v all ey

‘ \ C haldi ran an d m et th e rs a r s T h e l a er of Pe i n t oop . tt all a a r r r n h re tot e e e e a a s s a e . T e we v d f t d , ft b ve e i t c a w as e e r m hi s rse and w as nl Sh h wound d , f ll f o ho , o y sav e d from i n st ant d e ath by th e d e votion of hi s fol “ r r w h e a m am h a h a o e t e . lowe , Mi z Ali , xcl i d , I Sh In st antly th e Sh a h w a s pla ced upon the ho rs e of hi s a n a Khi ze l and fl e d to a h es an e a hi s tte d nt , , D g t , l ving r m an n n h favo rit e h a e u willi g gift to t e Sultan . e r 1 1 th e a e r a r s and In Sept mbe , 5 4 , Sult n nte ed T u i assa r man its n ab a s s e e n a m c ed y of i h it nt , l cti g bout of th e mo s t s kilful arti s an s to s e n d to Con stan ti nopl e ; the n ce h e m ar ch e d n o rth w a rd s toward s C arab a h n r th e a ns A ze rb i an g , to wi te on pl i of j , but an ar es r e an d m e him re rn the J iz i evolt d co p lled to tu . T h e ra r s a a a re e s m a h h g nd vizi Mu t f , G k , y p t ized wit h m H w a re m e an d T f e ar r a a e . e s e t d s t ov d , Pi i P h hi r h an w as a oi nte d s a . O n s re t e / pp in te d tu n , Sult s e Ezi r u an e re at A m assi a and in th e ubdu d g , wint d , s h e re rn e to ns an n e following Augu t tu d Co t ti opl , a ‘ s a th e h s r a I d ri z and B eikli le ving in A i i to i n , M e hm e d to compl e te th e conqu e st of Mes opotami a H e a e r rs all th e as as and Ku rdistan . g v o de to p h to O TTOM AN D Y N A S T Y 10 3

coll e ct a fl e e t of 500 v es s e ls an d to build an ars e na l n h r r at th e i r o w n exp e s e . T i s o d e w as i n st antly

e e h e m n e r th e s e r s r ob y d by t , u d up vi ion of Pi i a h a h ar en a e n h P s . T i s s l s till xi sts o t e s am e s pot ; it h as s n e e e e n ar e and n a ns all th e m e rn i c b n l g d , co t i od imp rov e m e nts . A n anecdote is told of Piri Pa sh a after h is appointm ent as gran d r ea n h a th e an at an m men m h n vizi . R lizi g t t Sult y o t ig t co d emn him ea h h e s a his s ere n n w h a r M a es to d t , id to ov ig , I k o t t you j ty , ear er or a er ma m e ea h here re ra ou to n li l t , y put to d t , t fo I p y y otify me a few h rs ef re th e e e n s o h a c an arran e m er ou b o x cutio , t t I g y p s na m atters ~ and re are m s e for th e ne w rl T h e o l p p y lf xt o d . Sult an “ a h n re e i s r e h a h u h of n a o l ug i gly pli d , It t u t t I t o g t it lo g g , but I ann find a et er man for th e s t n ou n ow h h erw s e c ot b t po i io y old , ot i no f m w h r r e w t b e e s . S c arl oto it ould di ficult to co ply it you qu t ( , l I I . Vo . . p 3 97 , )

T h e m an en e ra s B eikli e h m e an d I d riz Otto g l , M d , th e h s r an h ad s e m an s r n r s a s i to i , ubdu d y t o g fo t , l o th e a a th e r ea e r ar es city of B gd d , with g t p t of M opo tami a and Ku rdi stan .

T he r s th e r man s and th e e n s ea a n ma Ku d , Tu co B doui l d o dic h m h h m a e a an e . e e e r er s r e at a n d lif T y ov t i d f o pl c to pl c , t cki g robbing a ny unfortunat e t ravel er or c aravan w hom th ey ch a nc e to e h e r e h em s e s n h e r fin e h rs es n d h e r fi re me t . T y p id t lve upo t i o a t i arm s T h e a re of a r s h h ef in th e e i s a s ee rs e e . tti Ku di c i fi ld t l co l t for his reas n a w h and s er a sma w en s h e b t , i l id it gold ilv ll ood i ld , h r h a hi His a e wh o s e w a ss na s n s er s sh er. tudd d it b il , g ov ould p g , is a s m n e arr es hi s an e a ara ne is s n a r s s his l o ou t d , c i l c ; c bi lu g c o a in hi s rd e h e arr es s s and a a er a h s m ar b ck ; gi l c i pi tol d gg , lig t ci it h an s b hi s s n th e r h s e of t h e s a d e is a s ma as e e . O g y id ig t id dl ll c , h n hree ar s on th e e of th e s a d e b ow h ere i s a ma e oldi g t d t ; l ft d l t c , th e m s ea all his w ea ns o t d dly of po . S e lim h e aring of th e alli an c e of th e Sultan of and th e h ah e rs a res e e ar e Egypt S of P i , olv d to d cl w ar a a s h e m an d i n e e m e r 1 16 h e m e t g in t t , S pt b , 5 , t y on th e fi e ld of M arj D abik ; aft er a s ho rt engag e m en th e ans fl e d an d h e r a an s t , Egypti t i Sult n , K u

El - h r an man e h e ars e i n hi s G u i , old , ig ty y old di d 104 O TTOM A N D Y N A S T Y

h man a r a r n flig t . The Otto s found m ny t e s u e s o the n r h de s e rted battl e fi e ld . Soo afte t e Sultan c ap

re e am as an ; r a T h a tu d s d s . e st Al ppo , D cu Je u lem l w as a h m ‘ e e t e a . D m ntioned city t k n by Ro n s 70 A . h ra i n 6 h t e s . . t e r sa e rs 10 by A b 3 7 A D by C u d , 99 ; th e r s 1 1 an d h e s T h e s s ss . by Tu k , 5 7 , t y till po e it am e e s E as se m e a r an d M luk of gypt bl d in C i o ,

’ a n e w an m a B e h o m e m elected Sult , Tu n y , to w S li s en a e s r s ea e on n a h e t deleg t p opo ing p c , co dition th t h a n e e th e m a a r T he s ould ck owl dg Otto n utho ity . rul er of Egypt re c e iv e d th e e nvoys co rdi ally b ut r e e e th e r s a e r ar s hi s e ne ra j ct d p op o ition ; ft w d g l , a B e e e a e e m W i h th e e e Al n y , b h d d th t out knowl dg of

‘ hi m r an h w ar am n i l T h s as e d s e e e ev tab e . e t , t u b c ran r a as h a e e a th e ans g d vizi , Sin n P , d f ted Egypti an e r e n a e m e n h e a ne ar Ga za . In oth g g t t Egypti n s e re a e a e a n d a r w as a re a e r w tot lly def t d , C i o c ptu d ft a st ubbo rn re si stan c e ; n e arly of its i n h ab i tants pe ri s h e d i n th e at rociou s butch e ry which took

r n n m r h pl a ce in th e p e s e c e of Sulta S eli . Aft e t i s a n arm w as s e rse m a Be w as the Egypti y di p d , Tu n y ra e n th e h an s e m and e e h s bet y d i to d of S li , x cuted ; t u h m m r a n Egpy t w as an n e x e d to t e Otto an e pi e . Sult m r a n for s m e m e h e re h e Seli em i ed in Egypt o ti , w r e th e le a h or ar th e r h e t ec ived tit of C lip , vic of p op h h w as n e rre h a m of God , w ic co f d upon him by Mo m e d th e e h a h a n d th e as e s e a n , tw lft C lip , l t d c nd t of h mm H r rn n as n e a e . e e e C o Abb , u cl of Mo d tu d to s tanti n o l e r a e a e e for a n e e n p , o g niz d fl t xp ditio a a s h s i n e e m e r 1 2 0 hi s w a g in t R ode ; but S pt b , 5 , on y to Ad ri anop le h e di e d at T c h orlu from th e effect a a n h e Hi s ea h was of pe stilenti l boil o t spine . d t

D 106 O TTOM AN YN A S TY.

‘ T h e Tu rk s are a ddic ted to h einou s and b rutal as s ault s and oth er a an me h r n i s res n e h e r ea s out rages t y ti t e O ppo tu ity p e t d . T i id of s a nd of law are ram e s th e as n en w h th e politic f d to uit occ io , oft it ce hene e r he re are ases in r to b e r e rea es i n s . g t t ju ti W v t c cou t t i d , witnes s e s c an b e readily hi re d in the coffee s h ops u nd er th e M i ni s . tr s e h es e h re w ne s s es wh o m a e a s nes s ” y of Ju tic . T i d it k bu i of he r es m n a re we n wn i n c ur for s m e reas n h a t i t ti o y , ll k o o t , but o o t t n r es r s th e ha ra er of h e r e s m n he h a e no eve d t oy c ct t i t ti o y . T y v m nd are as i r e r e s e n e re a h er a r t s a e . p t io i ly b ib d P id , lf co c it , t c y and hos tility to C h ri stianity a re th e di s tinctive ch aract eri stics of ll r s h ar h ar a he o h a s a . e e e t r e are e Tu k T y c it bl to p o , but t y f l to he r r en s and n ra e to h e r en a rs A r ann t i f i d u g t ful t i b ef cto . Tu k c ot b e n h o w e e his w r wh en w b e to his n eres fou d w ill k p o d , it ill i t t to rea a e h e r s a or a is n n wn e ween b k it . Equ lity , it oci l politic l , u k o b t the r s and the hr s t ans for is er a t ar an e w h all Tu k C i i , it utt ly v i c it a h h amm an s m the t e c i ngs of Mo ed i .

A A I T HE A U . . S LT N SULEYM N , M GNIFICENT

1 2 — 1 66 5 0 5 .

m I r m h m a Kan ni a . s n a e t e s ou Suley n , u d by Otto n ,

‘ or La w Giv e r ; and by th e Eu rop ea ns th e M agnifi

h h r n n - h r n as e n t e e at th e a e e e . ce t , c ded t o g of twe ty t T h e e ra hi s a e r a e m a fun l of f th , Sult n S li , took pl ce hi s arr a th e f e arr the ash as on iv l , co fin b ing c ied by P h r r on t e i s hould e s .

T h e r s h rr h e ms e es n in the res en e e a h Tu k u y t lv o ly p c of d t . A er th e r s e h as re e e th e n e es s ar a ns is ft co p c iv d c y blutio , it quickly s ent to th e c e met ery p rec ed ed by Molla hs who i n to ne vers es r m th e ran a nd we a n m er of e e wh o r w f o Ko , follo d by u b p opl c o d ar n to a erna e in ear n th e f n on h e r s h ers e en ou d lt t b i g co fi t i ould , v for a m men T h e r s e is a wa s a e n its s e in th e o t . co p l y pl c d upo id ra e s o a s e and th a s n i s h a re a e a e a d s t e . g v , to f c M cc E t , ily cov d Scut ari and Eyoub a re the tw o c emeteries where wealthy a nd s s s men a re r e piou Mu ul bu i d . O OM A N D N A S TT Y TY. 7

er hi s a es s n th e h r n e b Aft cc io to t o , e di s trib ut e d t h e s ar a h cu tom y b ks i s h to th e J aniz ari e s r e n , duci g i t on - e h r th e s a a m n a to t i d of u u l ou t , nd i n c r e as e d 108 O OM A N D Y N A S T Y TT .

In 1 52 1 ho stilitie s commenc e d b e tw e e n Tu rk ey r T h n a r r and a . e a e a as and Hung y Sult c ptu d Sz v , a s e ra e rn i ts a h e ra a s l o B lg d , tu ing c t d l into mo que , and c arrying a p art of its inh a bitants toga s ubu rb of an n e h h a n e e n nam e r Con st ti opl w ich s si c e b d B e lg ade . T h e an re rn e i n r m h s a e Sult tu d t iu p to Con t ntinopl , h e re h r e hi s h r n a hm ra an d w t e of c ild e , M oud , Mu d , h r m A f D hf n a a e e s a . tC t d ma d ug t , di d of ll pox , Suley r e s e a r h e s h h ad e to olv d to c ptu e R od , w ich belong d

h n h h f r r n ri w e . t e K ig ts of St . Jo n o ov e t o c tu es 1 2 2 th e m a e n a a In July , 5 , Otto n fl et we t to tt ck h s th e a an arm r s R ode , Sult n with y of t oop n h a re s th e e e we t to t e oppo site co s t . P viou to xp di i w e e r h e h a d s e n a e e r ra t on , ho v , t l tt to the g nd ’ m as e r th e r e r e rs - d e - l I s e - a m a e n e r t of o d , Villi l Ad , v a re h n h r s n hi m s rre n e r ble F nc k ig t , p opo i g to to u d th e s an r m s n a s s e r and r e r i l d , p o i i g l o cu ity of life p op ty , w a n but it s ot a cc e pt e d . T h e Sulta n l an d e d th e re and th e s i e ge b ega n 0n th e th s an d as e un an ar 2 1 2 9 of Augu t l t d til J u y , 5 3 , h re a s s on h s e s . ra e n s with g t lo bot id The b v k ig t , in spi re d by r e ligiou s e n thu si as m an d as si s t e d by th e a e G re e s h ra e na e n n tiv k , foug t b v ly , but fi lly b i g r educ e d to g r e at e xt re mity s u rr e nd e re d on con ditio n th at th e y should b e a llow e d to l e av e i n safe ty

h n h r ran e e a s w h w as e a e . wit i tw lv d y , ic dily g t d " T h e a re rn n s an n e i n e r ar Sult n tu ed to Co t ti opl F b u y , 1 2 w h e he e ar th e e a h hi s s on a h 5 3 , n h d of d t of Abdull

‘ and h r I n h t e bi th of an oth e r c all e d M ahmoud . t e s a me e ar th e ran r r as a re s n e an d y g d vizi , Pi i P h , ig d ,

ra h m as h a a n n m a e r e th e an w as . Ib i P , i ti t f i nd of Sult ,

a e hi r ppoint d s succ e ss o .

O T T OM A ZV D YZVA S T Y

In S e ptemb e r th e Sulta n e nt e re d the citi es of Bud a a nd e s an r s s a e h re P th without y e i t nc , w e h r s a s me n m e and e h re e re C i ti n , , wo n littl c ild n w t aken to Co ns tan tinople a nd s old i n th e Av rat a aar or th e r s s a e m ar e an d a e r a B z , Tu ki h l v k t , ft life

ran an d s f e r n e ass e n t th e ra of ty ny u f i g th y p d i o g ve , r r m h m n n r 6 f a e a d . S e e re as 1 f o o ki d ed ( C y , 5 T h e t re asu re s of th e p al ac e of M athi as C orv i nus and i ts fa mou s lib rary w e re co nvey e d to th e Se raglio i n a n Const nti ople .

I n th e ear 1574 the a m s ra r of a h a s C orvinus w h y , f ou lib y M t i it his t reas u re s as well a s th e pric el es s content s of th e S era glio we t e r e fi r T h e res e n e n i s m h m r n d es e . re e e t oy d by p t coll ctio uc o c t , it i nclud es rob es of st ate d eco rat ed with gold and p reciou s s to nes ; m a es a ers a re e s emera d s and ems mm ens e s e c , d gg , ig tt , l g of i iz ; the k eys of con qu e re d citi e s ; th e sab re of Mohammed I I which i s a s h r s ra h a e a mas s h a n an ns r n of o t , t ig t bl d of D cu , vi g i c iptio A ra e ers in a a ere sw r r n n e s u i th e bic l tt gold ; b tt d o d of i o . o c u by r wn e s n er Be and an ena me arm e of amer ane en e e . o d I k d y, l d l t T l A m n th e a r l es of rea n eres were th e e es e n n to o g tic g t i t t k ttl , b lo gi g th e an ar es wh h wh en n rne m ward s wh e J iz i , ic , fou d tu d botto up il f r in us e w as a wa s a s n o ev . , l y ig olt T h e Sult an th e n p roclaim ed John Z ap p oli o gov

e rno r a s h an d re r e , ns an of Bud Pe t , tu n d to Co t tino l e i n 1 2 8 h e mar h e a ai n a a ns n ar p , but 5 c d g g i t Hu g y , in co ns e qu e nc e of th e expul sio n of Z app oli o by Fe r r Z a li h a e an d i nand th e n s a . o o d s , Ki g of Au t i p p nt

‘ a sk th e as s s an th e r e w h o re envoy to i t ce of Po t , tu rne d with th e v e rb a l p romi s e of h e lp from the

Sultan . I n M a n e ar e m an an y of the followi g y , Sul y , with arm r s an d 00 ns arr e at y of t oop 3 gu , iv d Bud a ; -on th e w ay h e m et Joh n Z app oli o W i th hi s ’ T h a r fi a re an e e s e . e v e s s s uit city fte d y i t ce yi ld d , a n d the Tu rk s for a fe w d ay s luxu ri ated in th e i r M D O TTO A N YN A S T Y. I I I

i n r a n ash n n n s d r a ra e s . own f io , i dulgi g iot b ut l out g a li w a f a r a m e n Fi nally Z p p o o s o fici lly p ocl i d ki g . T h e an m ar he a a ns enna w h h w as Sult c d g i t Vi , ic b esi e ge d for fifte e n d ay s ; its b rav e garri s on co nsi st i ng of m e n and s e ve nty-tw o gu ns re pul s e d all th e ass a s th e mans an d on th e n h th e ult of Otto , ig t of i 4th of Octob er th e b es i eg e rs w e re comp e ll e d to with d ra w on accou nt of s e v e re cold an d lack of p ro h th e ri an a a w as sa e th e visio ns . T u s Au st c pit l v d by h r n r r n h e roism an d en du ran c e of e d e fe d e s . Du i g th e s e e e nna th e r s h r s ra a e its i g of Vi , Tu ki t oop v g d s u r s and th e n r n a e n ha an s ere r en bu b , u fo tu t i bit t w d iv r m h e r h m e s h rea s au h er an d th e m s f o t i o , wit g t l g t o t h rr e tra e s n r e e m e n h e th e o ibl ou g to u p ot ct d wo , w il r e fai re st child ren w e re take n into sl av e y . (S e

reas . C y , p er h s th e a e n r n th e n s Aft t i , nci t c ow of Ki g of un ar h h th e ma ns h ad a e at a H g y , w ic Otto t k n Bud , m w as b estow e d upon Z app oli o by Suley an . ’ h re e m h s m e an e n w as s en r m In t ont ti , voy t f o Austri a to Constantinopl e to d e m an d a re storatio n of th e s ubdu e d p ro v i n c es from th e Ottom ans . A n a e re l w a s e th e ra r a e r eg tiv p y giv n by g nd vizi , ft which th e army of F e rdina n d att e mpt e d to retak e a w a n s s u ess . Bud , but u cc ful T h e an ns re w h th e r s am on Sult , i pi d it bigot y of I l , th e r e h a as h e re i s on e i n h ea e n p incipl t t t but God v , h re re h e re sh b e one e r on arth t e fo t ould but pow e , and h a m s e an h se . ns e en t t u t be Sul ym im lf Co qu tly , the of Tu rk ey h av e alw ay s consid e re d th e Eu rop ean rul e rs as re g e nts a cti ng und e r th e i r

on r and h r r m e s s n . c t ol , by t ei p i io I I Z O OM A N D Y ZVA S Y TT T .

M a 1 2 a a o w e rful ar In y , 53 , the Sult n with p my m ar a a s rm a a s ar ched g in t Ge ny ; but Ch le s V . did

a e th e a a s him h e e re r a not t k field g in t , plund d Sty i rn an d re tu e d to Con stantin ople . T h e e e ar e s n e r th e mm a A d fl t of Ch l , u d co nd of i ra n r a r a a a th e as P elo on m l A d e Do i , tt cked co t of p m s s a r a ras and N au a c tus e u , took Ko on , P t , p , with e r r s re e b a a o th fo t e ct d y Sult n B y ezid I I . m a s i ar a a s rs a Suley n , wi h ng to m ch g in t Pe i , com p li ed with the dem and s of th e del e gat es of F e rdi ' ’ nan d and n e a e ars r a a e , co clud d five y t e ty of pe c . r 1 th e ra i i r In Octobe , 53 3 , g nd V z went to Aleppo t o W i nte r th e re and subdu e d me a nw hile s ev e ra l h r n r s am h w as s r n r neig bo i g fo t , ong w ich the t o g fo t Va n n h e re a r a r e ss a d e r s . er h s of , t n c ptu d T u i Aft t i , a r sse s a arr e at e h and the Sult n c o d to A i , iv d Koni , h e r h a r s a a h r a t en w nt th oug T u i to B gd d , wit g e t d f a t th e b ad r a s h re i ficulty on ccoun of o d , whic we m ana e m n T e fte rd ar e r u n de r th e g e t of Sc nd e Bey . \ H e w as re r m an e s hi s ositi on and c ons e p i d d , lo t p , in

u e n c e h s h e an d hi s a h r-in - law ss q of t i , f t e , Hu ien e e r m r e h ar s a se Tchel bi , di d f o b ok n e t , c u d by the hi r a r h h ad a s ra e . e s s s e s s e s s di g c B ide t u e , l ve , s e h r s a s h ad rn r el cted C i ti n youth , who been to f om m h r ar s . e s e r a e a t ei p ent Th e w e t ken by Sul y n ,

ar e hi s e e s e a e I m gu d d by whit unuch , duc t d by the p e ri al gov e rn me nt and trained for its s e rvic e Sev e ra l of th e m afte r ward s aro se to th e rank of Pash a

! h w as am S oc oli a a a one of w om Moh med , Sl voni n r a e m an and the last g ra nd vizi of Sult n Sul y . r th e e a a ns rsia Du ing exp dition g i t Pe , the Otto m an fleet of eighty -fou r v e sse ls unde r Admi ra l

7 M A N D Y N A S 1 14 0 TO T Y .

n e r h h e th e Itali a co ast . Aft t i s t fle e t sail e d to r a e n e an ss ss n h w as m r e ss Co fu , V ti po e io , whic e cil ly ’ ra a e r n th e a m ra s s a a s and v g d du i g d i l t y of ten d y , m any of its i nh a bitan t s w e re t aken c aptive s ne arly a ll the i slan d s of th e A eg e an S e a w e re subs equ e ntly r H a r i n c aptu ed b y e e d d . T h e m n e r s a e e r th e m a d co bi d Ch i ti n fl t , unde co m n r a s a e e ar Pre v e sa h re of Do i , il d n the Gulf of ; t e i n m h m a n H ae re d d et e d e m r 1 8 a, t , in S pte be , 53 , n av al comb at took pl a ce in which th e l atte r w as

r victo iou s . In 1 539 Con stantinople w as d e v aste d by th e a e an d s n a e r a ar e fi re r pl gu , oo ft l g b oke out by r e r w a r which much p op ty s de st oy e d .

we e sa s r s res r e r n th e ears 1 1 6 T lv di t ou fi b ok out du i g y 53 9 , 5 9 , 1 8 16 2 6 16 16 1 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 2 18 0 e a h of 5 9 , , 3 3 , 45 , 7 , 7 3 , 7 5 , 7 55, 7 , 7 , c wh h ns m e a ar e art th e a a and ma n es were ic co u d l g p of c pit l , y liv h f er m r r m fi re h an ns an n s Few es a e s u e e e . lo t . citi v f d o f o t Co t ti opl T h ere are two fi re tow ers on th e high e s t poi nt s on each sid e of th e rn O ne of hes e is an en es e r a n in Gold en Ho . t old G o fo tific tio a a a the h er i s a rk sh s r re in a m ra her ef e G l t ; ot Tu i t uctu St boul , t f ct a ive. han h erw s e s s an s s e era h nd re ee a e th e t ot i , it t d v l u d f t bov r I n the a er e s h es e w ers wa hmen wa d a and wate . g ll i of t to tc lk y n h e as s in h an On th e s er a fire i n th e d a ig t , fi ld gl d , di cov y of y time a red b all is hoi st ed from a fl ag st aff at night it is a red lan ern and ns a re re r m a a e r on th e h of C andill on t , gu fi d f o b tt y ill y h a s e of the s h r N ob etc his or r nners res s ed t e A s s . i tic id Bo p o u , u , d in red sh r s h n s ears a re s en h r h th e i a nd its. i t , oldi g p , t t oug out c ty s r s a nd e the a arm all the e s a n s whe re th e ubu b giv l to polic t tio , B e tc his or s r w a hmen ea rn the a n th e fire and g , di t ict tc , l loc tio of ’ c a ll a ttention to it by b eating on th e p ave ment with i ron s ho d “ s tay es and a an n a ar S tamb old a or h ere is a fi re c ll out Y gu V , T in am A s s n as th e a arm i s en the fi re en nes a re St boul . oo l giv gi a en th e s ene of a n h e are e use for h e a re t k to c ctio , but t y of littl t y n th ree ee s are s ma en h b e arr e on the sh ould e i s o ly f t qu , ll oug to c i d of remen who r s h r s h r h the na rr w s ree s s r e fi , u fu iou ly t oug o t t t ipp d th e wa s and s ream n e man a s T he remen re e e no to i t c i g lik i c . fi c iv p ay excepting a b akshi s h at th e N ew Y ear from th e inhabit ants cf th e a e wh h h e e n an d are a we h a e er a n vill g to ic t y b lo g , llo d to v c t i h er r e es ot p ivil g . M A N D Y N A S Y O TTO T . I 1 5

T h e grand vizir and th e p ash as a re requi red to b e p res ent at all l arge fi res in Constantinopl e in o rder to encou rage th e fi rem en and h r w r in e n sh n th e c onfl a rati on T h e s up erint end t ei o k xti gui i g g . annou nc ement of th e fire i s m a de to th e Sultan aft er h e h a s reti red i nto his h arem in thi s manner : A s s oo n as th e ne ws reach es th e a a e a n a s e wh m th e h as een as s n e p l c , you g Od li qu to o duty b ig d , w arra h ers e in a s ar e r e wh h ers th e ent re re ill y lf c l t ob ic cov i figu , h n o h e s ame r S h e w h en h is r m w a ur a f t . it t b colo ill t go to oo , and en er n s an s e re hi s a es w h er n a w r , t i g it , t d b fo M j ty it out utt i g o d , for th e s c arlet co s tume i s a s ufficient expl anatio n of h er app ear n h re T he an is h s a r se the s a n and as c er a c e t e . Sult t u pp i d of itu tio a a n of th e fi re t ai ns t o nc e th e loc tio .

A w ar gagain st Hungary an d Au stri a h a d c om m e n c e d for th e follow i n g reas on s : Loui s Gritti h ad re ceiv e d th e c rown of Hu ngary from th e Sultan h r h th e n e n e h n Z a oli o w h o a e r t oug i flu c of Jo pp , ft ar s ass as s n a e him th e m r e r w as at w d i t d , but u d r H n tribut e d to F e rdin an d of Au s t i a . e s e t d e l e gate s to th e Sultan aski ng to h av e th e tre aty carri e d out an d th e re sto ration of th e dow ry of Q u e en r th e ran r re e h a th e ea h Ma y , but g d vizi pli d t t d t of Gritti h a d re l e as e d th e Sultan from any obligatio n in r e r a an h a n n th e matt e . A s c e t lli c e d b e e co clud e d e w e en r nan an d Z a oli o w h h e n ra e b t Fe di d pp , ic g d a r a I n h m an m Z a li h a th e Sult n g e tly . t e e ti e pp o o d di e d an d F erdinan d appli e d to th e Sultan for th e r w n n ar th e a n h ad a kn e e c o of Hu g y , but Sult c owl dg d h n th e n an s on sa e a th e n w w Jo , i f t of I b ll , you g ido of Z li h h r a o o a s t e e . e r nan e s e e a pp , i F di d b i g d Bud , ’ an d s a e a m re th e an s ass s an e w h o I b ll i plo d Sult i t c , n a r ar a him M e an w h h i st ntly p ep e d to tta ck . il e t e an ar r h e rm an n s guin y w a b e t w e en C arl es V . of G y a d ran ran n n ra n a F ci s of F c e s till co ti u e d . F ci s sk e d th e Sultan to h elp him and th e Ad mi ra l H a ere d din w as r er s o h e th e an h hi s arm o d ed to do , w il Sult , wit y , 16 O OM A N D N A S 1 TT Y T Y.

a T h e n a e a arri e at . a s o s v d Bud inf nt of Q ueen I b ll , one ar w as r s th e an w h o only ye old , p e ented to Sult , p romi s e d to r esto re Bud a w hen h e s hould attai n hi s r e a r m ajo ity . He th n ppointe d an Ottoman gove rno h r t e e . H a e re d di n a a e ai ra I a to s d s . s P h w nt to F nci , iled e ss na s e ars s h r h e M i , ubdued it , th nce to M eille , w e e w a r h n r ma s e c e iv e d with gre a t o o s . The Otto n e 1 0 e ss s w as m e h a ran fl et of 5 v el co bin d with t t of F ce , r r an d a a e s n s u r fo ty in numbe , tt cked Nic , which oo r r ende ed . In thi s e poch th e re w ere two di s tingui s hed Otto ans e h m e as a S oc oli a e r w ar s ra m , M d P h , ft d g nd V r and Eb ou s ou ou d for r e ars w as izi ; , who thi ty y

- lz I l am the Sheikh u s . In 1 550 the Sulta n l aid th e found atio n of th e m ag — nifi c ent mo sque be aring hi s n ame S u l ey m ani e wh ich i s s till standing .

T h m an man w ns r e in 1 0 e s e of e I . as o qu Sult Sul y . co t uct d 55 1 6 the e r s th e h r h of h em a of C als ed on 55 out of d b i of c u c St . Eup i m h h e S ul e ern Kadikeui na n a am s r s a r . ( od ), by Si , f ou Tu ki c it ct y ma n him s elf from time to tim e w o rke d with th e labo rers in o rd er ' e e h r ea h s m s e is the most s e n and m r to xcit t ei z l . T i o qu pl did i po t ant one of a m I n the eme er eh n the m s e i s the St boul . c t y b i d o qu magnific ent tomb of Sultan Sul eyman ; in thi s maus oleu m are three large coffins covere d with b eautiful and co stly s h awl s upon which were a th r an an r e a h nma e h es e f ns pl c ed e tu b d c est of c i t . T co fi n a n res e e th e rem a ns of th e n e r the m s e co t i p ctiv ly , i fou d of o qu , h I rn m e th e ma n I o e in I 6 m an I . s a e . w e Sul y , di d 55 ; Sul y u d wh o w a s a r s ner s a e for r —five ears and d e Stupid , p i o of t t fo ty y , i d i n 16 1 and A hme i n 16 9 d II . , 95 .

T h e h s es n ar as e n 1 o tiliti with Hu g y l t d u til 553 , du ring which tim e th e Ottom ans ca ptu re d the fo rts of l n r r a e n e m s ar s a zon ok a d e s . Sz gedi , T e v , Lip , oth E l u re s s rav e for fi v e m n s h th e a s i ted b ly o th , w en Ottom n

i 1 O OM A N D N A S 8 TT Y T Y.

1 6 h a 1 0 ss s arr a 5 5, wit fleet of 4 ve el c ying l nd T h i r es . e S e e as e a hre e m s fo c g l t d bout t onth , with h great lo ss on bot s id e s . T h e Admi ra l Korku d w as e a s n e a h fi r a a h kill d by to e bull t t t e s t ss ult . T e

r ea s n s s n m e n an d th e ra Eu op n , co i ti g of g nd m as e r a a r s s ra e a n d th e ma s t V lett , e i ted b v ly , Otto n

e re e ra s e th e s e a n d re rne w oblig d to i i ge , tu d to n an n m e r Co st ti opl e . The it of the d e fe n ce b e longs

e n re to La a e a a e r h m a i n a a ti ly V l tt , ft w o town M lt T h n n w as na m e d . e i s la d b e lo g e d to the K nights of h n a r w ar a h h . e s t e n s a a St Jo , ft d c lled K ig t of M lt , to h m w as e n i n 1 har r w 0 e s V. e o it giv 53 , by C l , on th i n r m h o e h r T h e re n e xpuls io f o R d s by t e Tu ks . F ch o i t 1 8 w as re a re th e n i s to k in 79 , but it c ptu d by E gl h

in 1 800 . T h e Ottoman Empi re h ad s e v e ral n av al com m an ers s an d re n n a ll h m s ran d of kill ow , of w o , t ge

“ r hr an r h h w e re H ae re t o sa w e e s . d y , of C i ti bi t T ey d in ar ar ssa hi s s on assan a as h a na B b o , H ; Pi li P ; Si n P as h a ; K ork u d ; S alih R e i s ; Ke m a l R e i s ; Pi ri Re i s a n d Sidi Ali . an a e e M ax 1mi l Fe rdi nand I . di e d d w s succ e d d by i an w h o re s e th e ann a tax h e e , fu d u l poll to t Sublim r e n es s h e et ss e s s n th e r Po t , u l could g po io of po t

h w r a an d e a e Z athm ar . a t e a e s e e Fin lly t x p id , p c h a e en n e d b u t th e e a h th e would ve b co clud , d t of

ran r as h a n e r e ne and hi s s ss r g d vizi , Ali P , i t v d , ucce o , h am m S oc oli re e e th e r s Mo ed , j ct d p opo ition of M aximili an an d d e clare d w ar aga i ns t Hu ngary i n 66 an ar 1 . J u y , 5 O n th e 2 th e th e s a me e ar th e an 7 of Jun of y , Sult en e m n e e ra e e re th e e s a w t to S li , c l b t d th f tiv l of 3

S t e e t e c t . Vol Hasseki or r Insp or

th e P e . T ch oh a d ar i e g 2 . or Ch f of a s

i i e th e P i c e . B eul uk A gh ass or Ch f of ol

XI I .

- A L I I SULT N SE I M .

1 66— 1 5 574 .

er th e e a h an e m an a m es s e e r Aft d t of Sult Sul y , ng w as s e nt from T ransylv ani a by th e gran d vizi r

am e S oc oli r e e m w h o e at e Moh m d to P inc S li , l ft onc for Co ns tantin ople an d w as gi rd e d with th e s wo r d of an H e h n - O s m . t e n w e t to B e lgra d e to m e e t th e g ran d vizi r w h o w as re tu rni ng from T ransylv ani a with th e co rp s e of Sultan Sul ey m an ; S e lim a c c om

' ani e d th e arm to th e a a h e re h e w a s p y c pit l , w joyfully re c e iv e d and di st ribut e d th e c u stom ary p res e nts to h I n 1 6 r t e J aniz ari e s . 5 8 a t e aty w as co n cluded e w e e n a m an an d th e an on n n b t M xi ili Sult , co ditio th at both p a rti e s s h ould ret ain po ss e s sion of w hat h t e y a l re a dy h e ld . I n 1 6 s e h N ass a e a h r e s e e w 5 9 , Jo p y , w lt y Po tugu J s e e e i n w nn n th e n e n e an e m ucc d d i i g co fid c of Sult S li , ar as s a n i n e a h e r a nd a er ar s p tly by oci tio d b uc y , ft w d a s a rs r m J a s m a n d h e n r m by po t cy , fi t f o ud i , t f o h r s an s am s m an d n e him a a C i ti ity to I l i , i duc d to tt ck th e i sl an d of Cyp ru s in th e h op e th at h e might b e app om te d gov e rn o r ; hi s claim w as al s o s uppo rte d al a s a a as h a an d th e a d mi ra l a a by L Mu t f P , Pi li , n r an r n m n r m Hu ga i e e ga d e . Sultan S e li obtai e d f o S heikh -ul - I s la m Eb ou s ou ou d a F e tva or fo rm al d e c 1s i m i ar r m on au thori z h m s o . e a e e , g to do A y ft , S li T M A AV D Y ZVA S Y 12 O T O T . 3

s a h e a m es s en e r th e er r r s di p tc d g to gov no of Cyp u , an a e man th e s rre e r th e Nicolo D d lo , d ding u nd of n h n a h s an w as ans e re i t e e e . O n t e i l d , but w d g tiv 1s t 1 0 s a a a s h a arr e at th e r of July , 57 , Mu t f P iv d po t Limi ss o and h an arm a a e rs of , wit y of tt ck d fi t , N i c os si a its e rn r h hi s s ma arr s n ; gov o , wit ll g i o of r s ra e re s s e na h e e r h e h t oop , b v ly i t d ; fi lly , ow v , , wit C antare nu s th e s h a h s an d s m e th e , Bi op of P t o , o of n e s ath e re i n th e r th e ala c e w hi c h h e obl , g d cou t of p , t y h eld u ntil th ey re c eiv e d a p romi s e of safety from th e n m B t a n a h e s rre n e re th e er e e . u s s s y oo t y u d d , p fidi ou s Tu rks comm en c e d a ge n e ral m ass a c re of both h rr am n h m s e e s . an u e a s e e x M y pitif l d t occu d , o g t h a a w m an a n e am w h o e arn n t t of o of obl f ily , , l i g of th e e a h h e r h s an an d h re e s n s h as en e d t of u b d t o , t d to

“ h e r o w n h m e an d a e r e m ra n h er n r e m a n o , ft b ci g o ly i i n h s a e him th e h e ar h e n s e th e g c ild t bb d to t , t u d w ea n n h e rs e h s s a n h r m th e b ar po upo lf, t u vi g bot f o

ari an h e r r r b ty of th e victo rs . M y of t s u vivo s w e e ak e n i n s a e r tw o h un r e w h m m r s t to l v y , d d of o , co p i i n th e h es h s w e re a e on a e ss e g c oic t yout , pl c d v l to b e s e n as a r es e n th e u an at n an n t p t to S lt Co st ti opl e . O ne h e n m e r a r n e am s e e e of t ir u b , gi l of obl f ily , ucc d d i n r n th e u n ow e r m a a n e h s s a n h e r fi i g g p d g zi , t u vi g s e lf an d h e r comp anion s from th e di s hon o r of th e

e ra i r . S e e s r a m n S glio ( H to y of Cyp u s by B . H ilto an a . f r h e . ns o t e s an r s . L g , l t H M Co ul I l d of Cyp u )

T h e a e h r s an e e e n r e n ran th e lli d C i ti fl t , ti ly ig o t of u r s h v r r s w as an h r e i n th e T ki icto y in . Cyp u , c o d h ar r an a an d w h e n th e n e e n e w as bo of C di , i t llig c re e e its e a e rs h e n e s an c iv d by l d , t y co clud d to di b d , e a h re n n hi r c tu r i g to s ow n cou nt y . 12 4 O TTOM A N D YN A S T Y

ar i n 1 1 s a a as a e 1 ss1a an d E ly 57 , Mu t f P h l ft N co , a m a a a w e nt to att ck Fa go s t . Thi s pl ce w as d efended n th e r s a s th e ns as not o ly by t oop , but l o by citize , as th e r e m e r well by Cyp iot wo en of nobl bi th , who r s how e d gre at h e oi s m . At las t it b e c ame cle arly im ss e r s s r m th e s ar an d a m po ibl to e i t , f o c city of food n a nd B ra ad i no h e r m a r munitio , g , t i co m nde , unwill l r n r i ng y s u r e de e d . O n th e th s M ar B ra adi no s of Augu t , co Antonio g , i n f a res s a m a i e his f rs and o fici l d , cco p n d by o fice s m e re s s r a ar t s ol o noble G ek , e co ted by gu d of fif y d rs r th e s e e r th e e s th e ie ode to line , to d liv k y of a nd h av 1n e r arm s a r n city , g given up th i , cco di g to ’ th e r e t a s m e re r v e i n th e ash a s o i n l cu to , w ecei d P n h r a a h h ll h e d u e s . s as a a t e t t wit hono Mu t f P , wit e e n and ss m a n hi s na n a d c it , cun ing di i ul tio of tio lity ,

re a e h e m m s r e s at e n h rn n t t d t o t cou t ou ly , l gt tu i g a r B ra adi n o h e as e h a s e r h e b uptly to g , k d w t cu ity i nte n d e d to offer for the p rope r fulfillment of hi s

r B ra a i n re h a ar e a . s d o p t of the t ty To thi , g plied t t no m e ntion of s e cu rity h ad b e e n m a de in th e c apitu a a aw hi e a e e a lation . Mu st f s in s suit young V n ti n n t n ui rini e r h an d fi ne a e ara A o io Q , of nobl bi t pp nce an d e man e hi s s rre r as a h s a w as d d d u nde o t ge , which r refu s e d by B ragadi no . I nstantly the Tu ki s h g e n

ra n a e n ra e and as a r e x a s e e l flew i to viol t g , p et t ccu d t h e m of h avi n g put to d e ath all th e Mu ssulmen take n r s e rs r th e s e e h e at a s hi s p i on du ing ig , t n ign to e h s e s e e all th e f e rs and s ran e unuc , th y iz d o fic t gl d th e m out sid e th e t e nt in th e p re s e nce of th e Pas h a ; thi s outrage w as followed by th e s l aught e r of all the e r T h e e d a t e ma s e e re a a s co t . n xt y h Otto n nt d F m

12 6 O TTOM A N D YN A S T Y

e n e i n h e r s e as ar n a a l on er V ic own , but fe i g th t g sta y th e re might cau s e hi s blocka de by th e alli e d e h e s a f r h r a a n t ss s o t e . w s o ve l , iled Mo e It until th e e nd s h a a e s e re re a for of Augu t , t t the lli w dy n an ha T h a d d ass at ss a . e ctio , embled Me in com an w as e n hi s h a r h r m d giv by Philip I I to lf b ot e , h s r a an d w h o h n ot Don Jo n of Au t i , , thoug yet w e n e ars a e h a d a re a a s s t ty y of g , l dy m nife ted tho e s t e rli ng qu a liti e s w hich w e re to ran k him with th e

r a na a mm a e r hi g e t v l co nd s of s time . Tidi ng s w e re r ec eiv e d of th e arriva l of th e Tu rk i s h e e n e r as sa as ha s on ar ar s a fl t u d Ali H n P , of B b o h n r n A n a in t e eighbo i g gulf of L e p anto . s soo s it a m e i n s h h s a e mm e a e at c ig t , Don Jo n di pl y d i di t ly hi s mas h e a th e s an ar th e e a e as a s na t d t d d of L gu , ig l for a e an d r e r n hi s sh all o w e n t r m a e b ttl , o d i g p , f o g ll y to a e r n n all hi s e rs ra e g ll y , u gi g upo follow to be b v in a n an a r fl T h a e w a n d h e a . e s ctio , loy l to t i g b ttl lo g a nd ob sti nat e ; until Ali w as kill e d with a mu sket m Hi s h an d hi s re h e n h r e w h r ar s . s ot , c w t t down t ei e a w as s e e re r m th e s e t n th e n h d v d f o body , upo poi t a s e ar w h D on h n h a d hi s an and of p ich Jo in h d , na m h s h or fi lly ou nt e d on th e top of his m as t . T i r e r w as r e n e at e a nd e rr e ibl t ophy cog iz d onc , t ifi d th e e t r e r s h e e h h e n h a n i Tu ki fl t , w ic b i g wit out e a e r rr n r T h e a e e e a l d s u e d e e d . lli d fl t lo st bout m e n an d th e r s ss w as e r h e r , Tu ki h lo ov T i r w as m e te m an e re a e n r s ne rs out co pl , y w t k p i o , a mo ng wh om w e re th e tw o s o ns of Ali ; Ch ri s ti an s lav e s e mploy e d as r o w e rs an d faste ne d to th e s e s th e a rs e re r e e ase and e r on e id of o w l d , ov n re w ar e ss e s e re a r m anv e r hu d d v l w c ptu ed , w e A S Y 12 O TTOM A N D Y N T . 7 aban don e d an d abo u t e ighty w e re su nk du ri ng thi s l h a h a e rr e n a a e n a e m e n . U utc s t ibl v l g g t Ali P , gov e rn or e r a h a fe w a e s es a e and ar of Alg i , wit g ll y c p d r e at ns an n e h e re h e w as ra s e iv d Co t ti opl , w i d to the ran C a e d a n as h a th e a an d w as k of p P by Sult n , r r su rn am e d Kilitc h o Sw o d . I n th e w n e ar h n th e S on h ar e s follo i g y , Jo , of C l V s a e h th e an s h e e a nd s u e n s il d wit Sp i fl t bdu d Tu i , w h h re a e n ra e th e ran r w ho i n M a ic g tly g d g d vizi , y , 1 h th e n e w n s r e e e n s s n 574 . wit ly co t uct d fl t , co i ti g of 2 50 v e ss el s u n d e r th e a dmi ral Kilitc h Ali an d Si n an ’ r a A r h r e a as h a s a e th e an st . e e s P , il d to Af ic co ft t d y s e e n s w as a re m an an ar s ere i g , Tu i c ptu d , y Sp i d w a e n r s n e rs i n a n w h h th e r s t k p i o , dditio to ic Tu k s e e 2 00 ns an d s a n ar s h s n s iz d gu 3 3 t d d ; t u , Tu i , e r a an d r o e a m e r n e s th e Alg i , T ip li , b c p ovi c of Otto m an domi nio n . ’ I n th e l atte r p art of Sultan S e lim s reign h e w as re a af e th e e a h hi s s e n s on g tly flict d by d t of co d , fol

w h a h h h - l - lo e d by t t of t e S eik u I s l am Eb ou s ou ou d . n af e r h s th e an h ad an a a a e Soo t t i Sult tt ck of popl xy , an d e on th e th er 1 a e r e e e n di d 4 of Octob , 574 , ft l v ’ a n H e w a rn i n 1 2 an n s ess . s d as e e d y ill bo 5 4 , c d d th e h r ne at th e a e r - an d i n c ons e t o g of fo ty two , en c e hi h a w a rn am m h u s s s s e e t e . q of bit u d S li , Sot

H e w as n e rr a h i r i hi a e t t e w e s . i t d t c cu t of St Sop , a e r a are er re a h e r r ss i n s e an d ft c of t c y , g o ju tic r H e . e e s e en s ns ra hi s s es c u lty l ft v o , Mu d , ucc s or e h me e m an s a a T c hih an ui r ; M d , Sul y , Mu t f , g , ah s m an an d h r e e a h te rs Abdull , O , t d ug .

A t one me th e ree as er— old s t e— an d th e a ram or ti G k E t yl B i , an a s er of th e r s h a en e to a on th e s ame da C dy E t Tu k , pp d f il y . 12 O OM A N D N A S 8 TT Y T Y.

T he ran r h e a n h en s en for th e ree a rar h g d vizi ld cou cil , t t G k P t i c , a nd him th e s a e of th e ase ns s n ha a han e m s b e told t t c , i i ti g t t c g u t ma e in th e a e a s er T h e a r a r h as i s n r h . e e a t e d d t of E t P t i c , g lly ase wa s a h h l re man and re e a s n the ran c , ig ly cu tu d , pli d by ki g g d vizi r to s end to th e n ea res t Greek s ch ool a nd requ es t the p res en ce hree s fi ve ea rs of a e hen to es n h em He rea of t boy , y g , t qu tio t . dily m e and at th e s es n of th e a r ar h a s e th e e co pli d , ugg tio P t i c , k d littl ne s hr h an n er reter wh en h e r a s er ame h e o , t oug i t p , t i E t c . T y “ re e - m rr w w b e r a and ne S un quickly pli d , To o o ill Good F id y , xt “ ” d a w as e r A re s re ? Y es s ir e r r b e . s e for y ill E t you u , , v y u , ” a i w a th f e r a h r s er s a s e n a a r e e e . E t l y Su d y t Good F id y, t y pli d A ft er t hi s th e Patriarch a s ke d th e grand vizi r to s end for th ree r s h s the s ame a e h en es i ne hem h ms e in Tu ki boy of g , t qu t o d t i lf ” w h r m m n o w w r s h a s h en e a ra a e . W e t n as Tu ki to t i B i c do k o , “ he r n h ear th r r of h ns h ar n re we e e t e . On e t i ply , u til po t gu i g h s th e ran r s r e his ear m a en and rn n t i g d vizi t ok d b d co pl c tly, tu i g to h e h e r as ha s s a : W e m s ma e the han e T h e Ghi t . ot P , id u t k c g y ou rs (C hri sti ans)are more s u re of th e d at e of th eir E as t er th an w e w b e ne es s ar s ne our a ram n the ne d a , it ill c y to po tpo B i u til xt y . T h e T urk s always c eleb ra te th e B ai ram a t th e a dve nt of th e new ma an or h re w a hmen a re s e e e m n a er a en . e oo , ft R z , L t T tc l ct d r m h e h - ul - l élamat re r th e a en of th e new m n f o S ik to po t dv t oo , which i s wa tch e d for from th e high es t hill i n th e s ubu rb s of Con ino l A the rs m s e h r n nd e r h h res sure s tan t e . t e u p fi t gli p t y , u ig p , to am and re r th e d e a n e for h a r se wh o St boul , po t to ju g ppoi t d t t pu po , re war s h e m ar the w n m rn n the r n of th e c an d t . E ly follo i g o i g fi i g n ns ann un e th e a wn of a ra m r es b e s o o o c d B i . If it p ov to cloudy h a the new m n ann b e see n t h s m r an wa h a es t t oo c ot , i i po t t tc t k on h n n h pl ac e t e ext ig t .

X I I I . A A 111 SULT N MUR D . 1 5744 59 5

ra r r a n e s a re e e th e an Mu d , gove no of M g i , c iv d ’ n ou n c e m e nt hi s a h e r s a h and r a of f t de t , e ched Con m r H w as s tanti no l e on th e 2 1st e e e 1 . e p of D c b , 574

e n - e h e ars a e m e m h e a e tw ty ig t y of g , of diu ight , p l ' and h n h a e e s thi c k e r ws and a t i , wit bl ck y , ey b o , his light be a rd re a chi ng b e low hi s b re ast . On

arr a h e r r hi s fiv e r h rs b e e . iv l , o de ed b ot e to xecuted

O TTOM A N D YN A S T Y

Pezzen h ad e a r n , who giv n utho ity to the Ki g of Austria to appoin t a com mon cle rk as his rep re s en ” “ h re e i a r a y e . e re n e s s e e t ti n Sov ig , pli d , f to app om t a cl e rk to b e hi s Ambassa do r as th e Sultan m a a wi n h e hi ran r a i s to k e s e d s g d vizi . Sin n “ as h a r e th e h e r as h as and s a am P tu n d to ot P , id , I n h hi a r r i p aid in a good coi by t i s g ou o nfidel . (S e e

ar a . Sc l to , Vol I I , p .

T h e ran r l e m an h ers of his ra e ha e th e hr s g d vizi , ik y ot c , t d C i ans and e er h n in his we r ns and ann he m ti , did v yt i g po to i ult oy t . A t one ti me h e i nvite d th e G ree k p atri arch to dine with a numb er a h i h s e T h r ar h a e e h of high Turkis h official s t s ou . e p at i c cc pt d t e n a n and as h e e n ere th e ar r his h amme an h s i vit tio , t d p lo of Mo d o t fou nd th at th e wily Tu rk h ad pla c ed a numb er of s mall wood en e he r H e s e n in hi s h an an r s s s on t . o e d c o floo toop d , took up , d reveren s s e h en wa e er th e h ers on his wa acr s s tly ki d it , t lk d ov ot y o ‘ h m T he ran V r m n a s e him How s h a t e r . i oo g d izi ocki gly k d , it t t a h r s an rea on th e em le m our faith? T h e a r ar h you , C i ti , t d b of y p t i c “ h el hi s r s s and s a h ere is one r s s in wh h we d up c o id , T but C o ic e e e a nd th e on e h a h in m han at h s m men re re b li v , t t I old y d t i o t p s en s t it .

h a T a m as and w as s e e hi s s on S h p died , ucc ed d by , a ar on a n th n r e s an d r e s H id , but ccou t of e i t igu volt i n f e re n r n e s n e w h a w as e a nd di f t p ovi c , the S h kill d , w as s e e e h i s r h e r s m a w as a s ucc d d by b ot , I el , who l o a r a re n e h n mn h h a a kill e d ft e ig of ig t e e o t s . T is w s re e for a w ar e e n r e an d rs a h p t xt b tw e Tu k y Pe i , w ich n n e s e e ra e ars r h s m e e r a co ti u d v l y ; du ing t i ti G o gi ,

“ th e a ers a w as s d e s m a as h a lly of P i , ub u d by O n P

rn am mi r r th e r n n r s e e o e e s . u d Ozd , i o v

T h e e r ans are a h an s m e ra e the w men a h h G o gi d o c , o , lt oug of r m e n r a h e f r as s a h nh n ar ar e s o . T e a a s e d k co pl xio , iv l t o Ci c i i bit t r n a hr s an s e n n th e ree and A rmen an p i cip lly C i ti , b lo gi g to G k i h r s c u ch e .

In 1 58 3 Q u e e n Elizab eth appoint e d Willi am H are e m as sad r s a n 1 8 bon A b o to Con t nti ople , who in 5 7 O OM A N D Y N A S TT T Y . 1 3 1

res en e a e e r th e an i n w h h h e w as im p t d l tt to Sult , ic l re d ass s i n m ar m e w a r are a a n a n p o to i t iti f g i s t Sp i . I n th e m ean m e th e r m s th e r n e ti , ci cu ci ion of P i c h amm e e es s on th e ta a e th e Mo d , ld t of Sul n , took pl c c e remoni e s w e re c el e hrate d n e ar th e mo squ e of an hm e an d aste e r a m h th e ill u mi Sult A d , l d ov ont ,

n fir - r ere n fi ations and e wo ks w exc ee di gly ne . All th e re n r ers e re e and s e n re rese n fo ig ul w invit d , t p

tativ es w ith v alu abl e gifts . r n e h amme a re a s e n e ars a e P i c M o d , l dy ixt e y of g , w as s n a e r m arr and w as a e e r oo ft ied , ppoint d gov

nor of M agnesi a . T h e g rand vizi r Ozd e mi r die d du ring hi s expedi tion to P e rsia ; h e w as succ ee d e d by M essih Pash a li a an d aft er ward s by Sin an Pas h a Kiy a zadé . He w s a e n e s s on C a a a es e a th e G o e , of Count ic l , d c nd nt of e am r a an d h e a w as a e as nobl f ily of Do i , w il boy t k n a s a e at th e a e e r e in A f r a and e l v b ttl of Dj b , ic , k pt h r i w e h e as a n e a m ra in t e Se agl o . T ic w ppoi t d d i l and m arri e d s ucc essiv e ly th e two gran d - d aughte rs a ma and na e n h hi s e e of Sult n Suley n , fi lly w t wit fl t to e ss a for hi s h er and r h er h ar e s M in , to look mot b ot C l ; th e l atte r w as fou n d an d r etu rned w ith hi m to C on s i n l tant op e . Th e re w as nomi nal p ea c e betw e e n th e Sublim e r e s r a and an s th e h s es b e Po t , Au t i Pol d , till o tiliti tw e en th e m co nti nu e d i n a m e asu re , cau s e d by t h e h e r a e e r a v a cant th rone of Poland . T Tu ks inv d d P si a a n and 1 0 ea e a an a e s r e g i , in 59 p c , dv t g ou to Tu k y , w as n e d h r h am a r a th e s on th e co clud t oug H z Mi z , of h a w h o e n ns a e for h s r se S h , w t to Co t ntinopl t i pu po , a ccomp anied by four ge ne rals an d a thou san d a ttend 1 2 O OM A N D N A S 3 TT Y T Y.

r r i z a s . s a e r a A ze rb an nt By thi t e ty , G o gia, Shi v n , L ristan and T au ris w e re a e e r o nn x d to Tu key . a h e i n s an e r a e a The Sult n , w il Con t tinopl , o g niz d fl e and a e s ess r ran rs et ppoint d ucc ively th ee g d Vizi , th e as wh w as na as a w ho a e r ar l t of om Si n P h , ft w d

r - n 1 e e cted Y ali Kio sk on th e S e raglio poi t . In 593 th e a d e are w ar a a ns s r a h Sult n cl d g i t Au t i , but wit o ut m u r s an d i n e r 1 th e s a r ch e ult , Nov mbe , 594, c ed s a ar r h a a - S h r f h t nd d of the p op et (S ndj k e i f), whic w as ke am as s w as n e r a pt in D cu , co v yed with g e t p omp to Con stan tinopl e and sent to th e gran d vizi r ar i n r er a m a e th e man arm in Hung y , o d to ni t Otto y T h e a s s w as a s at th e Sult n , being indi po ed , gue t res e a as ha at a - s th e idenc of Sin n P Y li Kio k , on S e raglio point ; two Egypti an v e sse l s e nte red th e h arbo r and fired a s alute ; th e concu ssion c au s e d by it s h atte re d th e gl az e d dom e of th at h ou s e ; h e con s id e re d s an e m n e a e e r m a h thi vil o e , b c m v y el nc oly , e xpi red th at night and w as inte rre d by the side of h i h l m s a r e . f t e , S i I I ra w as r 1 6 h e h a a Sultan Mu d I I I . bo n in 54 ; d l ar e ntumb e r s r m e re H ass eki s g of wive , fo ty of who w o r m e rs s s hi s m s e e w as hi s rs oth of on , but o t b lov d fi t e ahe or n eat th e es e n an of a nob l e ne a wif , S , d c d t Ve ti n famil af w h o w as a e as a s a e th e v of B fo , t k n l v by r s h ra e s om r m e n C e rc ra Tu ki pi t while g g f o V ice to y , wh h e r a h r w as e rn r e C on of ich f t e gov o , conv yed to s ta ntin0pl e and on a ccount of h e r e xqui site be auty ’ w as a an M u rad s h ar m h re s h e t ken into Sult e , w e r n H e h a 1 2 r e e s e a s r e e . d 0 x ci d t ong influ c child en , of whom o nly 2 0 s o ns an d 2 7 d aughte rs were living at the tim e of hi s de ath ; all of th e s on s we re killed

A D N A S Y 1 34 O TTOM N Y T . was unsucce s sful ; he w as remo ve d from office and a a s a a w as a e his s a e L l Mu t f ppoint d in te d , who di d in r n n a w a r a r a s a . a a s a s e th ee d y fte Ag i , Si n P h c lled , and w as m a de grand w a r for the fifth time a a m e a re th e mi s Sult n Moh m ed , b ing nge d by r of th e m a arm re s ar fo tune Otto n y , olved to m ch in a a an ar a pe rs on ag i nst Wa ll chi a d Hung y . Me nwhile Sin an Pas h a h ad di e d an d l e ft a n imme ns e fo rtun e ; ’ w as s e e ra a m as a a s he ucc ed d by Ib h P h , the Sult n

-i - b roth e r n l aw . th e i e a a m a In follow ng Jun , the Sult n , cco p nied by th e ran r m ar e a a ns n ar r s se g d vizi , ch d g i t Hu g y , c o d th e an b and e n am ear r r a D u e , c ped n the Fo t E l u , h h e a r h e ar an whic ad be n c ptu ed by t Hung i s . Thi s . fo rt afte r a s ho rt si e g e s u rre n de re d but in Octobe r th e sam e ar th e a rm s s r a a nd a of ye , ie of Au t i Pol nd fought agains t th e Ottom an s ne ar th e tow n of Ker e sztes e r s ss two a s s ; th y we e ucce ful in b ttle , but lo t

th e r . r s e r re ra i i rs i n thi d Du ing thi p iod , th e g nd V z s c ss ha d i n f : u ce ion , been o fice

T he ma r th e ra n i rs ha e een of h r s an es en jo ity of g d v zi v b C i ti d c t , a en as s a es wh e n e in a ar th e era s s et a s e t k l v il you g , k pt p t of S glio id ere he w r for them and gu a rd e d by wh 1te eunuchs . H t y e e t ra ine d an d r m e from one ran a n h er n h ey rea he the p o ot d k to ot , u til t c d m re I n a n h es e th an f h h e s in the . e s o T ur ig t E pi dditio to t , Sult key for many years p as t h ave b ee n i n th e h abit of dis gui si ng them s elves and vi s iting different qu arte rs of Co nst anti n opl e to l earn the n n of h n s a m n th e nh a an s and he han e co ditio t i g o g i bit t , if t y c c d mee an h s wh m he ns ere s a e for th e a a e to t y yout o t y co id d uit bl p l c , h e w ere ie s e e n ne a nd n er e h amme a n t y qu tly iz d , co fi d co v t d to Mo d i h s m as t nt h e rr i n A th s m . s e t e e T i cu to l d u il g of bdul M djid , h er th e re n n an A am fat of ig i g Sult bdul H id I I .

1600 ara Y azid i or th e a s r a m - s In , K j , bl ck c ibe , ili ar ea e r i n s a n r ass s e hi s r r t y l d A i Mi o , i t d by b othe ss e n th e e r r a a rm e an Deli Hu i , gov no of B gd d , fo d O OM A N D N A S TT Y TY. 3 5 a rm r s a nd r m ans re e a a ns th e y of Ku d Tu ko , volt d g i t a e h e m an arm Sultan and d efe t d t Otto i e s . W h e all h s w as a n a e s a th e il t i t ki g pl c in A i , Otto m an e e n e r th e mm an Ki alizad e ra a e fl t u d co d of y , v g d th e co ast of Italy and d e feat e d th e Sp ani sh an d a a ee s h h h ad r e s th e as s It li n fl t , w ic t i d to ubdue co t

r a n n of Alge i a d Tu i s . as th e h ah e rs a Vi a e i n 1602 th e Abb , S of P i , ol t d rea of eac e re a n a r s an d th e h e r t ty p , by t ki g T u i ot r A n a th e n r a h n an fo ts . s s oo s tidi gs e c e d Co st ti n 0 l e r ara ns w e r ma e for an h r e e p , p ep tio e d ot e xp di a a s e rs a th e a e r m a e tion g in t P i , but Sult n di d f o pl gu , on th e 2 2 d e m er 160 and w as s e e e of Dec b , 3 , ucc d d by h i m s s on Ah e d . w a r 1 66 hi s an h a mm e . s Sult Mo d I I I bo n in 5 , mothe r b e longi ng to th e nobl e V e neti an family of m n h M h am e I . u s af . e s s e B fo Mo d l ft five o , A m d ; a a e m w h o e e re h i s a h er ahm t f I S li , di d b fo f t ; M oud ’ w h o h r u h r e w as e h e a e his a h e r s , t o g int igu , b d d by f t r e rs D ih an ui r w h o e i n n a and h r e o d ; j g , di d i f ncy , t e a r d ught e s .

XV . I SULT A N A HMED . 6 — 1 0 3 16 17 .

m e h h r ne at th e a e of Ah e d I . s ucc e e d d to t e t o g r e n e ar e e en a s a e r hi s a ss fou te y s . Nin t d y ft cce ion to th e h r ne h e w as r m se at th e h s e th t o , ci cu ci d ou of e g ran d Vi zi r ; afte rward s h e b e ca m e s e riou s ly ill with m s a n a re ere . ll pox , but fi lly cov d A D O T T OM ZV YN A S T Y.

I n 160 s s s ma and h amm e re 5 two on , O n Mo ed , w

rn th e a n h e n n s e e ea rs . bo to Sult , t o ly ixt n y old 1606 a r a ea e w as re e w e Hu n In , t e ty of p c n d with ' ar an d il a r k an a nd e m a s g y S v to o . Holl d B lgiu l o conclud e d comm e rcia l treati e s with th e Sublime r th e h m r h a s e s w a a e Po te , Dutc e c nt b ing in thi y bl to i ntroduce the u se of tob acco into th e Ottoman r Empi e . r s m e ra as a s ur a Ku Du ing thi ti Mu d P h , n med “ ” u d i or e e r w as a ra r . y j , W ll Digg , ppointed g nd vizi H e ar s a a a and a a m ched into A i , tt cked Aleppo B gd d a nd th r e w hu n d re d s of th e i r inh abitants alive i nto r f r h r O ne deep w e lls th at w e e dug o t at pu po s e .

i i n m r h e i n in stanc e of h s c ru e lty s g i ve n . A u be of t s u r e nts h ad e n r a e a n h e m g b e th own into w ll , mo g t w as a h rd e re t o s h are found boy , w om he o d the n n rr s s ame fate . No o e w as willi g to c a y out thi r e r r re th e ne ra e m an s a h th e o d , the efo i xo bl old n tc ed s ran him h his a s e n re w boy , t gled wit own h nd , th th n th e e a n for s s a him i to w ll ; pologizi g thi deed , by y ing th at all of th e in su rge nt le ad e rs we re boy s b efo re m a e m e n . ar a they b e c (S e e Sc l to . ) 160 th e n a s e a In 9 , fou d tion of the mo qu of Sult n Ah med w as 'laid on th e plain of th e Hippod rome ; it s s s and e ars hi s am e till exi t b n .

h s e e w as b nil in 16 10 an A hme I is the n T i dific t by Sult d . ; it o ly e h a a res an mo s qu w ich i s fl nke d with s ix min ret s or t a ll s pi . M y of th e a ntiqu e re mains of th e Hippod rome were u s e d in its e re c t n and a er h a is th e r n al a e w rs h in io , ft St . Sop i , it p i cip pl c of o ip

Constanti nopl e ; h ere the feast s . of th e Mu s s ulmen are att end e d w h r en a m res s ene s s A m s all th e m s es r e it O i t l i p iv . l o t o qu of Tu k y ar s m r er hese e uppo rted by Va couf rev enue s or o s que p op ty . T V a couf land s are a cqui re d in th i s way : a en r e d es ea n no ma e h e rs his r ert i s If citiz of Tu k y i l vi g l i , p op y en the m s es here a re th er an s m r s n near g iv to o qu . T o l d co p i i g ly

1 3 8 O TTOM A N D YN A S T Y.

th e n en or oak rees near wh h ea r br s a re f en mur li d t , ic cl ook o t m r n and s en n th e s wee s n of the n1 htin a le h s u i g , li t i g to t o g g g ; t i “ h a e or eas r T h e e e n n s r a s and e e . h t y c ll ki f pl u v i g , F id y oly e - days are s p nt at th e coffee hou s e s in go s s ip . coffee and sherb et a re th e r n a e era e s r w i ne a nd a r en s r s a re p i cip l b v g ; po k , d t pi it s r t r h e th e ran W th th e e e n or t ic ly p o ibit d by Ko ; but i xc ptio of p k , th e ot h er articl es a re now u s ed on a l arge s c al e ; s moking th e pip e o r nar h ele h b e b e a h n n n for h rs r s s g , u bl ubbl , b t i g , lou gi g ou c o — l egge d upon a cu s hio n or s ofa for chai rs a re not u s e d ex c ept among the high er cla s s es — are th ei r p ri ncip al occup a t ns . T he f n a ns are not mere for rname n as io ou t i ly o t , but , th e Tu rk s a re enjoi ne d by th e Ko ran to t a ke nume rou s ah lutions it h as b e en consid ere d a religiou s duty to erect them f e h e a s s wo h r s h e r es in e n or us . T y p t t i d of t i liv ati g and s ee n an d a e er e n e res in th e rren e en s l pi g , t k v y littl i t t cu t v t of th e d a h ar n all n s d e a es a nd are e . e e e y T y fo d of ki d of lic ci , xc l n n e ers h e a n h e r a es at th a he e n . n e e us e l t co f ctio W t ki g t i pl c t bl , t y “ th e w o rd Bismilah or I n th e nam e of God th ei r meal s are enera m s e a n m er of ar i es in s ma er sh es g lly co po d of u b t cl ll copp di , a e in arra on a ar e er ra ea h wh h n a ns pl c d y l g copp t y , c of ic co t i but t e et a e h er i s f ere in re a ar e es and an lit l , y ltog t food o f d g t v i ti qu ti e s h e all eat fr m the s am e s h and use he r own n ers ih ti ; t y o di , t i fi g s ea of kn es and r s s i s ser e w d en s ns are t d iv fo k . If oup v d , oo poo us e e e w h s me of th e w ea h e r as s wh o ha e me a or d , xc pt it o lt i cl , v t l s er s ns A e r h e r mea s h e a ll wa sh the r h an s in ilv poo . ft t i l t y i d a rass as n th e w a er e n re r m a ewer hen s n b b i , t b i g pou d f o ; t itti g r s sed - e e on th e minderliks or low s a s he h h e r c o l gg d of , t y lig t t i es nar h eles or are es ee is s er e and h en the s r pip , g , cig tt , coff v d . t to y e n T h of h n m er a e mmen e ns . e e es t e es t lli g b gi ld t u b , if qu lifi d , co c , s e n e re a s r n his na rra n a nd here is s ar e a n in il c p v il du i g tio , t c c ly y e rr n e her es n or a a s e for the a er s m t uptio it by qu tio ppl u , l tt cu to es n a n h e r s h en h e h as n e th ot e s m t . e do xi t o g Tu k W co clud d , th ers i h r T h e ur s i n ar o n s ucc es sion cont ribute t ei quota . T k v iably re s e h e ir a rents e he r s er rs and ha e s r n enera p ct t p , ob y t i up io v t o g v n for h eir e r i s a w e n wn a ha h e h a e a tio t ld e s . It ll k o f ct t t t y v rea er es e e m for a ma n wear n a ear ha n for one wh o is g t t i g b d , t s e h a I n r er em h a s e a s e n or d e r e of na re . clo v , p iv d it by tu o d to p iz “ s a e men he a e h e r han s n h e r ear s a nd s a t t t t y pl c t i d upo t i b d y , By ’ h s I s wear T h e e r s s h a e h e r h ea s w h th e t i . bigot d Tu k v t i d , it e e t n a s mal on th e r w n wh h is ef s o h a he r xc p io of l tuft c o ic l t , t t t i r he ma se e hem i t at ea h a nd here d raw h em p op t y iz t by d t , t by t n arad s e T he r s and all th e s e s r e w ea r a i to P i . Tu k ubj ct of Tu k y red f w h s i s n e er rem e d e e on n ez a as s e . it bl ck t l It v ov , xc pt goi g b e d whe n it is re a e w h a wh e n c a on en er n to , pl c d it it cotto p ; t i g th eir hou se s th ei r s ho e s are t aken off and l eft ju st insid e th e s ree r t t doo . O OM A N D YN A S T Y TT . 1 39

“ “ he r s a aam or s a e is a aa m A l eic oum or ea e b e T i l lut S l , P c w h a nd th e a nsw e r is re rne A leic oum a aam or it you , tu d , S l , , With you b e p ea c e ; whil e the body is b ent until th e right ha n d h es th e r n is h en r h to th e reas hen touc g ou d it t b oug t b t , t to rwar s th e reh ea th e mouth and a fte d to fo d . am is a ar of h e r re n en ar n th e mes s la Polyg y p t t i ligio , l gi g do tic very ; for th e s ensu al ch ara ct er of th e Tu rks an d th at of th ei r women is d eri v ed from th eir p roph et M oh a mmed and nu rtu red to a er ar e e en his re e s wh h en a s es rema re v y l g xt t by p c pt , ic oft c u p tu old a h n th e a s fe w e a rs h w e er a m h e . a s not g Wit i l t y , o v , polyg y ‘ b een as re a en as f rme r w n not s o muc h to h an e in p v l t o ly , o i g c g h a k m n s en men as t e e a s . public ti t , to l c of T h e us e of ar en s r s m an d h er es h a ann d t pi it , opiu , ot vic t t c ot _ h e r a rs b e mentio ne d a re t i d ily pu uits . T h e an a h th e hr s ans to th e r s i s due m re th e tip t y of C i ti Tu k , o to rea he r s ens a ass ns h an me re re s an m s d d of t i u l p io , t to ligiou i o ity . I n th e wes as s es of the r sh e e r h h n es and lo t cl Tu ki p opl t ut , o ty , ra u e ma as na b e n i n th e m e ass es er g tit d , y occ io lly fou d ; iddl cl , v y m n h h h e ne er se i t e s . ldo ; ig t , v A r ne er mm s s e for h e es not es a r Tu k v co it uicid , do d p i , but a ccepts all hi s mis fortunes in th e s pirit of th e inevit abl e as coming

m ar at . r S ee . f o God . ( Sc l o , Vol I . p th e 2 2 d e m e r 16 1 a h e On of Nov b , 7 , Sult n A m d r H e w a r 1 n e a er a s h e ss . s 8 a d di d ft o t illn bo n in 5 9 , , r h r a a an n e n r e a e s d s s a . l ft b ot Mu t f ; in o , Mu d IV , e man as si m s man e m ss e n M eh Sul y , K , O I S li , Hu i , m e d a e and ra m h es e ra s man , B y zid Ib hi , of t Mu d , O an d Ibrahim re igne d in succ ession ; M eh me d w as e hi s r h e r sm a man a e kill d by b ot O n ; Suley , B y zid and K assim w e re kill e d by M ura d ; S e lim di e d i n i nfan cy Hu ss ei n in 16 13 an d th e re w e re a numb e r

of d aughte rs w h o m arri e d m e n of rank . m n th e s a s hi s re n w as an r e r A o g la t ct of ig , o d “ from Sultan Ahm e d to appoi nt Ko ran re ad ers i n

“ th e a a wh o rea th e ran e e r r a as w e p l ce , d Ko v y F id y , ll “ a s th e e nactment of th e n e w rul es c alled Sultan h ’ A me d Kanunu m ess e . A FA I SULT A N MUST .

6 1 — 6 1 1 7 1 8 .

ri n e s a a r h r m e was r a m P c Mu t f , b ot e of Ah d , p ocl i ed

l h 2 ar r m hi a a a e e . Sult n t t e g of 5 y s F o s. childhood

until th at time h e h ad be e n co nfined in th e p ala ce . He w as s e r a e ara e a e w a h a k lend in pp nc , p l , ith t in bl c n r H w a m ar s a a d a a e e s . e s be d , mu t che l ge bl ck y ild s s an d w as a e a s a n th e e h s in di po ition c ll d i t by Sh ik , alth ough it i s g e ne rally suppos ed th at h e w as de m n w as r e w th e r man e te d . s s He gi d d ith wo d of O , h s a m an d e re m n and s r d wit the u u l po p c o y , di t ibute r i r n i th e cu stom ary p e s ent s to h s a rmy . Du i g h s s h r r h r s h e w as n e r th e o t eign of t ee month , u d con r an d u a e his m h e r th e h h t ol g id nc of ot ; c ief eunuc ,

and th e h e h - u l - s a m na re s w as S ik I l ; but fi lly igned , s e cluded ag ain i n the p al a c e an d succ e e d e d by hi s n e w a s . phe , O m n I I

XVI I . A A 11 SULT N OSM N .

6 — 62 2 1 18 1 .

O s m an as c e nded th e th ro n e at the age of fou rte e n

w as r s h s a and r s e m an e r . He obu t p y ic lly , b u qu in n T h e ran r a ash a h a d e e i n e rs a g d Vizi H lil P , b n P i

m a the arm ri n me th e in com nd of y , du g which ti l s ent K assim Kh an su rna me d Bou rnou or f\ \

1 2 0 OM A N D YN A S T 4 I T Y.

e m er 162 0 as th e e s h ad r n i r In S pte b , , Pol b oke the re a e a e r ash a ar h a a s m t ty of p ce , Scend P m c ed g in t the n e a e h e n ar a d d e f t d t m e J assy . T h e grand vizi r Ali Pas ha continued to p e rs ecut e th e as as and e a h e s c onfis c ati n e r P h w lt y citiz n , g th i mm s r r e s e r h r as r a i en e p ope ti to n ic the public t e u y ,

m w a h r a c u sto hich l st e d until t e eign of Sult n Medjid . a ar 162 1 th e a hi s r e r M e h In J nu y , , Sult n killed b oth m e d i n th e s a e ear as h a e and w as ; m y Ali P di d , s e sse B os tand i - as s or h e ucce ded by Hu in j B i , c i f ar r r g dene of the S e aglio . T h e a w r I ars a e Sult n , ho eve , being only 7 % ye of g , r ej e ct e d the advic e of hi s couns ello rs and followe d hi m M 62 a s s es . a 1 1 youthful i pul In y , , the Sult n m ar ched again st Poland but w as d e feated with grea t lo ss ; pe ace w as th e n concluded ; the grand vizi r w as re moved and succe e d e d by Dilave r P as h a . T h e a re rn e ns a e a nd w as Sult n tu d to Co t ntinopl , ove rjoyed to he ar th at hi s be au tiful Ru ssi an wife h ad a s on .

h en a h is rn in a r sh am the a h er m her or W c ild bo Tu ki f ily f t , ot a re a e re e s th e an n n th e hi n th e hamme an l tiv cit Ez , i viti g c ld i to Mo d a h and re eats its nam e hree mes all wh h is wh s ere f it , p t ti ; of ic i p d ’ i n th e n an s ar i e e re s se en a s . to i f t , b fo it v d y old

re a s r a th e r The g t eve ity of the Sult n , high p ice of r s ns th e r h n e an d a and p ovi io , p o ibitio of win tob cco , hi s se izu re of th e be autiful d aughte rs of P e rste v

as a and th e e -u l - l s lam as e l as th e ss P h , of Sh ikh , w l lo to the re giment s of th e Jani zarl es l n th e w ar of a a e re h e m as e as th e n h a a s Pol nd , ng d t , w ll i bit nt of nal h e a a n o Con stantinopl e . Fi ly t Sult n pl n ed to g to r a ra s e a ar e arm r s an d r ma s Sy i , i l g y of Ku d Tu co n , OM A N D Y A S Y O TT N T . 14 3

re tu rn with it to Constantinopl e and utte rly d es troy th e tu rbul e nt J anizari es ; but thi s bold s troke w as hi r e ra e an d a se s e s . b t y d , c u d d t uction O n th e I st n e an s m an w as e h r e of Ju , Sult O d t on d , h rm r and w as s e e e t e a s a a I . ucc d d by fo e Sult n Mu t f , w h o h ad b e e n confi ne d in th e p al a ce D aoud Pas h a w as a n e ran r a an ppoi t d g d Vizi by V lidé , Sult

’ Mu s tafa s moth e r

sm a w as a e h rs e- a ar a ress O n pl c d on o b ck , p ti lly d ed w h an fez on ‘ hi s h ea and w as a en th e it old d , t k by anizarl e s w a ar e m ob on e th e J , follo ed by l g , to of e e n w e rs i n a r a e h th e r e r S v To , cco d nc wit o d of h r n T h r a t e m h e a s a a . e s V lidé , ot of Sult Mu t f doo ere as e e an d i ns e w e re th e ra r w f t n d , id g nd vizi ' a u as h a th e a s eh a a or a m D o d P ; Sult n K y f ctotu , O m e r D j eb ezib assi ; an d th e policeman K al en d er o l ou wh o m a e h re e n e f e a e f r s s ran e g , d t i f ctu l fo t to t gl him ; fin ally D j e b ezib assi p asse d th e bow -string r n hi s e ass s e a e e r-o l ou w h o ou d n ck , i t d by K l nd g , — — p resse d hi s se c re t p arts a Tu rkish fashl on i n spite ’ s man s e a n s for hi s e and h s th e r e of O pl di g lif , t u c u l w a a m h n 162 2 e ed s s o th e th e . d cco pli ed s of Jun ,

S e e re as . 2 s a e ar a ( C y , p 43 ; Con t ntinopl , by Sc l to I r a a . T h ran n s . . e Byz nti , Vol , p G d Vizi D oud ’ as h a h en sh n a n e th e a s e a h P t wi i g to nnou c Sult n d t , ' cut off hi s e ars an d s ent th em i n a box to Mu stafa s m h r H e w as s e e hi s n e s a a ot e . ucce d d by u cl Mu t f I . w as a n r hi s s e s n ass m th e , who t ke f om clu io to u e r s rnm n ein of gov e e t . XVI I I . A A A 1 SULT N MUST F .

162 2 - 162 3

s a a h 1s s e n a c ss th e h r di s Mu t f , on co d c e ion to t one n n tribut e d agai the Imp eri al gifts to the army . Soo afte r the J anizaries a ccu s e d the grand V1Z 1r of bei ng ’ th e a s a s a s e a h e s e c u e of Sult n O m n d t , th y ucceed d i n a him s ran and s s s r ran h ving t gled , ucce ively fou g d vizi rs we re remov e d all thi s w as in acco rd anc e w h r e s th e arm and s it the equ t of y , the con ent of r h m n r n Validé Sultana . Du ing t i s re ign a y p ovi ce s

re s and s a e th e m r w as s h a we lo t , the t t of E pi e uc th t Mu stafa w as compell e d to re sign ; he w as co nfined a a th e a a re was s ra e g in in p l ce , whe he t ngl d in June , 16 w a h i ra . s s e e 39 He ucc eded by s neph w . Mu d m s on a e . IV . , the of Sult n Ah d

XIX . A A 1 SULT N MUR D v .

162 — 16 3 40 .

ra e e h h r n l oth Mu d IV . s ucc ed d to t e t o e on the o f r 16 2 at th e ar a e r Decembe , 3 , e ly g of twelve , unde h r e n hi m r H h ad an a a a t e s e . e eg cy of oth ov l f ce , a e m e n b la c h ai r e e s and w as p l co pl xio , k , ke n ey full r hi a e o f an d n n n . n a t e s s s duplicity cu i g Soo f cc ion , th e r me ear n th e r th e m e r a gove n nt , f i g plunde of I p i l O ttom an Mi nt by th e re volti ng S ip a hi s an d J aniza r e s ra s rr a a th e a i , t n fe ed it to loc tion by old Byz ntine r h r n e as an ar r . , ow s , chu c of St I ene u d , mo y it ' stand s on the declivity betwe e n old Se ragliopoint a n a d St . Sophi .

1 6 M A D YN A S T Y 4 O TTO N .

s sa e e s s n 1 0 s ma e ss e s A Co ck fl t , con i ti g of 5 ll v l

h m e n a ea r i n th e e r s h r s wit , pp ed upp Bo p o u , an e at r e ra a an d Y e nik eu b ut l d d Buyukde e , T pi y , h e e re re s t y w pul ed . a ra w as n ow s v e e e e ars a e Sult n Mu d e nt n y of g , a nd w as i n th e h abit of g omg a rou n d th e s tre ets in

s s e at n 1 ht e arn s m e n h1s e di gui g , to l o thi g of peopl n r in him a r r H r a d thei op ion of s th ei rule . e e s olv e d to e nd th e di stu rb anc e s in hi s capital by th e ran v 1z1r e a h and a n e putting g d to d t , ppoi t d the Albani an T ab aniy as s é M e h m e d P as h a as hi s s ucce s r r e rs n th e re rs a s o s t e . , with o d to pu i h volte onc They re all s a n and h e r e s a on th e we l i , t i bodi flo ted thickly Bo spho ru s hu n d re d s of i nn oc e nt p e opl e w e re butch e re ra a r e ra T h a d to g tify c p ic s of the ty nt . e c u se

' a ss e w as h a th e S i ahis m a e r th e ign d , t t p de nd d f om S u ltan th e h e a s s e e n e e n as as n d of v t p h , includi g th at of the grand vizi r H afis an d th e Sh e ikh -u l - I sl am Y a hl a w h o re a r e s an , we f vo it of the Sult .

\ ‘ ar 1 6 th e a m a r h e rs In M ch , 3 5, Sult n c d in pe on to r5 1a and a re s e e ra s re r e Pe , c ptu d v l citie , thence tu n d a n f r hi h h a s e . a te t s t e to Con t ntinopl Soo , S h of ers a e n a an a e th e s e e r th e P i , b i g dv t g d by v ity of

w 1nte r re- th e a r e s for wh h re as n , took c ptu ed citi , ic o

the Sulta n a nd th e g ra nd vizi r m ar ch e d again to , A sia and arr1v e d at a a h h w as a r d , B gd d , w ic c ptu e af e r a S 1e e r a s and a ear h r t g of fo ty d y , f ful butc e y e ns e e 00 th e o 000 th e u d , wh n only 3 of 3 , men in g arr1s on e s cap e d ; si n ce th e n it h as b e e n und e r th e m a n r h a r f s w ay of th e Otto s . Afte t e c ptu e o a a th e ta r r i n 16 ns a B gd d , Sul n etu ned , 3 9 , to Co t nti no le l n r1 an d a s r m a r a of p t umph , in ho t ti e t e ty n r a p ea c e w as concluded between Tu rk ey a d P e si . M 1) Y N A S Y O TTO AN T . 47

I n e r ar 16 0 an ra w as s e n F b u y , 4 , Sult Mu d udd ly ta e hi s h s ans e n n e n e th e k n ill ; p y ici , b i g i flu c d by as has and th e r e rs w h o h a e hi m for hi s P cou ti , t d c r e e s e e hi s e ns h h erm na e hi s e u lti , op n d v i , w ic t i t d lif

- h ar f hi a i n th e thi rty sixt y e o s ge . ' ra w a re a s e r b a r Mu d s g tly di lik d fo i s t ociti e s . Among oth e rs th e followi ng i nstan c e i s s tate d : He w as l n th e h abit of e nte ring th e n o rth - e as t e rn po r ch h a n d on e as n s h h hi . a s of St Sop i , on occ io ot wit a rr and e s e e ra r m e a s w h o th e ow kill d v l A ni n , , in re sen e of th e ra r h a d e s n p c g nd vizi , b en di puti g with th e Gre eks for th e po ss e s sion of th e tomb of h r s at er sa one h e m an rm e n a C i t J u lem ; of t , A i n r e s t h ad e e s ss n e r w as p i who b n di cu i g it v y loudly , in stantly execut e d by th e o rd e r of th e Sultan in th e p lac e w h e re h e stood .

T h e A rme n ans are a er a n en e e and h e r h s r 1s i v y ci t p opl , t i i to y s I n h e a er ar h e h r n r d r one rea n ere . t t e u of g t i t t l tt p t of t i d c tu y , in the re n n T iridatis hr s an was n r e n g ig of Ki g , C i ti ity i t oduc d i to rm n a T h n was a e h re and th e A e . e s r i Ki g b ptiz d by Bi op G go y, by r al w sh all the inha an s re e e th e s a me s a re r e in th e oy i , bit t c iv d c d it r er h ra s h e h a e e the r a h r m me immemo iv Eup t e . T y v k pt i f it f o ti m n m th e r a d h e a a e r s r a a se ere erse s r s n t s . i l , id v p cutio f o Tu k v g Ku d

At anoth e r tim e h e s aw a numb e r of Gre ek w omen d ancing i n a mea dow ; th ei r m e rriment di s H e r e re h m e an d turb e d him . o d d t e to be s eiz d r n e a a a s e e ra d own e d . On o occ sion bo t with v l Ch ri sti an wom e n p ass e d n ear th e w all s of th e S erag h h his e m re e ns n s e m e m lio , w ic to bigot d co p h io . e d hi f r fi r n m r r . r e re s s e p ope He o d d o fice to upo the , ' n h n f r hi m th e man a d t ey sa k b e o e s ey e s . A ong y c old - blood e d m assac re s of hi s reign were thos e of hi s h e r r t r e b oth e s . T M A N D Y S T 148 0 T O N A Y.

h 6 r w a rn e 1 2 . a . s t 8 s 1 Mu d IV bo on th of Augu t , H e h a d r s ns hm e m an h amm e fou o , A d , Suley , Mo d an d a - u d di n all h m e e re h e r All h , of w o di d b fo t i ' ’ ’ a r an d i x a hte r arr e a h a e s d u s s s . f th , g , who m i d p

A A I SULT N IBR HIM . 6 — 6 1 40 1 48 .

T h e succ ess o r of Sultan Mu ra d w as his b rothe r I b rah1m w ho h a d e e n n n e for ma e ars i n , b co fi d ny y th e ra and w as r e w h th e s r th e Se glio , gi d d it wo d in

a m a n e r A n r a an a u su l n . Au st i n d Hungari an e arr n at ns a n e s ce e d puty , ivi g Co t nti opl , uc ed d in r n 6 e e e r res e e re a e s e 1 1 . I n n wi g th i p ctiv t ti in Jun , 4 a ar 16 2 tw o s ns e re r him a m J nu y , 4 , o w bo n to , Moh m an m an h r h e d d Sul e y . T e p o ibition of tobacco w as n e r n s re n th e u se s f conti u d du i g thi ig , but of nu f f r h r m r w as s ub stitut e d o t e fi s t ti e in Tu key .

A n r e n er n s m n and ear n ha he old Tu k , b i g v y fo d of oki g , f i g t t m h b e s vere u s e es en nt a d r we us e his ig t di co d , d to d c d i o y ll to e at a s th e an h ear of wen th e we l and n pip ; but l t Sult d it , t to l , fou d “ h h e He h en as him How are ou a e s b e t e as . e uc to c t k d , d y viol t ” “ m mman ? T h e m an re ed S on of a ema e s a e y co d old pli , f l l v , you r dominion is o nly ove r the s u rfac e of th e earth ; I a m s moki ng i n n r a h T he ta n was e e whe re r n r es ot e . as it , you co t ol do c Sul pl d ’ n h m w h th e old man s rea wit and not s h i . it dy , did pu i

th e sam e e ar th e rs e In y fi t xpedition , which r b e s ess w as s n a a s th e C os p oved to un ucc ful , e t g in t m s a s wh o e ars re h a d a e r a . ck , five y befo t k n the C i e 16 h n th e a a e S u bu lus In 44 , the c ief eu uch of p l c , , h r h th e r s he rs w as e t oug int igue of ot , oblig d to go to

D I SO O TTOM A N YN A S TY.

T he Kafez or a es ns s w e e a ns in a ar the , c g , co i t of t lv p vilio p t of era ea h wh h n a ns s e era r ms s rr n e a S glio , c of ic co t i v l oo , u ou d d by wa h h en s es a e ar en I n h es e ns w h h w . a ere ig ll , ic clo littl g d t p vilio s e d e all the m er a r n es r h ers ne hews and s ns clu d I p i l p i c , b ot , p o of th e an so ha h e m h not a em t rob him of his wer Sult , t t t y ig t tt p to po . A p avilion is as signe d to each p ri nc e ; h e i s attended by s ev eral r s and a few n a es and s ees no one e se the a gi l you g p g , l but bl ck h h i a s hi r e n w o s s . u uc , l o tuto H e w as inte rred in th e m au s ole u m of Sultan M u s

h a . h ta a re t e e a . s s f , befo g t of St Sop i He left eight on , hi e r M a . ss m s s a . oh mmed IV , ucc o ; Suleym n I I , Ah ed

I I a T c hi han u i r a n B r zi T h . s d e d . e , Selim , O m n , g y l as r a e r r fiv e a rs t fou died in inf ncy ; th e we e d ughte , a ll arr m ied .

XXI .

A A SULT N MOH MMED IV .

6 — 16 1 48 8 7 .

w as s e ar a M oh ammed IV . not even y s of ge when he as cended the th ron e with th e cu s tom ary ce re w as ress i n s s r e s . monie He d ed ilk clothe , t imm d and r s s es and r a e with gold p eciou ton , wo e whit ’ tu rban in which th e I mpe ri a l aigre tt e of he ron s

fe ath e rs !w as fasten e d by a clasp of eno rmou s et i n his r h e was u r di a mond s . Being y mino ity nde m ar a s hi s s e er Ki ossem a a . the gu di n hip of t p oth , Sult n Du ring th e fi rs t ye ar of his re ign distu rb ance s took a s a n l and s a r r pl ce in Con t nti op e A i Mino , which we e

s oon qu ell e d . h s m e th e ra r e as a w as At t i ti g nd vizi , Mehm d P h , re and s ara s a a a n A l moved ucceeded by K Mu t f , M Y N A S T Y 1 1 O TTO AN D . 5

' an an w h o re a e th e re n a m assa rs w h b i , t t d fo ig b do it re a ar ar h e m r s ne a th e e ne an g t b b ity ; i p i o d B ilo , V ti a m as sa r i n th e as e m e ssar and a s b do , c tl of Rou li Hi , l o h an e th e rs ra m an an h r e m ass a g d fi t d go of ot e b y , of h e r a a rel ativ e t p ince of Mold vi . Dis cou rteou s t re atment of th e fo reign ambass ado rs exi s t ed u ntil n of M h amm T h e re e ns at ns an n e w ere th e re ig o e d II . c ptio Co t ti opl “ r e an e e w nes s ma ne a r r sh n e thu s d esc ib d by y it . I gi p oud B iti obl man b efore h e w as allowe d to app ro ach th e Sh a dow of God upon ’ ar h a s th e ans h a e a wa s a e h ems e ves m e ed E t , Sult v l y c ll d t l , co p ll to ass hr h a ra e of ns n an ar es and h en wa n p t oug bbl i ulti g J iz i , t to it u til the h e ma s er of ere m n es ann o n e th e an h a c i f t c o i could u c to Sult , t t an un e e n r m th e e s an a e n an h a d me b li vi g dog f o littl i l d c ll d E gl d , co er h is a es s m e h e re sents an d rub his a e i n to off M j ty o c oic p , to f c ‘ h d his a us s e s h en th e an or th e Pos t e s . u t of ug t foot t p T Sult , ’ ’ s es sor m en s ne s w mman h a h e s h b e rea e of ck , ould co d t t ould t t d in th e s a m anner wh h w as a s ws : a er and we s u u l , ic follo W t to l sh b e as s e ar n for his a ns an d h s e h is s e ould p d ou d blutio t o of uit , the a mb as s a do r and his comp anions wo uld cove r th ei r u nwelcome ers ns w h fur a s and s ea e on low s s were fed n p o it clo k , t d tool , upo th e reas a n es hsa fe for h e r re res hm en re s g y d i ti vouc d t i f t , p viou to n e n n th e a d en e r m hen th e same r r sh er e t ri g i to u i c oo . T p oud B iti w as guard ed by two white eunuchs and con duct e d by th em into h res en e the an wh o re ne am n sh ns One of t e . p c of Sult , cli d o g cu io the offic ers in attend ance as s ist ed th e amb as s ado r to ki s s th e ’ Sult an s rob e and in d ep arting h e w a s not allowed to tu rn hi s b a ck n n h h th e an . s s a d n me s me of w h is s ame to Sult I ult co tu ly , o ic too ful for r nt h a e e en ns an h ea e n r eans public p i , v b co t tly p d upo Eu op h e res en me I n 18 2 r h m n f ama an e en at t . n t e h o v p t ti 9 , du i g o t R z , or en s e re le ns an n e s e era r s in h h L t , ju t b fo I ft Co t ti opl , v l Tu k ig — official po s itions had pl anne d a gro s s i nsult a nd a s s ault in a — ma nner th at cannot b e relat e d here upo n a young German s a ilo r e n n the a h se th e erma n a m a ssa r wh o at b lo gi g to y c t u d by G b do , h w ha h o nc e went to t e Sultan for red ress . He as assu red t t t e en ers w b e an sh e th e m w e A r s e as not . off d ould b i d , but p o i k pt se n a a n was ma e him in ers n to th e an wh o co d pplic tio d by p o Sult , , w h th e m s r s e a es ns an s mm ne one of th e it o t p ofu pologi , i t tly u o d cha mb erlains and app arently in a gre at rage ord ered th at th es e men s h b e an sh ed w h ela h e w ere sen awa n ould b i it out d y . T y t y lo g en h for a h an e air and i n a few we e s a aren m oug c g of , k , pp tly uch e ne e the r he res me h e r rmer f a s n in b fit d by t ip , t y u d t i fo o fici l po itio ns an n e m h for r s h h s i s n one Co t ti opl . So uc Tu ki duplicity . T i o ly the n m er ess ns s wh h nf r na e for h s e re n of u b l i ult ic , u o tu t ly t o of fo ig h are f r o re en rren e . bi t , f qu t occu c M A N 1 52 O TTO D YNA S T Y.

I n e e m e r 16 th e r s th e a D c b , 49 , ci cumci ion of Sult n “ a nd hi s re e ro ers took l a c e w as of th b th p , which

" ra h r m T h r a c el e b te d wit g e at po p . e di stu b nce s of th e a ar s s nu e th e an a h J niz ie till conti d , Alb i n A med as a s rnam e e le or an e w as a n e P h , u d M k , g l , ppoi t d ra v r e n an ne e r e n e man w as g nd izi , but b i g i xp i c d , he e s e and S ia v u s ash a a h r s a w as a d po d , P , C i ti n , p n n a e s r an e s a s e a th poi ted i ste d . Th e di stu b c c u d ls o e e a oi Ki oss e m an a w as e r s h e d th Sult , who v y old ; s e era e es am h w as a built v l dific , ong whic the V lidé H an h e s ne s s s , of w it to , which till exi t in Con s tanti nopl e and h as b e e n e v e r since occupied by P e rsi an m e r ch ants ans wh h s e era s e x s in ns an n e are ar e H , of ic v l till i t Co t ti opl , l g n s h ar wh e s ne n e r a ns ea h s ur buildi g of d , it to , looki g lik fo tific tio , c r n n a s uare c ourt ard n wh h th e s h s r n ou di g q y upo ic op f o t . Th e s e alte rn atio ns of the grand vizi r; wi th th e d i s tu rb anc e th e a ar s a s e th e a r th e of J niz ie , c u d f ilu e of m a arm a a n h e e n a Otto n s g i s t t V eti n s . e m ash a th e s on a r s and s r am M h ed P , of p ie t , u n ed Kiu ru lu r hi s bi rth l ac e w as a n e ran p , f om p j ppoi t d g d r r n hi s rm s e r e a r vizi . Du i g te of vic he sl ughte ed m n h r e r n r r e . T i ty p s o s we e executed e v e y d a for an n r e ar a nd h e r h a s re e s e y e ti e y , t i e d we xpo d s a e e re th e a e th e a a e m n upon t k s b fo g t of p l c . A o g th e victim s of thi s i ne xo ra bl e monst e r w as th e Gre e k r ar r h n h w a re a h r a a e s . w o s s P t i ch P t iu I I I , t c e ou ly a ccu s e d of hold i ng p rivate c omm u n 1c ati ons of a n h r r h h r W a a a re volti g c a a ct e wi t t e P inc e of ll chi . re m ass a r D e La a e e a e The F nch A b do , H y , d l y d in f e r th e s ar s a nd w as im r s a t o f ing cu tom y gift , p i oned r n h hi n w h h a a h a e s s o o d e e s e . S e Ad i opl , wit , b n l d ( e ar a Sc l to , Vol . I I , p .

1 0 T T OM A N Y N A S T Y 54 D .

' th e era for w as r e ar r a b S glio , which he w ded oy lly y n “ h e re w a a n re e th e Sultan . Amo g th e se t s you g G k man r m ar a e a r m R ethimno wo of e k ble b uty f o , of / re e am e th e a Re m i e- G iu l -n s and C t , n d by Sult n p ou , m h m h r a an h w h o b e c a e t e ot e of Mu s taf I I . d A med r i a a B zan . S e e . t u s . I I I . ( Sc l to D y , Vol I I , p th e an m e th e ssa s e n s r e In me ti , Co ck b i g di tu b d by th e e s as e h r h th e h a a r s th e Pol , k d t oug K n of T u i , ass s an e th e an ns e n e and m ar i t c of Sult , who co t d ched i n r 6 2 T h a a s a 1 . e g in t Pol nd Octobe , 7 King of a a n d w as s e e ra e h n Pol nd died . ucce d d by the b v Jo es V1ol ate d th e t re a and h s e s Sobi ki , who ty , o tiliti a n H mar h a mm e a . e c e d a s t T r s co nced g i , g in the u k , and a h e a ss defe ted t em twic , with lo of men h r h h at C hoc zim i n 16 . t e e a of , 7 3 T oug m di tion ra e rms e a ere 16 6 at F nc , te of p ce w concluded in 7 . a as a n e a r ns a n and ara M u s D oud P h , Co t nti ople , K

a a a a w a re a n ra r t f P s h s ppoi ted g nd vizi .

h a hi s s a a a s a w s s rname ara or ar for s r e e . Mu t f P u d K , d k , c u lti He ma rried th e s i st e r and th e n the d aughter of Sultan M ehmed ' h a n ee n ns es s at th e s e e of e nna was IV . , but vi g b u ucc ful i g Vi , a 1 8 r Hi re m n s e eh ea e i n n ar 6 at e a e . s a s b d d J u y , 4 , B lg d h co i t d of a v a hes e er s e w es a en e r s a s s es . ov l v i , tt d d by gi l , l o l v T ‘ l w r ar e 00 a e n h His s r an s h rs es an a l e e s . e d gu d d by 7 bl ck u uc v t , o ‘ ” h a B zan iu at e n m ere t s n s . S ee ns an n e t s c tl u b d ou d ( Co t ti opl , by y , 8 an I l d . . Vo . . I I , p 3 7 , Vol , p M e anwhile Ru ssi an excu rsions against T au r1s 1rr1 tate d r e and 16 8 ra the Sublime Po t , in June , 7 , the g nd r m ar e a a s ss a and a a F rt vizi ch d g in t Ru i , tt cked o h zr m e re s s C e y with s ev lo . Du ring th at time th e chief d ragom an of the Sub m e r th e e r te r Pana oti N iku ssi o li Po te , udi G eek y , w as s ucceed e d by Alexand e r M av roc ord ato of noble f m a ily . ' O OM A N Y N A S T Y 1 TT D . 55

A n n en is re a e on o a h ri at h at er wh h i s i cid t l t d go d ut o ty , t p iod , ic s aid to h ave occ urred ne ar th e w all s of Egh ri - ca pou or c rooked a e rmer a e th e a e Ch ars ia s eems in th e ear g t , fo ly c ll d g t of , It y 549 D h h m er r s n an wen r m h e a a e of h e A . w e t e t t . , il E p o Ju ti i t f o p l c

A r s th e Heb d omon h e s r m th e m er a r w n a. c opoli to , lo t f o I p i l c o a m n 2 ara s I t is na ra s s e h a a n s di o d of 5 c t . tu l to uppo t t xiou s ear h was ma e for th e re s em th e am n la c on c d p ciou g , but di o d y c eale d a n d s o re ma ne r n n ne h n re ears a , i d du i g i u d d y of politic l n s n wh e wars and she th e sa th e a a e co vul io , il blood d , ck of p l c by th e r sa e rs and hers w h th e a th e ree m re sw e t C u d ot , it f ll of G k E pi , p er an es a e he s hen th e am n ame n e m re ov d d ol t d t pot . T di o d c o c o h and w a s n a littl s h e h er l ad He e to lig t fou d by e p d . pick d it up “ am n th e r ns and s e r sh a nd s e in the hu o g ui loo ubbi , u d it c ck ar h n a ame s n a r m the s em h r n T he i a n e . f t i g, g till f vo o g Mo l c ild a th er h we er w as a w s e man h e es se s me h n th e f , o v , i , gu d o t i g of a e the s h n n s ne a ne an a en e w h th e a n v lu o f i i g to , obt i d udi c it Sult and re e e in re rn for th e a m s r e es s ew e th e s of c iv d tu l o t p ic l j l , po t chief sh epherd of th e I mp erial flocks ; th e child w a s educat e d at the e x ens e th e a sha h or an a nd e ame i n me a er p of P di Sult , b c ti p “ s on of e nen e T he am n re e e th e nam e of h b an mi c . di o d c iv d Tc o ’ a s h or he h er s ne and w a a e a m n th e m s re , , s p T i S p d Sto pl c d o g ' o t ’ “ c ious ewe s th e u an s reas r h s h e her s n e j l of S lt t u y . T i S p d Sto is earl a ewe w h a d es n for mes n e m re n n e cl y j l it ti y , it co o c o i to otic , ’ h e n h s me not ma e a r a s r ne a e a lpi g t i ti , to k poo l d fo tu , but to t k ’ r h ma e I n h e n of an hamm e was ic n s lif . t reig th e Sult Mo d it ne es s ar to res e th e the a m n and h ere re w a s n d e c y t di o d , t fo it co fi d a n m n wn T h e old man was to age d A r e ian j ewel er of great reno . en n an s er his w r m res se w h th e m r b di g xiou ly ov o k , duly i p d it i po tance of th e occ a s ion and of th e fatal consequ enc e s of any ac c 1dent the s ne w hen his h an s e a nd h ere e re his err e to to , d lipp d , t , b fo t ifi d s h a eare a h n ne s ee m n a ra r s s n th e re ig t , pp d t i li , i gly c ck , c o i g p cious ewe T h e s h w a s re a a nd th e n r na e j l . ock too g t , u fo tu t ewe er w h a n e ama n of es a r e a and e re j l , it xcl tio d p i , f ll b ck xpi d ; t erro r h ad bli nd ed him to th e fact th at it wa s o nly a h air from h is e e r w wh h a n on th e am n a e it th e a eara n e of y b o , ic f lli g di o d , g v pp c a fl aw T h e h s r an ar a B za ntius es a ffe ren ers n . i to i Sc l to y giv di t v io h s S ee Vol 1 a e 16 of t i . . , p g 4 .

168 1 a re a ea e e e en th e me In , t ty of p c b tw Subli r e an d ss a w as s ne s e r n e th e Po t Ru i ig d , cu i g Ki f to e r latt . 168 th e ‘ S ultan a n a ar his h are m as w as In 3 , , t ki g p t of , a a s hi s s m ma r h e a a ns s r a a c c om lw y cu to , c d g i t Au t i , r H e arr e at e ra e p ani e d by th e gran d vizi . iv d B lg d 1 56 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y .

i n M a 168 an d se n th e ra r ara s a a y , 3 , t g nd vizi K Mu t f th an arm r s a nd ar ars e n a wi y of Tu k T t to Vi n , e n for s a T h e m e r r e be si gi g it ixty d y s . E p o L opold e e nna e rr r an d hi s e am l e w as I . l ft Vi in t o , x p fol m i T h a l ow e d by any of h s p e opl e . e city w s d efe nd e d by troop s u n de r th e comman d of Count Rudig e r of S tah re mb e rg ; d u rmg th e si ege r s ns an d a mm n e am e e r s ar e th e p ovi io unitio b c v y c c , g arri s on lo s t m e n and m any di e d d aily from h m a pe stil e nc e a nd t e attacks of th e e ne y . M ny a es r m th e s r s re e th e r s c ptiv f o ubu b we kill d by Tu k , a a r e m e r w r n w h o e re l g nu b of hom we e wome , w fi rst s ubj e cted to th e c ruele st t re atme nt fr om the

r a th e 1n re id h e s s e s . s t oldi At l t , p Jo n Sobi ki , with an arm r ma s an d e s a a e r s y of Ge n Pol , tt ck d the Tu k , w h o a r a s h r r s s a e e re e n r r e fte o t e i t nc w ti ely out d , a n d r ar e r e m e s and r s ns e re thei till y , quip nt p ovi io w T h e a an w a re e e t ak e n . g ll t Sobi e ski s c iv d by Count S tah remb e rg in th e m a gnificent c rim s o n t e nt l eft by th e ra i r r e e d him as th e e e r r g nd v zi , who g e t d liv e of ’ h r h e nna . e n e s Vie Tog t e t e y w e t to S t . St ph n C athed ra l and g av e th anks for th ei r d e liv e rance r th e m ans f om Otto .

’ e hen s a h ed ra in enna wa s n e in 1 an . d St St p C t l , Vi , fou d d 3 59 wa s not compl et e d until 1480 ; it i s a fi ne Gothic e dific e with a s re ee h h n a n n a er ar e e a s r m the pi 43 7 f t ig , co t i i g v y l g b ll , c t f o c a nno ns t a k en f rom th e Tu rk s wh en t h ey rai s ed th e S i ege of th e city .

Sobi eski pu rsu e d th e re tre ati n g Tu rk s an d te rm i nate d th e am a r 2 168 th e c p ign on Octobe 7 , 3 , with a re G ran h h a e h ad e a m s a c ptu of , w ic pl c b en l o t n c e ntu ry an d a ha lf in the i r po ss e ssio .

A A I I SULT N SULEYM N . 6 — 6 1 8 7 1 9 1 .

h ad a ar r Sule ym an I I . p sse d 45 y e s in compul s o y s eclu s io n befo re he w as p r ocl aime d Sultan a nd

i r h im h e r hi a e r a E g ded on t s wo d of s nc s to s t y ou b . n e w ran r s m a as h a na to The g d vizi , I il P , being u ble r e th e af a rs th e m re w as s e ul f i of E pi , ucceed d by h a a a a a r a r Y e nitc h ar a s s s . Ag Mu t f P h , Ch i ti n by bi th The d e fe at of th e Tu rks comp e ll e d him to continu e: w ar an d h e m ar e w th e an a al st th e the , ch d ith Sult g n a r e s n e 168 e e m a d v a c m llied fo c in Ju , 9 , but the n y n g a r s sa an d a r w c ptu ed Ni , the Sult n withd e to Philip s th e ra r a h him th e sa r d popoli ; g nd vizi , t king wit c e s a ar ass m th e a th e ar b u t t nd d , u ed comm nd of my w a sf h a hi r m a s s s s s . un ucce ul , whic c u ed e ov l The s e di stu rb ance s we re a dvantag e ou s to th e army ; the Ve n e ti an s subdu e d the Peloponn e s u s and e s and a e rs a re ra e Th be , the lli d powe c ptu d Belg d

n I n 16 1 h m r and i nv a d e d Bos a . 9 t e Sultan a ch ed i n ' rs r s u e sa e ar pe on , but died of d op y in J ne of th m ye r i m on the w ay thith e . He w as nte rred in th e au s ole um a m a th e a n of Sult n Suley n M gnifice t .

XXI I I . S A A I I ULT N HME D .

16 1— 16 9 9 5 .

r r m n h . . a . as n t e I , b othe of Suley I I , ce ded r e an r hi m h r th on d gi ded on t e s wo d at E ski Dj a mi. r an e T h e ra r K r l a in Ad i opl . g nd vizi u p u u Mu st fa 1 5 8 OM A N O TT D YNA ST Y. 1 59

P as h a w as o rd e re d to m arch against th e Au stri ans m et th e e ne my ne ar S al ak em an ; h e w as kill e d in b attl e but hi s co rp se w as not fou n d ; th e lo ss of th e O ttomans w a s an d th at of th e Au stri ans

i . . S e e ar a B zant u s . 8 ( Sc l to y , Vol I I , p 43 T h e e re a e e h 1 0 ns w as e nti b ttl fi ld , wit 5 gu , occupi d r b y th ei r victo s . O n th e 6th e r ar 16 a hm e of F b u y , 9 5, Sult n A ed di d n and a h r o f r s ea n s s e . d op y , l vi g twin o one d ug t He w as rn ar h 16 and s u ee e hi s r h e r bo in M c , 43 , cc d d b ot w as ass na e a t th e ag e of 48 . He p io t ly fond of m s an d era r h ad a m e a h s u ic lit tu e , but l nc oly di po i s it on .

XXIV . A A A 11 SULT N MUST F .

6 — 1 1 9 5 703 .

n h amm hi s a a . s o . s a r s Mu t f I I , of Mo ed I I , oon fte n r a h r s ucc essio e s olv e d to t ke t e fi e ld in pe s on . He a dv an c e d to T am es v ar and re captu re d s ev e ral for m r h r h t ress es . In S epte b e of t e sam e y e a e d e feate d r n ar t h e Au st i a s n e Lugo s . M a 16 th e an arr e at e ra e and In y , 97 , Sult iv d B lg d , in S epte mb er th e gran d vizi r attacked th e Au stri an s ar Z anta th e a e r n a s s r e ne , b ttl p ovi g mo t de t uctiv r h r h one . e ene a e r two s a P inc Eug , ft ou fig ting , g ined a gre at v 1ctory ; Ottoman co rp s es covere d th e battl e fi eld more we re d rown e d in the r e r i n h e r h an d th e ra r mas iv t i flig t , g nd vizi El M ehm e w a h r w a d s kill e d . The booty of t i s victo y s l ar an d ar a h h ere th e I m eri al ge v ied , mong w ic w p 160 O OM A N “ Y N A S Y TT D T .

s ea e ar th e ra or m ra of. l of gold , b ing Tugh onog m a a i h e s . s s t se m i a Mu t f I I , till ex ting in mu u of V enn ; hi r h s a a t e re as r th e ar m s s of . c ri ge , t u y of y , con i ting

fl ori ns a s a s a ar e m r ; l o w gon , l g nu be a me s h rs e s and m a as of c l , oxen , o uch mmunition , as te n hi 1 T h a a well of s W v e s . e Sult n s w the es r hi s a rm an d fl e d e s ar d t uction of y to Tem v , e n e h e re r an wh c ti ed to Con st tinople . I n e e m e r 16 th e e r m a a e ex l o S pt b , 97 , powd g zin p d e d and cau s e d g re at d e struction many we re kill e d an d hu n d red s of h ou se s w e re d e stroyed ; in c ons e u e nc e h h th e a r e re to b e ra s q of w ic , Sult n o d d it t n

e rre a r - e a s r ns a e f d to M k i K ui , ubu b of Co t ntinopl , w h e re it still exi sts O n th e 2 th r 16 8 r res e a es 4 of Octobe , 9 , ep nt tiv of r e s r a n e s s a an d a as Tu k y , Au t i , Ve ic , Ru i Pol nd , s e m e at C arl ov itz ere a r a a w as bl d , wh t e ty of pe ce I n r a r 1 rah m h s ne . e 00 as a a s a ig d F b u y , 7 , Ib i P , peci l e r m th e an a rr e i n nna w h a nvoy f o Sult , iv d Vie it v lu a e re se s for th e m e r r e w h o re bl p nt E p o L opold , c ei v ed him h n rs re rn h e s an wit ho o ; in tu , , ent envoy h s th e a wit gift to Sult n . I n th e s am e e ar th e e a am assa y , n wly ppointed b rs ran an d a e rr ar s D ar do of F ce Engl nd , F iol , M qui e ntal an d S ir R e r arr at s a g ob t Sutton , ived Con t nti n0 ple an d we nt to th e p al a c e to p re s e n t th e ms elv e s . th e a h r h h ra m a th e to Sult n , t oug the c ief d go n of r h er i n M a r c d at . b m rt e . v o o o Su li e Po e , Al x Bot w e r r s s and re h th e r a r sh cou t d e , cove d wit Impe i l Tu ki n r h r r re as e cafta s o clo ak s . T ey we e o de d to put id ) r s r s as n o one w as a r th e thei wo d , llowed to ente ’ a s r s e e ar not ra Sult n p e enc w ing it , even the g nd

6 M A N Y N A T Y 1 2 O TTO D S .

Ru ssi an s ; but Pete r th e Gre at dem anded the su r r n e r of a e a and th e e ar s e d M z pp exil of Ch le , which

h m r ~ r w as re s t e u e . e a fu ed by S bli Po te A t ty , how e er w as s e ss a and r v igned betw en Ru i Tu key , on th e condition th at the Kin g of Sweden s hould re

tu rn fre e ly to his d omm l on . The Sultan b eing a w ar a s s a s r e A zoff w as i r e th t the Ru i n cont oll d , ritate d and cau s ed th e arre st of the Ru ssi an a assa r s th e s r s an d mb do , Count Tol toi , in public t eet c ommitte d him to th e c astl e of th e Seven To we rs ; thi s c au s e d a d e cl aratio n of war between Ru s s1a an d Tu rkey T h e g rand vizi r B e ltadj 1 Mehm e d left Con stan tino l e M a 1 1 1 m e t th e ss a s r p in y , 7 , Ru i n unde the c m a th e ar at th e r h re a r om nd of Cz , P ut , whe the l tte h r w as e ea and a a . sa e ss a and d f ted , C t ine I v d Ru i ar e r e a h e r hu sb and only by l g b ib s . Thu s pe ce w as c e th e ran r a onclud d with g d vizi , but the Sult n being d isple ased removed an d exiled him to Mityl e n e an d a ma ash a inhis s a an d an r appointed D d Ali P te d , othe

r a w as s e 1 1 a a a e s th e r t e s . ty ign d in 7 3 , dv nt g ou to Tu k P e te r th e Gre at allow e d th e office rs of hi s army to m a r b e a cco p ni e d by th e i wive s .

G en ru e a m ar f er of rea a wh o en e th e . B c , ilit y o fic g t bility joy d !e s eem and n en e the ar and wa s s en him Con t co fid c of Cz , t by to “ ;s ta ntino le re a es th e w n s ad s r O n our re rn r m p , l t follo i g to y , tu f o t h e r h ne h ad th e m s r ne se hi s ea P ut , Colo l Pitt i fo tu to lo b utiful w and au h er th e rea n of a a h wh ee h s e ife d g t by b ki g co c l . T i l ft t hem far in the rear an d they w e re c aptu red by th e T arters and s en ns an n e for the era T he ne es h t to Co t ti opl S glio . Colo l b oug t t h e aid th e ran r w h s es s and hen we nt of g d vizi but it out ucc , t to Co nstantinopl e an d faile d in every effo rt u ntil b ecoming madd ened b re ea e s a n men s h e w as m r s ne hr h th e y p t d di ppoi t t , i p i o d , but t oug a s s s an e of th e re n a m as s a rs was na re ease w h i t c fo ig b do fi lly l d , it rea f g t di ficulty . S 16 O TTOM AN D YN A T Y . 3

n th e 1 th e r 1 1 h ar e s re rne O 3 of Octob , 7 4 , C l tu d to n s e as a r e r i n a a wi a Sw e d e di sgui d cou i bl ck g , gold I n th e s a me e ar th e l ac e d h at an d a blu e co at . y

n e n e r ns re e a a n w e re s n e e Mo t g i volt d g i , but oo qui t d

h e r e a e r fl e d a ar e n i n th e e ne t i l d to C t o , b lo g g to V an s as h e re s e s rre n e r him th e ti , but t y fu d to u d to

O t i omans w ar w as e are a a ns e e . , d cl d g i t V nic T h e ra r a m a h m en g nd vizi D d Ali , wit an d a ar e e e s a e th e e n es s and l g fl t , il d to P lopon u a re i n 1 1 b h er n th e nh a ant s b c ptu d it 7 5, utc i g i bit y th ou s an d s i n cold blood an d s e lli ng th e w om e n and

r n a r . ar a . h e s e S e e . c ild n i to l v y ( Sc l to , Vol I I , p 1 16 r n e en e s r a a n In 7 P i c Eug of Au t i , llyi g with

e e n r me th e ran r h a a r , V nic , i fo d g d vizi t t , cco ding to th e re a h h ad e e n s n at C arl ov itz th e t ty w ich b ig ed , ' Sublim e Po rte w as comp e ll e d to p ay an ind e mnity

th e en e ans b ut as w as re s e w ar w as . to V ti ; it fu d , e c ar an d e ne e e a e th e ur s at e er d l ed , Eug d f t d T k P t ward e n with a l o ss to th e l atte r of amo ng h n r H w a which w as t at of th e gra d vizi . e s s ucc e e d e d a ash a an a a r n e e n e h o w by H lil P , Alb ni n ; P i c Eug , e e r n e hi s am a n a a ns th e r s an d v , conti u d c p ig g i t Tu k r m ar I n 1 1 h r c aptu e d T e e sv . 7 7 t e Tu ki s h fl e et w e nt r w as m el e na ra s e th e s e e to Co fu , but co p l d fi lly to i i g i n a r h rr a cons e qu e nc e of s eve e u ic n e . In Jun e of th e s am e e ar th e a w an arm e n y Sult n , ith y of m r r ca p e d n ea B e lgra d e . P inc e Eug e n e with m e n attack e d th e Tu rks afte r mid night an d d e feate d h m th e r s e re e a rea t e of Tu k w kill d , g t num b e r n e an d a e n s a es a nd a ar e a n wou d d t k l v , l g mou t of ammunition fe ll i nto the h and s of th e conque re rs ra w as s a e r s urr e re h Belg de oon ft end d to t e Au stri ans . 16 0 T T M A N . 4 O D Y N A S T Y.

Th e s e re v e rs es cau se d th e re moval of the g rand V12 1r w as s e N issand i e hm e as a ; he ucce ded by j M d P h , ’ who afte r s eve ral month s s e rvice w as followed by

ra ama as a th e s on- i h - la w th e a Ib him D d P h , of Sult n . I n 1 18 r the ar ra n a and July , 7 , th ough bit tion of E gl nd a d r r s a es r s r a an d Holl n , the ep e ent tiv of Tu key , Au t i e r ass m at Passarov itz and a r Venic we e e bled , fte tw s h as e 0 a s a rea elve council , whic l t d 7 d y , t ty of p eace w as finally concluded by which A u stri a re tained Se rvi a and Mold avi a ; Venic e poss ess ed C ith ria ar a re a and r s a a a y , P g , P vez the fo t of D lm ti , and r s E i na n s s and Tu key kept Tino , g , Pelopon e u

( Drete .

" In 17 2 1 the Sulta n celebrated the m arri age of two s s and r a rs as as r s on th ee d ughte , well the ci cumci ion r n r o f fou you ge s on s . ’ r a th e a s s or s r Du ing th t time Sult n Kio k , umme r s st e s ts was at a - a e e idence , which ill xi , built Ke t H n , ‘ r a r an i n u rre c a subu b of Constantinopl e . Soon fte s t r rs a and ran r as ion b oke out in Pe i , the g d vizi , well a s t r re a r e s r Pe e the G t , unde took exp dition thithe , a nd thu s a p art of the Pe rsian p rovince s we re divid e d

betw e en them . r 1 0 ra r w as s ra In Octobe , 73 , the g nd vizi t ngled

d u r1n a r a ar s and a . g evolt of the J niz ie , Sult n Ahmed I I a a Was th e w as compelled to bdic te . He confined in ra r a a ra a th e 1 Se glio , whe e he died n tu l de th on 3 th 6 Hi e a 1 . s s s of June , 7 3 nephew ucce ded him

M ahmoud I .

a . son a . Sult n Ahmed I II , the of Moh mmed IV , w as r 2 th r 1 6 and s u c bo n on the 4 of Decembe , 7 3 , e hi r r at a e 2 H e h ad e c e d e d s b othe the g of 9 . ighteen

1 66 O TTOM A N D Y N A S T Y .

a m e a re s a e e nne s s e r e i n l , G ek l v of P lopo u , conv t d b an d e th e e ra wh o th e oyhood k pt in S glio , took c mma of th e ar m e a e th e rs ans ea e o nd y , d fe t d Pe i ; p c w as con cluded and T au ri s w as re s to red to th e Pe r

i a T h e an w as n an at e s e n ns S n s . Sult i dign t th co ditio re ve th e ra r ar h 1 2 a n d a mo d g nd vizi in M c , 7 3 , p

- n e as ha e m Z a e a e n e a b r t . poi t d Ali P H ki d , V ti n y bi h O s m an P as h a Top al w as re appoi nte d ge n e ral mm an e r th e r s ar m ns s 100 co d of Tu ki h y , co i ting of , 0 00 m e n an d i n 1 e e a e th e rs ans , July , 77 3 , d f t d e P i a n e ar th e Riv e r Tigri s and retook B agd a d . In s econd e a e me h the e rsi ans e ar K e rk ou d th e ng g nt wit P n , r s e re e e a a nd s m an a as a e l Tu k w d f ted , O Top l P h f l ‘ n h r n hi ri re e e a o t e a e e . t s e od d d b ttl fi ld Du i g p , th r g rand vizi s w e re re mov e d i n s ucc e ssio n . T h e Sultan a boli s h e d all th e fe stiv als an d holy d ay s w hich h ad be e n i nt roduc e d du ri ng th e r eign of hi s a r hm e an d r ta n e n th e M ev lou t or f the , A d , e i d o ly , th e r h d a e r r h e h s n e h as e n bi t y of th i p op t , whic i c b e ra e h r a m c e l e b t d wit g e t po p .

u s s . n an e a an s A gu tu I I , Ki g of Pol d , being d d , St i a s Le c z n ski w as r a m e hi s s e ss r h e w as l u y p ocl i d ucc o , r e ran e ss a re e e and p ot cted by F c , but Ru i j ct d him , s e e ars a th e a a l an and th e s on iz d W w , c pit l of Po d , s s w as r m n of Augu tu p oclai ed ki g . th e 2 th u e 1 6 th e e r an On 5 of J n , 7 3 , d th oned Sult w h h a th ra . o d e s e e e e Ahmed I II , b en clud d in S glio , di e d . Du ring thi s tim e th e Ru ssi ans s ubdu e d th e C r me a a nd a h th e s r ans ar i , llying wit Au t i decl ed w ar a a ns th e r s a s s c on g i t Tu k , who to void ho tilitie e ac at N i e m e r—o a s h n th e cluded p e y , Poli tow ; Sul O OM 16 TT AN D YNA ST Y. 7

t an w as s e as e at h s re m e th e ran r di pl d t i , ov d g d vizi and appoi nte d Abdul ah Pas h a M oh si nzad é hi s su c r T h r i m e r e n re h c es s . e e a N e ov e e t e o t ty of b i g j ct d , R u ss a ns a a n n a e th e r m e a an d s e i g i i v d d C i , ubdu d tw o r re s s es n e a r A z off th e r s i n th e fo t , but Tu k , e f r r e a e re e e a e h a ss fo t to g in it , w d f t d wit lo of m e n m e an w hil e th e Au stri ans subdu e d Ni ss a a n r a h r h d a a e r w ar s re a e n t e s . T e C o ti , ft d t k by Tu k g rand vizir H a dji M e hm e d P as h a m ar ch ed agai nst th e A ustri ans and d efea te d th em at K rozk a with a ss h e n a e m e a re ra e lo of t tt pt d to c ptu Belg d , but h e w as un succ essful an d w as d e fe at e d by th e an a h i h h n r s s s t C ocz n . na r t e e Ru i Fi lly , t ough i t v enti on ran e ea e w as n e an d B el of F c , p c co clud d , ra e a r I r w s e e th e s 1 . n g d c d d to Tu k in 7 3 9 Ap il , 1 0 th e an e e ra e th e m arr a es hi s 74 , Sult c l b t d i g of h r e a h r h t e d ug te s to di ffe re n t p as as . I n th e sam e e ar th e m e r r s r a h ar es y E p o of Au t i , C l h r a n . e and ar a h e resa h is a e s e e I V , di d M i T , d ug t , c d d th e h r n t o e . 1 1 th e tan m a n th e e am In 74 , Sul , i it ti g x ple of hm an r x l ti n e . a n an e e d o d . s e A d I Mu d IV , t p to e a ear n a a e M cc b i g v lu bl gifts . th e m ean m e th e h ah a r ers a m a e d e In ti , S N di of P i , d m an s w h h w e r e re e e th e T u rk s wh 0 e are d ic j ct d by , d cl d

- w ar a a ns him i n 1 w h h as e h re e ears . g i t 743 , ic l t d t y ahm w a th e r T r h s ere n w h o M oud I . s fi s t u ki s ov ig a llo w e d th e amb ass a do r of a Eu rop e an pow e r to vi s it diffe re nt ap artm e nts i n hi s p al ac e ; granti n g

“ thi s p rivil ege to t h e F ren ch amb ass ado r C aste llanj w h o h hi s s e h ad e e e m e a s ear n th e , wit uit , r c iv d d l b i g m r m an onog a of th e Sult . 68 0 T T OM A N N A S T D Y Y.

a w as ass a e m s and The Sult n p ion t ly fond of u ic , w as the fi rst to introduc e Eu rope an m usic i n the r S e aglio . In 1747 S h ah N a di r w as ass as sinate d by his own a a and w a i r s s s s e h s s on a . p h , ucceed d by Mi z s a a as h a r r h es an n Mu t f P , gove no of R od , took e voy of the Sultan from th e I sla nd of Rh od e s to Asi a hi r r. s e r s in a ar 1 8 Mino On tu n to Rhode J nu y , 74 ,

h a a re w re r an ra d a e s e e s s d s . he c of M lt , G k , Tu k A b

Among th e l as t ~ w as a you ng m an n amed K ara m e e n e m r h ad e as h e Meh d of viol t t pe who be n , h s r a an d w h o rm e thoug t , unju tly t e ted , dete in d to rn r r e e r kill th e gove o in ev ng . He info med the

fi a e s e and re s a e s re ar of his M lt G ek l v who we on bo d , a na h a a e th e r at a s a s . e e pl n Fi lly t y tt ck d c w ign l , e s e r w e rs e r ar and sar kill d om , th e oth ov bo d di med ’ T h e e rn r s e w as sa e h r h the re s t . gov o lif v d t oug the r s a a tes h h e w as e a inte po ition of M l e yout , but k pt r s n r i n hi s a th e rs e r ar th e p i o e c bin . On fi t of F b u y

’ mutin e e rs re a ch e d M a lta an d w e re re c el v e d by th e hi f h n r M u s gra nd m ast e r and s sta f with due o o s . i n h a m a a w as e a r s e r t e s e . t f k pt p i on c tl of St El o ,

a e r a s h r h th e e f r s th e r h but ft w rd , t oug fo t of F enc a m ass a r w as a e a r a e s b do , llow d to live in p iv t hou e e ar a e a and rre s n h hi s r e s n V ll tt , to co po d wit f i nd in a h m n m e ara e m e s e . t e e a Con t ntinopl In ti , K M h d , ’ th e a s all s a a s m s r es w as c u e of Mu t f i fo tun , on r e r s h th e ran m as e r w h o na f i ndly te m wit g d t , fi lly er h r a ara p su ad e d him to b e com e a C i sti n . K e hm m n a e ra Ch ri stl anit M ed no i lly mb ced y , only to c arry out a mo st di a bolic al plot agai ns t the grand m a r A a h a m a h e a ra r re e d s te . s Mo m ed n n tu lly eg tt

1 0 O OM A N YN A S T 7 TT D Y. t m s e rr s m a e 1 8 ion of the o qu Nou i O ni in 74 , on the s s an n h c w as m e econd hill of Con t ti ople , w i h co pl ted hi r m an s s ss s . by ucce o , O I I I

XXVI I . A A 111 SULT N OSM N .

I 7 5115 4 7 57

T h e a cc essio n of th e n e w Sult an w as c e l e brate d w th e s a c e re m om e s ith u u l . Hi s re ign of th re e y e ars w as a time of p e a ce for a m re h th e e e su c the Ottom n E pi , wit xc ption of the

c e s si v e a n m e r ran r ppoi t nt of fou g d vizi s . Sultan O s man s p e nt much tim e in goi ng a rou n d hi s a a d s s e and h s e am e a are c pit l in i gui , t u b c w of the

n hi e n n h m r co dition of s p ople u k own to t e . He e gu a e th e n hi s re e rm e n an an d l t d clothi g of G k , A i J e wi s h s ubj e cts ; th e cov e ri ng of th ei r h e a d s con s i sted of large cyli nd rica l l a mb s kin c a p s of d i ffe re n t s ha es and rs ars e re a s the s e s p colo ; co colo d clo k , ho th e r e s re a th e r e ans re d th e of G e k we bl ck , of A m ni ,

e ws e an d e b e w r s s m e J blu , y llow to o n by the Mu ul n , h h r m w e t e e n or wom e n . T h e G re ek a n d A rm e ni a n wome n w e re d ress e d lik e th e Tu rki s h u ntil th e re ign a hm of M oud I I .

O n th e 1 th e m e r 1 an sma 3 of Nov b , 7 57 , Sult O n e a a ra e a h an d w as s e e hi s di d n tu l d t , ucc ded by h e s a a . s a . s on s a a n p ew , Mu t f I I I O m n I I I , of Mu t f ' w a r h h ar 16 6 an s u c . s n on t e 2 t d I I , bo 9 of M ch , 9 ,

c e e d e d hi s r th e r at th e a e fift - e h h b o g of y ig t , wit out

i ss u e . XXVII I . A M A A 111 SULT N UST F . 17 57— 1774

a a a e r a l n n m n i n h s . e e t e Mu t f II I , ft o g co fin t e th e h r n e at th e a e S era as e . glio , c nd d t o g of fifty W ar with Ru s su w as d e cl are d i n th e l atter p art of 6 T h e ran r w a m fl 1 8 . s e e ee and 7 g d vizi co p ll d to , t h s ss ans a re Ch oc zi n an d a a u the Ru i c ptu d Mold vi , n a h e r all th e r a a h a d sl ug t ed Tu ks in W ll c i a . Thi s c au s e d th e remov al of th e gran d vizi r an d th e re- ap a a p oi ntm ent of H alil P sh . ss a s e n a e e er 1 6 r m r Ru i t fl t in Octob , 7 9 , f o C on s a e n es us mman e m ra t dt to P lopo n , co d d by Ad i l S i rid of h a an r e n e r th e tw o e n e ra s p , wit l d fo c u d g l

T h e odo re an d Al exio s O rloff . G e n eral O rloff b esi e g e d Co ron an d Modon with o u t s es s and as re a w a s re mar h e ucc , Mo in volt , c d h its ass s an e a a ns r a h e e re wit i t c g i t T ipolitz , but t y w d efeate d by th e Tu rk s on a ccou nt of th e l a ck of r t oop s . T h e ss ans h e a es for a s h r m e b ut Ru i ld Cycl d o t ti , w h en h e s a e for T c h es mé th e re e s w e re e t y il d , G k l ft u np rote cte d an d e xpos e d to th e cru elti e s of th e

r T h a r ar h e w a n e an Tu ks . e P t i c M el tios s bli d d d e xil e d ; m any w e re sl augh te re d in cold blood i n

‘ h an mn h T h e ssaly and Lari ss a . At t e i sl d of Li o s t e Bi s h op an d all th e p ri e sts w ere c ru elly to rtu re d and e h ea e h e at m rna th e h r s ans ere \ b d d , w il S y C i ti w s avage ly butch e red as th ey w e re coming out of th e h r h Ph i c . ni u c of St ot . 17 2 O TTOM AN D Y N A S T Y .

The Ru ssi an s on thei r arrival at T c h esmé atta cked the Tu rki s h fl e et unde r Ad mi ral D j ezaerli H assan

and est r a 1 0 . d oyed it tot lly in July , 77 sam e ar ss a s s r In the ye the Ru i n ubdued Bende , r an ra a a a and a ra r Ake m , B il , G l tz Kili , the g nd vizi r rea e and r r e ns a e et t d etu n d to Co t ntinopl , with T h e a w a e r a s carcely m e n . Sult n s v y indign nt and e h e a th e ra V1z1r a oi ntl n 1nste ad b ded g nd , pp g S ilihtar e m as h a w h o w as a s a e M h ed P , l o defe t d by h h r m r h the Ru s si ans with t e lo ss of t e C i e a . Afte t is M oh sm zad é Mehmed P as h a succe e ded as g ran d r vizi . s s mm e e i n 1 2 and M oh sinzad é Ho tilitie co nc d 77 , i n h m arched again st th e Ru ss a s wit out succ e ss . se e e a s r a s re ss e th e a w h o The d f t g e tly di t d Sult n , e a a ra e a on th e 2 th e e r 1 di d n tu l d th 5 of D c mbe , 773 , an w a i h r a d s S ucce e d e d by h s b rot e Abdul H mid I . a m s e at ar i n 1 60 and a r He built o qu Scut i 7 , nothe a e r at I nd i rkeu i a a th e s r s c ll d Kipi j , vill ge on Bo pho u , as well as a b ath and a fou ntain c all e d T c h ouk ur T h m é 1 6 a a a r d c e s s . w in 7 3 . Mu t f I I I s bo n on the 3 r ar 1 h h r n w 1 . ad fiv e d a s a d t o of Feb u y , 7 7 He ug te h m r s s . and e a e r on , I I , Me d , the l tt died befo e hi h r s fat e .

T h e a h s in r e are not n s e for eans n r s es b t Tu k y o ly u d cl i g pu po , re er a r e in h e r re s rem n es T h e w e a h but figu v y l g ly t i ligiou c e o i . lt y r s not a r n e th e a h s h a e h e m in Tu k do p t o iz public b t , but v t built h e r res en es for h e r own r a e s e t i id c t i p iv t u . T h e ma n a h i s a ar e r m a e w h mar e r m wh h i b t l g oo p v d it bl , f o ic en se era s ma er ne s is h e r m a e las s op v l ll o . It lig t d f o bov by g en s ns er e in th e a I n l the r ms are fa e s rn s h l se i t d cupol . al oo uc t fu i in and h ot w a er n er wh h h ere are ma r e as ns g cold t , u d ic t bl b i a wen n h es w e and een n h es in e h a ed bout t ty i c id fift i c d pt , pl c wen n h es a e th e or t ty i c bov flo .

O TTOM A N D YN A S T Y

as a T e ed e li n a na r s e In 1 78 7 Ali P h p of Y ni , e olv d to m a c ontrol Gre ec e and t re a ch e rou sly mu rde red ny

ra e m en but m 1 8 8 e ass s e b V o f its b v ; 7 , Suli b ing i t d

Y i A L I P AS HA T EPED ELI N of an na .

r A n d ruts o A tal ant an d ar ar s t h e b ave of , M co Bozz i

r e si sted an d d e fe ated Ali Pas h a . A N 1 O TTOM D YNA S T Y. 7 5

' Ali Pash a T ep e d e lin w as bo rn at T e p e l en e i n th e e ar 1 0 and e n e an an an am w h y 7 5 , b lo g d to Alb i f ily , ich n h amm n I n 1 h n h ad long b e e Mo e d a s . 78 8 e dis ti ui sh e d h m s e i n a a e a a n s th e s r ans b e g i lf b ttl g i t Au t i , a me Pas h a T ri c ala a nd h e ss a an d na ro c of T ly , fi lly p m h m a ha an n a i n r cl ai e d i s e lf P s of Y i Epi u s . All hi s acts w e re m ark e d w ith tre a ch e ry an d r a h n e m m a r fi e n dis h c u e lty . At l st wi s i g to b co e ste an a h e s sa re e e an d a s an s h e of Alb i , T ly , G c Ioni n I l d , re e a ain s th e an w as n a s el ze d volt d g t Sult , but fi lly an d tre ach e rou s ly put to d eath by th e Ottom an n era Hu rs hid as h a ge l , P Sultan Abdul H amid w as poi s on e d on th e 19th of r 1 8 an d w as s ee e hi s ne h e m Ap il , 7 9 , ucc d d by p w Seli m w a rn h 1 n e . a s t e st I II Abdul H id bo on of Ju , 1 H l h r n h m w h 2 . e e e e s s e e o e 7 5 ft t o , M d , di d of ma h ral m . an s s a a . a d s e ll pox , Mu t f IV , M oud I I , ve h r d aug te s .

XXX .

A SULT N SELIM III .

1 - 789 1808 .

m ar a e . n w a 2 e s e so s a a . s S li I I I of Mu t f I II , 7 y of g e h e a e h h r n Hi s a e w as h h wh n s c nd e d t e t o e . f c t oug t i n e re ss h ac e es an d e e r s ful xp ion , wit bl k y y b ow , r e s e a ar e a e a and c ook d no , bl ck be d , pitt d f c , t ll , s t lightly s oop e d . H e wo re a whit e co at lined with valu able fu r; and a gre en conical c ap cov ered with a white lin en r an ar n th e r n a am n r tu b , be i g on f o t di o d b ooch with 1 6 0 T T‘ M A A S 7 O N D Y N T Y. f a rs and at hi s a1s a rs a a r s et e the , w t Pe i n d gge with r n r a n p eciou s sto e s . The new Sultan o g niz e d a army 2 re r r m a a na an d 00 000 s s s a . of , c uit f o Alb ni , Bo A i He vi site d diffe re nt p arts of hi s capital i n di s gui s e ; d os ra V1z1r ss and a e ep ed the g nd Yu uf , ppoint d ezae rli Has s a as a w as e e a e th e J n P h , who d f t d in nav al b attl e of T c h e s mé an d sav e d hi s life by s wim m a s ma e arm d r1n ing . He l o com nd d the y u g the ex e diti on a a s ss a and s r a h e w as p g in t Ru i Au t i , but to a l e a S u v aroff th e ra ss 1a en t l y d fe ted by , b ve Ru n g e ra at th e a O xan i o 1n th e e a th e a l , b ttle of D lt of D nube , a ss m e n 100 s a ar s and all with lo of , t nd d , the r r ff h i a r . S uv a o h s a r1nc e a tille y , wit lly , the p of S xe

' C r n r a s as as sm a l obu g , co que ed m ny town well I e i ts arris n r s r s a s all with g o of Tu ki h t oop , lmo t o f whom we re killed at the assault on th e 2 2 d of De m r 1 r n r a a c e b e 0 . s a s e re , 79 The Au t i n co qu d Se vi , W ll a a and a a m e a r r chi Mold vi , in the ntime the Empe o of s r a ar a d w as s his Au t i died in M ch , n ucceeded by r r r e e at a b othe Leopold I I . , who , f ight n d the ttit ude ra n a r a a a t s of F nce , co cluded t e ty of pe ce Si to v on 16 s 1 1 r s re T u r the of Augu t , 79 , by which he e to d to all a r r s and s and h r key the c ptu ed p ovince town , t ough r a an d r s s a e a e w as the inte vention of Engl nd P u i , p c n e at ass th e th a ar 1 2 h s co clud d J y , on 9 of J nu y , 79 ; t u the C rimea an d p art of B assarav i a w as re sto red to

Ru ssi a . The Ottoman Empi re w as gre atly d i stu rbed by I n r s a . s e an e N poleon , who t xpedition of t oop t 1 8 an d s e a a to Egyp in 79 ubdu d it . He took G z , s rm af a an d r w as s rn to ed J f Ac e , which tubbo ly

‘ e r s a nd after a s s es na ar h ld by the Tu k , he vy lo Bo p te

0 T T OM A N Y N A S T Y D . 79

a r e re re h e re n h 2 w s , o t e th 0 1 fo c d to, ti to Egypt w 5 1 th e a e r w as u h n e ar July , 799 , b ttl of Abouki fo g t Al ex and ri a with a compl e te d e struction of th e

rm th e r an i n r Tu rkis h a y . But di stu b c es F anc e n e a e n h ra and ea e w as i duc d N pol o to wit d w , p c

r i n 1 1 c onclud e d i n Pa is 8 0 . T h e i nv asio n of Egypt by th e F ren ch c au se d th e n r f r h r r i nh abita ts of Suli to e volt o t ei lib e ty.

u i s s a e in r s a m n a n s s r v er f u S li itu t d Epi u , ou t i ou di t ict , y di fic lt T h nh a an s of r s r h r of a es s . e e e t e e to res er e cc i bit t Epi u took fug , p v h re n s ms an d er of h e r f re a h ers A li h t e . as a ligio , cu to , lib ty t i o f t P T e e d elin h owe er e n a e e an d er us m an not p , v , b i g d c itful f ocio , could era e hem a s h e w not a n w e e his a h r an d h e tol t t , t y ould ck o l dg ut o ity , m s e h em h es e m n a neers h a a att e pte d to ubdu t . T ou t i foug t g inst th e r00 s A li a sh a in 1 0 and w e h ad re e e his a a s t p of P 79 , t ic p ll d tt ck e ss T h e war th e es a a n s A li a s h a as e s ucc fully . of Suliot g i t P l t d ears in wh h h e e h r a ra er A li h a f or man e e . as y y , ic t y x ibit d g t b v y P n m s s e n er th em e h er r eor s ra e em fou d it i po ibl to co qu it by fo c by t t g , but finally th ey w ere oblige d to su rrend er th ro ugh th e l a ck of ’ r s ns and a rea w as ma e wh h he w l b e a we p ovi io , t ty d by ic t y ou d llo d h h e r a rms n r n a effe ts h s re h er to emigrat e wit t i a d p e s o l c . T i t ac o us Pas h a h we er a e th e rea at n e and a a e th e , o v , viol t d t ty o c tt ck d as h e were eav n h e r h mes i n h ree s ns T h e Suliot es t y l i g t i o t divi io . rs n e r th e mman of T c havella re a h e ar a s a e th e fi t , u d co d , c d P g f ly ; s e n n e r C outc h onica were rs e and es ie e at Zol o o co d , u d , pu u d b g d g , a A h er n h ere o c ured one of th e m s t a rocky s pot bove c o . T c o and h rr e n en s of h a e h T h e a mm n ns p athetic o ibl i cid t t t poc . u itio a nd r s ns e n e h a s e and th e w men s ee n h a here p ovi io b i g x u t d , o i g t t t no s a e for h em a nd rea n h e r rea a e h e e f ty t , lizi g t i d dful f t if t y f ll n the h an s of th e ur s hrew h e r h ren d wn n th e i to d T k , t t i c ild o i to r a s s e w h en as n ea h h er th e h an c om ocky by b lo , t cl pi g c ot by d m en c ed to sing and d anc ed one by one over the cliff thu s rapidly w n h e r l e n e n rn One h n re a nd follo i g t i ittl o s i to et e ity . u d d fifty men w e re e 8 00 wh o es a e ar a th e h r and l ft out of , c p d to P g ; t i d as s n ns s n of es re a h e a n ent l t divi io , co i ti g Suliot , c d co v , but a er a ra e res s an e all w ere e wh o a s re a h e ft b v i t c kill d but 45, l o c d f h s war r a h wa s th e her and ra erm na n o . Pa g . Suc oic t gic t i tio t i e r ns rre n i n e r a e a A pow ful i u ctio S vi , h ded by e r e e r h a e hi s r m e n G o g P t ovitc , c ll d by count y C zerni r r a s r e d th e man Geo ge , g e tly di tu b Otto re h r a e r h ad e e ear Empi . T i s int epid l e d b n in ly T M Y 1 8 0 0 T O A N D N A S T Y .

e e a e hi s r s e e youth oblig d to l v count y , in con equ nc of h av 1ng kill e d a Tu rk by wh om he h ad b e e n

s e an d e a me a s e r e an the s r a in ult d , b c g t in Au t i n Hi a i s e rvic e . s c ll on h s cou ntry to s h ake off th e ma O k e w as e n h s as a e and s o Otto n ! t u i tic lly ob yed , s u ess e re hi s e f r s a 18 06 am cc ful w fo t , th t in , he bec e r ra m aste of B e lg d e . ’ a n s r e s re a s r r s e m w h o N poleo victo i g tly u p i ed S li , s ent H al e p Effe n di to cong rat ul ate h im on hi s s u c T h e r n h a m a a r a ce ss . F e c b ss do S e b s ti a ni w as r e v e re a r at s a n e ec i d with g t hono Con t nti opl , which

e as e s an d ss a a m a a r di spl d the Engli h Ru i n b ss do s . Sebasti ani th e n induc e d th e Sultan to d e th r on e th e h os od ors or r e s W a a a an d a a p p inc of ll chi Mold vi , s a e s a and a e r M orusi a nd Con t ntin Yp il nti , Alex nd , appoi nt e d in st e a d Scarlato C alim a c hy and Al exande r I n v e m e r 1 6 th e ss a n S u tzo . 80 s a e No b , , Ru i n i v d d Mold avi a an d W all a chi a without a d e cl aration of w a r e th e s h a m ass a r ar , whil Engli b do , fe ing the

r e s th e re h a m assa r w h o w as on int igu of F nc b do ,

r e rms h th e an e s a f i ndly te wit Sult , l ft Con t ntinople s ec retly on th e Engli s h frigate to j oin th e fl e e t at th e 20th e r ar th e s e T e n e do s . On of F b u y Engli h fle t

e r e e s arr e at r n e s s an s ent ed the H ll pont , iv d P i c i l d

e ar ns an n e n h a n Co t ti opl , but findi g t t city well arr s th e a m ra S i r h r h g i oned , d i l , Jo n Duckwo t ,

ear n h a h e m h b e s h i n ase f i g t t t y ig t ut , in c the

ar a es s b e s r r i e r D d nell hould t ongly fo t fi d , left du ing M a th e a r a s a e e e a s . night fte t y of only l v n d y In y , 180 an s rre n a ar e s a s an 7 , in u ctio of J niz i c u ed Sult ’ Selim s depositio n an d h e w as s u c ceeded by hi s cou sin Mu stafa I V .

1 2 OM A N T 8 O TT D YNA S Y.

T h e di stu rbance s co nti n ued i n th e c apital ; M us tafa B ai rac tar arri v e d i n Co ns tantinopl e on th e 2 8 th of 18 08 h th e a e r r e and July , , wit b nn of the p oph t , a h a e a w a e a nnounced t t p ce s conclud d with Ru ssi . H e fo rc e d his w ay with his followe rs to th e s econd c r th e a a and r a me a s a ou t of p l ce p ocl i d Selim Sult n , b ut when h e re a ch ed th e audi e n c e h all h e found th at th e e h s h ad s s ra e him r r 0f unuc ju t t ngl d , by the o de B ai ra ar h e h r r Sultan Mu s tafa . c t wi th t ot e revolte s d e s s a a at assass a him and ro po ed Mu t f once , in ted p c l aimed as the s ucce ss o r to th e th rone hi s h alf h r r a . b othe , M oud I I h a r a s a a . d w s ra e Mu t f IV no child en , he illite t , a nd re ara r po ssess ed but little st ngth of ch cte .

XXXI I .

A A 11 T HE SULT N M HMOUD REFORMER .

1 — 1 8 08 8 39 .

a as e e th e r 2 M hmoud I I . c nd d th one in the 3 d r hi a H wa m m r a s e . e s e e s ye of g of diu h ig ht , o y e a a r e s and e r s a compl xion , with bl ck h i , ye ey b ow , s r a e ar h e w as a h ma r ho t full bl ck b d , h ug ty in nne

r Hi r a i h an d h ad a c o a se voice . s fi st ste p w s to pun s the assassin s of his cou si n S e lim and hi s b rothe r r hi re n h e r an n Mustafa . Du ing s ig t di s tu b ce s co tin ued to s uch an exte n t th at the Sultan w as greatly r a ra h Ru puzzled . Thes e di s tu b nce s encou g e d t e s m i ra s i ans to com ence hostil tie s again . The g nd S ULT A N MAH M O UD II .

i i S t . Grandfath e r of th e re gn ng ul an

1 86 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y

18 20 H e teria a s e re s i w as rm In the , c t oc ety , fo ed r m h r ra s th e re e s e s a sh th e f o the hig e nk of G k , to t bli e e e r n r ind pendenc of th i cou t y . The town of Pa rga w as pu r ch ase d from the Eng li s h by th e c ru e l and blood thi rs ty Ali Pas h a of ani a i n hi s r a a s th e a w as th e Y n , evolt g in t Sult n ; it

r r r l ast et e a t of th e b ave i nh abitant s of Suli .

ar a s a e on th e r er r s ame n er the n r l P g , itu t d bo d of Epi u , c u d co t o the Vene a ns in 1 0 1 a erwa r s w a s h e th e re n h of ti 4 ; ft d it ld by F c , and in 1 8 1 a er th e a a e n was a en th e n sh 4, ft f ll of N pol o , t k by E gli and s A li T e ed elin a s ha an na wh o n en e e er old to p P of Y i , i t d d to xt m n e its e e h e n he he r th n h e e er a . a e rea ew s i t p opl W t y d d dful , t y d t m ne not a n th e h an s th e r s and e e l i d to f ll i to d of Tu k , d cid d to kil h ir w es and h re n h n h h las A n n s h e e n t e . t iv c ild , t to fig t u til t E gli ffi er h ear n he r e e rm na n h as ene to r u an d re o c i g of t i d t i tio t d Co f , r e it h mm s s ner a an He s en enera po t d to Hig Co i io M itl d . t G l A ams a n h ear e man n es a e th e matter wh o na l d , ki d t d , to i v tig t , fi l y ’ s ee e in h e n th e a an e A i s arm a nd ers a e ucc d d c cki g dv c of l y , p u d d th e e e of ar a r m e r h s the a e w as p opl P g to e ov to Co fu . T u vill g ’ a e n h l h eva cu t d a d t en occupie d by A i Pas a s t roop s .

P ri n c e Al e xand e r Yp silanti w as cho s en l ea de r of th e H eteri a r ar 18 2 1 ar h th e sam e in Feb u y , . In M c of

ar r ss e th e r h a n d e re e hi s s an ar ye he c o d P ut , ct d t d d i n a i a on th e i th ne r Mold v ; but 7 of Ju , th ough the r r m hi f r a e a e s e s s w as e e e . t ch y of o of o fice , d f t d s a e th e e r s Loc h os or a re d In thi b ttl , Hi o S c ” a s s n 00 h s n s th e r e B nd , con i ti g of 4 yout ful tude t , p id e r r re s e e ra e th e of th i count y , fu ing to yi ld f ll b v ly on e l C h ae roni a s a re re a s r a fi d of Yp il nti t ted into Au t i , ass n s u h r re e e re th e intending to p i to o t e n G ce , wh s rr h ad e e e h e w as s e th e in u ection xt nd d , but ized by r an r r Au st i s an d h e ld as a p i s on e . Wh e n the new s of th e revolt i n Greec e rea ch e d s a n th e r s a m as sa re all th e Con t nti ople , Tu k beg n to c

r r r mn u nfo tun ate G e eks in thei po ss e ssion s . A o g D S O TTOM A N YN A T Y.

‘ h r i h e rs w as th e Patri arc e r s V. 0 e ars 0 1 ot G go u , 7 y a e w h o on as e r n a s e w as s e g , E t Mo d y (old tyl ), vi it d f e rs s en th e a th e rs h m by two o fic t by Sult n , fi t of w o a n e an h e r a r ar h w h e th e s e n f e r ppoi t d ot P t i c , il co d o fic , K es e d e r or e e ner r ere th e e ne ra e r e s x cutio , o d d v bl p i t r n r n h h r to b e conv e y e d to p i so . Acco di g to t e i sto i ans Pou u ev ille and r n e h e e n or w en s h s q Go do , ig t t ty bi op and p ri es ts w e re co nfin e d i n th e s am e p ri s o n ; e ffo rts w ere m ad e in v ain to conv ert th em to I s l a mi s m th ey w ere to rm e nted by h aving th e i r h e a d s bou n d with r h a ns h e r e s err a e ra e an d fina i on c i , t i bodi t ibly l c t d , lly h a T h a r ar h a e w a th ey w e re b e e d e d . e P t i c lon s s are and w as n e e an ar a a e i n th e p d co v y d to F , vill g n m h arbor of th e Gold e n Ho rn . After suffe ri g uch n n an d m an r e es h e w as h an e one i dig ity y c u lti , g d on of th e gat es of th e Pat ri arch at e (w hich h as s 1n oe b e en k e pt clo se d)and a fte r d raggi ng hi s co rp s e th rough h e h r h a T h t s t e e s w as h r t e s e . e filt y t , it t own into e es s a e near a re e s h arr n th e lif l body flo t d G k ip , c yi g ss a fl a w n e h n ola a C e h al oni an Ru i n g , o d by Jo S vo , p , w hich w as lying n e ar th e bridg e of G al ata ; it w as r n e th e ar h e a n th e a r ar h a e ecog iz d by c d co of P t i c t , w a n r f who s o bo a d i nt e ndin g to s ail or Od es sa . In stantly th e cr e w d re w it up an d t en d e rly con v ey e d e ssa h e re hi s u e ra w as h e h re a it to Od , w f n l ld wit g t m an d s e mn th e e n re e e ns e e n a po p ol ity , ti xp b i g p id by h e ar t Cz . Similar s c en es took pla c e i n diffe re nt p arts of th e r s h m i re and s e e m e as s w as the Tu ki E p , it d if thi total exte rmi nation of th e C hris ti ans which h a d b e e n r s e h r n h 1 i th r u t e s . O t e e olv d pon by Tu k of Ap il , 18 2 2 th e C a e d an as h a ara a er l , p P K Ali , with pow fu O T T OJII A N D YN A S T Y

fl e et w as s e n e an s rr i n th e s an , t to qu ll in u ection i l d o f e B ou rna a S c i ote rm e r th e Scio , xcited by , , fo ly in rm e r th an r F re nch a y . He wi s h d to f e e e i sl d f om th e r s h e we n am s ers a its Tu ki yok ; t to S o , p u ded r r ass s t him th e a m w as u nsu c gove no to i , but tte pt fu l T h e r s r s in m r an e c e s s . Tu ki h t oop , nu be , l d d a nd mm e h r its n f e n i e co nced to butc e u o f d ng peopl , a nd e nd M a m en and by the of y , women child re n h ad m r re an d a n s a r been u de d , t ke into l ve y , m any of whom we re s old in th e m arkets of Con stantino l e an d ar ar su c p , Egypt B b y , while

i n a n r i i c ee d e d es c pi g to G eec e . It s mposs ibl e to d e s crib e th e h o rro rs and fi e ndis h out rage s enact e d a a m on thi s i s land t th t ti e .

A p ath etic i ncid ent occurred in co nnection with a young Sci an wh o h ad es a e and earne ha his ea l n s s er ar c p d , l d t t b utifu you g i t M igo h a d b een t aken c aptive and pla c ed in a h are m in Co ns tanti no le He e erm ne find h e r and for h s r s e . a s a e er p d t i d to , t i pu po , p dl of hew n um w en h r h f h e s ree ts of the r s h ar ers c i g g , t t oug t Tu ki qu t

‘ “ / a n M a z oo o K o9 0 1 7 § o M at 0 7 1 61 3 or ar c lli g p y , 7 1 7 M igo , ns an ne the um - s e er th e rs e n h er name th e se n Co t ti g ll , fi t b i g , co d hi h w n s i n r e r a ra h er a en n . I n s a a er a , o d to tt ct tt tio t i y, ft lo g a en s ea r h h e s ere hi s s s er and na s ee e in p ti t c , di cov d i t fi lly ucc d d a n h e r es a e idi g to c p .

h a ar e r h e s e re a s e ne s and e , Aft t d dful c , w il p t of the Tu rkish fl e e t w as a nch o re d ne a r S c 10 c e l e b rating e v e a ram tw o e r m e n ns an e the of B i , h oic , Co t tin a ar s s ara an d r e Pi i ni s ra C n i of P Geo g p of Hyd , de te rmi ne d to p rev e nt it from atta cki ng S amos with

r - ra e m a s h e sa i n thi ty two b v co p nion , t y iled two r s e as fi re s h s a m an e se v r b ig fitt d up ip , cco p i d by e al oth e r ve s s e l s c arryi ng th e F r e n ch and A u strian r h e a r a e th e r i s a s h at c olo s . T y pp o ch d Tu k h fl g ip T h r a a ex n ight an d s e t fi re to it . e powd e m g zine

1 O OM A N YN A S T Y 90 TT D .

" s e nt to the s lav e m ark e t i n Al e xan d ri a ; the boy s . by hi s o rd e r w e re fo r cibly p ro s elyte d th rough th e r m r h f h an rite of ci cu c i sion befo e t ey l e t t e isl d . .

H r r A n ni a . S e e st e e e . . to d es ( i o y of G c , by A J , p In 18 2 5 th e C h ristian i n h abitants of Cyp ru s w e r e ch arg e d with complicity i n th e r evolution in Gre e c e . Ki i tc h u k e hm e its rn r t th e er M d , gove o , invi ed cl gy r r a rr a a nd n obl e s to a cou n cil at Nic osi a . Afte th e i iv l a e s e re s e an d W i h a fe w e e t s all the g t w clo d , t xc p ion , r w e re mo st t re a che rou s ly mu rd e re d . (S e e Histo y

. m n r s a t a a e . ; s l of C yp u by R H il on L ng , l t H M Co u for th e I sland of Cyp ru s . ) th e s a ar ra as h a th e a e s on In me ye Ib him P , dopt d amm e A li i e r a e th e of Moh d , V c oy of Egypt , l nd d in M re a h an a arm and r n hi s re o wit E gypti n y , du i g enti exp e ditio n hi s cou rs e w as m arked with th e mo st i n r r r m ar e w a de si a ble c u elti es to th e G e eks . A k t s ' O p e ne d at Meth o ni for th e s al e of young peopl e of s e e s h a s r n e m h ar both x , w ile the dult we e co d ned to d a r th e a e l bo in g ll y s . th e 6th 1 8 2 th e re re se n a e s On of July , 7 , p t tiv of an ra e an d s s a met i n n and Engl d , F nc Ru i Londo sign e d a t re aty for th e p rote ction of Gre e c e ; o r d e rs w e re th e n s e nt to th e fle e ts of th e se th re e gre at pow e rs u nd e r S i r Edw ard Cod ri ngto n i n th e M e di rra ne a to a s th e h n an d if ossib l e te n , put top to fig ti g , p

r a m an a rm T h r e n n p ocl i i s tic e . e Tu ks b i g unwilli g m l h s a a e th e a e e e to co p y with t i , tt ck d lli d fl t in the h ar r a ar an d in a s h r an d e r e a e bo of N v ino , o t fi c eng g m r r h e e a ra e e nt w e e tota lly d e s t oy e d . T i s d f t en g d th e Sultan and h e po sitive ly re fu s e d to m ake any te rm s with th e Gre e ks , an d th e a mbassado rs of the i G ee c e . T h e Roy al Fam ly of r

1 0 T T OM A N YN A S 94 D T Y.

' A t- a r a e s s re s s an a m M idin , in e din to i t y tte pt on the

’ ar u a m e e r s m i s si p t of the S lt n to co p l th i ub on .

ahm n all m n r M oud I I . i vited Mu s sul e who w e e t rue to him an d th e s a ar th e r , to Holy t nd d of p ophet ,

A G eec e i n th e N ti U i Q U EEN L A of Gr a onal n form .

r ra re to meet in the cou t of the Se glio , whe the S h eikh -ul- I slam and the Ulem as p ronounced the a a ar e s hi s ar and bolition of the J niz i , while body gu d a po rtio n of th e artille ry we re ass embled re ady f or M A N YN A S T Y 1 O TTO D . 95

n T h e an r s e hi s e re e n a ctio . Sult i k d lif f qu tly by n on h rs e a a m n th e r w s an ar e s goi g o b ck o g c o d of J iz i , n hi a r e n r e r w hich w as a b rav e a c t o s p t . Sudd ly o d s

e re e n th e nn e rs fi re n th e arra s w giv to gu to upo b ck ,

an ass s e th e n an r h s an s th e d i t d by i f t y , t ou d of a ar e s ere e h n i ts r w a s w h e all J niz i w kill d wit i fou ll , il w h o a e m e e s a e e re s h n tt pt d to c p w ot dow . h th e e n n th e an ar es th e a Wit xti ctio of J iz i , Sult n

‘ o rd e re d all th e h e a d s of th ei r tomb ston es to b e h e r m m ar ars e s r e . e s e e s e d t oy d T w co po ed of bl pill , e rm na n i n a e e ar n s m e re s e m an t i ti g glob , b i g o bl ce to a h m an h ea and e ra e h a r an th e rm u d d co t d wit tu b , fo an d folds of which indicate d th e rank of th e d e c e as ed ; but now th e s h ap e h as b e e n altere d i nto

‘ h i r h a a fez h s e . t t of , w ic colo d Life siz e d mod el s of th e J aniz ari e s ar e exhibit e d i n a building called Kilitc h - H aneat A t- M eid e n i n Con n i n l T h e a r mmi e hi s r s sta t op e . t ociti e s co tt d by t co p are b eyond d e s c ription ; th ou s and s of i nn oc ent C hristi ans h ave b e en sl augh tere d i n cold blood for m r r r n h m e e cap ic e . Ev e y Su d ay t ey would as s e ble at all th e h r s an r h es an d a n s a ere of C i ti chu c , h vi g c tt d s om e di rt n e ar th e doo r a b room w as pl ac e d b esid e and the h r s ans w h o asse e re m e e it , C i ti p d by w co p ll d h er s e e a a or n r e s m e h eit to w p it w y , to co t ibut o t ing tow ard s its re moval ; or if a Ch ri sti an h appen e d to ass a an ar h e h e w as s h ar en n hi s p J iz y , w il p i g a a h an a n r a s a re w as r Y t g , ki d of b o d b , it f equently r hi t ied on s body . I n 1 2 m r r r 8 as I . e ss a d e a e 9 Nichol , E p o of Ru i , cl d w ar agai ns t Tu rk ey ; a Ru ssi an army c ro sse d th e D anube an d arriv e d at th e entranc e of th e Helles and s r s th e r s re fr e d pont Bo pho u , but Tu k we ight ne an d asked for p e a c e . A t re aty w as signed at r a the i th S e e r 18 2 Ad i nople , on 4 of pt mbe , 9 , on co n dition that th e Ottom a n gov e rn m e nt s hould a th e re i e m th e war p y enti nd nity of .

Z KA AZ A RTIN .

r a i e r e w as s a e r m th e Du ing th t t m , Tu k y v d f o mo ne tary c ri si s c au s e d by th e p aym e nt of th o s e de m es s s a a r m ne n rm e a in ni ti to Ru i , by p o i t A ni n , a r i n T h a a r s e ns a e . e K z z A tin , e d t of Co t ntinopl

‘ ' gove rnm e nt t re asu ry w as e mpty and S ultan M ah

M A N Y A O TTO D N S T Y. 199

w as i n es a r for w as e r m e moud I I . d p i it utt ly i po ssibl

for him ra s e th e m ne h r h th e n en to i o y , but t oug i g uity a a r n w h o r re a an r m th e of K z z A ti , p ocu d lo f o

rm e n an an e rs ns an t n e th e am A i b k of Co t i opl , ount h a n T h e m n w a w as p aid to t e Ru s si s . o ey s s oon a e r re rn e h e s e an e rs i n e sh a o ft tu d to t b k B lik , c in m s e r a nd s e r of w h h r e co po ed of copp ilv , ic ve y littl i i s n o w i n C r culation .

This remarkabl e ma n ex erci s e d a st ro ng influenc e ov er Sultan — M a hm ~ wh o i n re rn w as e r n of him and in m an w a s oud , tu v y fo d y y sh hi s ar a for hi A n n e s ra n h s is ow ed p ti lity m . i cid nt illu t ti g t i re a e era la es r m th e m er a arem w re in th e l t ed . S v l di f o I p i l H e ha r n out as na s e e e and es r e on bit of idi g occ io lly , clo ly v il d , co t d h rs e a th e e n h s of th e a a e wh o w ere u ans . o b ck by u uc p l c , N bi It w as th e cu stom o f th e b ys ta nd t rs s it t i ng out sid e th e coff e e sh op s r s e an d sa e th e ans a s h e as s e and on one as n to i lut Nubi t y p d , occ io a a A r n for s me r s n m n s o H e re e e a K z z ti o e a o o itt e d doi g . c iv d i h ee s e ere w on the a e r m th e ne r wh h r s e . h s v blo f c f o g o , ic b ui d c k an d n w h his h a n er h e h e w e n at n e to an tyi g it up it dk c i f t o c , Sult M ahm w h o n re n erni n th e a s e of th e n r and oud , i qui d co c g c u i ju y , a a A r re a e th re n e T he tan w as er K z z tin l t d e occu r c . Sul v y i ndignant and o rd e re d th e c hi ef eu nuc h Kizl er A gh as si to call all th e hers n his res en e an d n ame h s e who h a d e en out ot i to p c , t o b r n th e d a wh e at th e s ame t me his mm an th e du i g y, il i by co d e e ners w ere a ss em e in an a n r m T h e an x cutio bl d djoi ing oo . Sult as e a a A r n o n th e f en e r wh o w a s mm e a e k d K z z ti to p i t out o f d , i di t ly s ran e i n h re n ll s h h rs T he t gl d t e p s e c e of a a a w a rning to t e ot e . an h en s a to h em h s man is m a th r end h e m s Sult t id t T i y f i ful f i , u t at all mes b e re a e w h r e e er one of ou ti t t d it es p ct by v y y .

I n 18 0 r e s er a h h w as su b July , 3 , Tu k y lo t Alg i , w ic u e h e ren h d d b y t F c . In 18 3 1 Commodo re D avid “ Po rter was commi s ’ si on e d Chargé d A ffai res to th e Sublim e Po rt e at

ns an e and 18 as s e r es en . Co t tinopl , in 39 Mini t R id t r hi s a m s ra n h e re th e rs re a w as Du ing d ini t tio t , fi t t ty ma e th e Un e a e s h r e h h d by it d St t wit Tu k y , by w ic all American citiz e ns are entitled to th e s am e p rivi S O TTOM A N D YN A T Y.

h r na n H e e at hi s e s as th s e e s . s l e g o of ot tio di d , po t , an n e th at . a n a s r ns St Stef o , ubu b of Co t ti opl , on the 4

o f r ar 18 . Feb u y , 43 18 1 H e nr Ec kford a r m nen a a ar h In 3 , p o i t n v l c i y O

FF W ARREN HIDDEN E ENDI .

k a t 6 e a e . S uperin ten d e nt of th e Work s i n th e Impe rial O ttoman Min t . T a e n 7 y ars of g

t e c t e s e n s a le r m N e w r for of Scotch d c t , i d f o Yo k

a n e i n hi s be a e s s e n as a Con st nti opl utiful v l , know

s w ar e ar n his a m e h ra loop of , b i g n , oping to cont ct

2 2 O OM A N Y N A S T Y 0 TT D .

’ s e n e ars s r e e r ars a ve y e vic in the gov nment en l , he w as a om te d th e I st a a r 18 0 su erin pp on of J nu y , 4 , p ten d ent of all th e wo rks in th e I mp e ri al O ttoman

n and ri n fift -fi v e s e ss e ars his Mi t , du g y ucc iv ye in offici a l pos itio n r ec e iv e d two d eco ration s ; one th e N i s h am I ftih ar or r e r s et h am s , p iz of glo y , wit di ond m a u n a l r s o . a so f o Sult n Abd l Medjid , of M hmoud I I ; the o rde r of O sm anie or milit ary p riz e from th e

a am F r r r r reigning Sult n Abdul H id I I . ( o fu the p a “ ti c u lars s ee A m e r a a s r , An ic n M chini t in Tu key , u me n e m r an ar 2 in S pple t of Sci ntific A e ic , M ch , 189 5 ) x r m D r rs A a s s ar . . . The fi t me ic n i ion y , the Rev W arr at s a 18 1 h e w as Goodell , ived Con t ntinople in 3 ;

s e ss Re v . ssrs . w followed ucc ively by Me D ight , h ffl r m r a r ar S c au er and D . Hol e s ; th e y we e fte w d s ne ers an d 18 2 a a joi d by oth , in 7 m gnificent Bible Hou se at Fli ndj an djilar stre e t in Stamboul w as

‘ re f r h h m e cted o t e u s e of t e is sion . S eriou s troubl e s occupi e d th e atte ntion of Sulta n h mm a a rn r a . a e s e M moud I I Moh d Ali P h , gov o of w as a m s an d es re s e u re th e e Egypt , bitiou d i d to c vic r a for m se as as th e n r r a oy lty hi lf, well co t ol of Sy i n r s e nt hi s s on I rah m and a p art of As i a Mi o . He b i l as a a ar arm and s e G aza affa P h with l ge y ubdu d , J , Kai a ffa m a s and am as us and e e a e , Ptole i , D c d f t d s se as a as e as ar th e ran Hu in P h , w ll the my of g d r s w as a r s ne r e m r vizi Re hit , who t ken p i o in D ce be ,

18 2 a e r a ra r s s a e . 3 , ft b ve e i t nc T h e Sultan w as te rrifi e d an d asked Ru ssi a for as s s a a a s rah m w h o a e h ad i t nce g in t Ib i ; , me nwhil , s s e ra w s i n A s a r arr at ubdued ev l to n i Mino , ived O T T OM A YV D Y ZVA Y 2 S T . 03

m rna e r h h h a n v e te a er r . S y , o w ic ppoi d gov no In e r ar 18 th e s s an e e arr e i n th e B os F b u y , 3 3 , Ru i fl t iv d h oru s a nd an h re at H u nki ar S ke l e s si an e p , c o d , l d d

r s n e r th e mm an e ne ra r f t oop , u d co d of G l O lo f Engl an d and F ran c e in duc e d Ib rahim Pas h a to e ac a e th e s e ns i n s a r an d th e v u t ubdu d tow A i Mino ,

ss an e e e ns an n e on th ei r r d e artu re Ru i fl t l ft Co t ti opl p , a m as s s n e w as e re e as a e m r a h ive to ct d m o i l , whic h amm h s till exists . Mo e d Ali t e n w as a ckn owledge d as ere ar e -ro w h h w as h dit y vic y of Egypt , to ic anne e r a an d an a and rah m as ha x d Sy i Ad ; to Ib i P , P lm i l r n to a s e a d am as s . , A ppo , T ipoli D cu In 18 3 8 Moh amm e d Ali Pash a an d hi s s on Ibrahim ash a re e h s es h r a ss the P , new d o tiliti wit g e t lo to h ra w a ar ra n a r s . e e s Tu k W il F nc , bit ti g , Sult n ah m w as s n on th e I st 18 at M oud poi o ed of July , 3 9 , hi s m e r a r mme r re s e n e at h a m s , o s , I p i l Kio k u id c Tc li r d a a a e i n a . j , vill g Scut i

m I . w a rn a m . s on a s M h oud I I , of Abdul H id , bo on th e 2 0th 1 8 r n hi s r e h th e of July , 7 5 ; du i g ign bot

r a n - e r ns r e b idg es of Gal ta a d Azab c apou w e co t uct d . H e als o built th e Stamboul to w e r of w hite sto n e on th e s qu are of S erask erat or th e Mi ni stry of W ar ; an 1 - n e n d in 8 3 0 th e mos qu e of Top H a e. B yo d Top a e on th e s am e r a i s a h e r m s e H n , o d , not o qu built by th e m ra Kilitc h ash a i n 1 80 r e n w n e for Ad i l Ali P 5 , o d ra e the n er r th e coll e ction of fai e nc e which d e co t s i t io . a a m was r s h old a n d Sult n M h oud ve y voluptuou , but r s ara e r H e es a sh e th e rs t vigo ou in ch ct . t bli d fi m e dic al coll ege in Con stantinopl e ; as w e ll as th e fi rst Tu rki sh jou rn al u n der th e titl e of th e Otto man r ~ H e a h e e a m s f e a Monito . c i v d o t di ficult f t , M A N D N A S 2 04 O TTO Y T Y.

th at of aboli s hi ng th e use of the tu rban amo ng hi s r s and a r im a r r ar ms and t oop , pp ox ting thei unifo m , , military di s ciplin e to th e s tand ard of E uropean n a i s and a s a e r a t h an s i n th e r t on , l o m d g e c ge ce e mo ny of th e Tu rki s h cou rt an d i n th e S e raglio Hi s re ss ns s e a h ue s a d co i t d of lig t bl ilk j cket , m c s e e th e e a . s a i a m lo ly button d up to n ck , ll d ond a e th e re as an d r s e rs r s n b dg on b t t ou of c im o silk , h r h w it e s tockings a nd Eu ope an s o e s . H e e tw o s s e an d and r l ft on , M djid , Aziz , fou d a e rs all m arr ught , ied D iplom atic relations between th e U nit e d St ates a nd the ha mme an n r es mmen e on th e I st of ne 1 2 Mo d cou t i co c d Ju , 79 , wh en P resid ent Wa s hington a ppointe d A dmi ra l John Paul Jone s

’ a commissioner to treat wit h A lgi ers in regard to th e rans om of a e h h ma n r na A d s w s ar a a s s s e . e c ptiv , it T o B cl y ub titut U fo tu t ly m ra nes e e f re hi s mm s s n w a s re e ed we s n i l Jo di d b o co i io c iv , follo d oo a ter th e d ea h of ar a na a m h re s C on f by t B cl y . Fi lly D vid Hu p y of ic ut n s e r Re n r u a a mes na s n r n ec t s e . , Mi i t id t to Po t g l ; J Do ld o , J ns n s a nd r l W i th erre r S k old eb ran d Con co ul to Tu i T ipo i Pi E ic j , sul at A ers m s e the mm s s n A t rs h e we re un lgi , co po d co i io . fi t t y s e s s na e a r w wa s a e to th e n m er and a ucc ful , but fi lly Jo l B lo dd d u b h treaty wa s co nclud e d b e t we en th e two count ries . T i s a ft erward s p rep a re d th e w ay for th e fi rs t t reaty b etw een the U nit ed Stat es a nd the me rte T h e rs m n s er wh o wen r e Subli Po . fi t i i t t to Tu k y w a x- a r er h e s e a ne s e commodore D vid Po t ; wa s ucc eed d by D b y S .

“ r r h arr ar an h en in s es s n e e . a s C , of M yl d ; t ucc io by G o g P M of

erm n t M ay 2 18 a rr e n e of a r an A u . 2 V o , 9 , 49 ; C oll Sp c M yl d , g 3 , 18 a me s a ms of en ne s s ee an a r 1 18 8 war 53 ; J Willi T , J u y 4, 5 ; Ed d rr s of enns an a ne 8 186 1 a ne M ac Vea h of Joy Mo i P ylv i , Ju , W g g 8 0 r B er n ns van a enns a n a ne 1 e e . e P ylv i , Ju 4 , 7 ; G o g H ok , of P yl i , em er 18 1 ra e M a nard e nnes s ee ar h 18 Nov b 3 , 7 ; Ho c y , of T . M c 9 , 7 5; h n t 1 18 80 e n Le w ames n s re e ar na G . J Lo g t t , of Sout C oli , Ju 4, ;

a a e n an a M a 1 18 8 1 am e . N e w r W ll c , of I di , y 9 , S u l S Cox , of Yo k , ar h 2 18 8 r ra s ew r ar h 2 18 8 s a . N M c 5, 5 ; O c S St u , of Yo k , M c 4 , 7 m n r h o n M a 1 8 8 a h m s n s f re 6 1 . Solo o Hi c , O go , y , 9 ; D vid P T o p o , o f 18 A an er rre e as re n e e r 1 2 e . e O go , Nov mb 5, 9 ; l x d W T ll , of T x , A r 1 18 p il 5, 93 . T h ne i n a n n s h a e re a r the e r to . s er i xt k U S . Mi i t t t of S c t y of e a n a nd th e ra man or nte r re er th e f rmer a s as L g tio D go I p t , o ct ’ Chargé d affai rs a t any tim e du ri ng th e ab s enc e of the mi ni s ter ;

2 06 O OM A N D Y N A T TT S Y.

a e r w as s r e and th e es r m chin y con t uct d , not we e r e m th e s m a e s en m a p int d in the int , ll t d o in tion being 1 i a r d h 0 s s a n t e e s 100 . p t e , high t

S ULTAN A B DUL MEDJID .

I n 18 50 th e Tu rks atta ck e d th e I s lan d of S amos r n r h s i s a i n thei r u su al m anne r . A s t o g p oof of t i

r i n th e h an s th e a th r a e r 18 lette d of u o , d t d Ap il ,

‘ 18 0 h h w as s e nt from h a s an r th e 5 , w ic t t i l d du ing T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y 2 0 . 07

h r w r e n hi r a a t e s s e n D r . h tt ck by Tu k , itt by f i d Nic a s G ra mmato ou l os a h s a n i n th e m an ol p , p y ici Otto arm e s e e m e all for hi s a an d s w h o y , t d by bility kill , w rites to hi s b roth e r-i n - l a w th at th e thi rd d ay of th e atta ck w as a mo st h o rribl e an d pitiful on e ; chu rch e s ere ra nsa e w m en an d r s e re assa e in w ck d , o gi l w ult d th e s re e s th e r s h s e rs one h m a t t by Tu ki oldi , of w o , e a n r e w as h as e th e er s b utiful you g b id , c d by f ociou r s s h e s a w th e r a e him for h e Tu k ; docto , c ll d to lp , a n d h e en h e r ass s an e at n e a e r h s a w t to i t c o c ; ft t i , number of you ng wom e n w ere offere d to him by th e

s e rs as s all h m h e re s e . oldi gift , of w o cu d ‘ I n 18 5 1 S u ltan Abdul M edjid w as a gu est at th e h ou s e of Stefan o B ogorid e s i n A rn aout K e ui on th e ° s h r s on th e as n th e m arr a e of hi s Bo p o u , occ io of i g h a n re d aught er to Joh n Ph oti ad e s B e y . T i s w s e ti ly contrary to th e Mu ss ulm e n cu stom an d quit e b en e ath h e n h an t dig ity of t e Sult . h n r n e M ntc hi k off as as . ss a s e e Nic ol I of Ru i t P i c , an en m a e s m e e man s r m th e m e voy , to k o d d f o Subli r e n ern n th e a e s i n J e r s a e m Po t co c i g Holy pl c u l , but th e m a e rnm e n re s e h e m and th e Otto n gov t fu d t , in n ar h r m ea ar a r a m followi g y e t e C i n w w s p ocl i e d . T h e Sublim e Po rt e ask e d th e as s istan c e of th e r ea e rs an d th e a e n s h ren h an d Eu op n pow , lli d E gli , F c Itali an fl e et s aile d to th e Bo sph o ru s an d an cho r e d a B e i T h r h r t c os . e d est uction of t e Tu ki s h fl e e t by th e s s ans at n e i n e m er 1 8 a s e Ru i Si op Nov b , 53 , c u d th e a e e e th e r m ea h a a r e lli d fl t to go to C i , wit l nd fo c r nch r0 0 s an d ar n ans er of F e t p , S di i , und th e m a rn a h e n h com nd of St . A ud ; w il E gli s t roop s un d er Lo rd Ragl an occupi e d Varna ; th e O OM A N D N A S TT Y T Y. m ea m th e s r an ar m a e a I nti e Au t i y inv d d Mold vi a . n th ree e ngage m e nts w hich took pl a c e res p e ctively at a th e 2 0th e e be r 18 at T c h e rnai a Alm on of S pt m , 54 ; th e 2 6th er and at n erm an on th e th of Octob , I k 5 of e r th e sam e e ar th e ss a ns s a t Nov mbe of y , Ru i lo t bou me n ; an d S e b astopol w as ta ke n on th e 8 th e m e r 18 a r a s e e te n m s . of S pte b , 55 , fte i g of onth r n h s s e e re n h s h Du i g t i i g F c , Engli , be side s a n umb er of Aus tri an an d S ardini an troop s r I n A i a ar a rr n w e e e . s s w s s e e re th e kill d , K u d d to Ru s si an s 0 11 th e 2 5th of Nov e mb e r after a he roi c r n e si s ta c e .

th e d ar 18 as I . e an d On 3 of M ch , 55 , Nichol , di d hi n e an r w h w as s ucc e e d e d by s s o Al x de I I . o being an a mi abl e dis ositi on s ne a re a t ea e of p , ig d t y of p c on h 6 T h e n n oth ar 18 . s e re h a the 3 of M c , 5 co ditio w , t t Tu rke y s hould be i n d e p e n d e nt ; fo re ign m en of w ar w e re p ro hibit e d from p as si ng th rough th e Bo sp h o ru s a nd th e D ard an e ll e s ; th e p as sage of th e Bl a ck S e a a nd the D a nub e to b e fr e e for th e comm e r c e of all n ati o ns ; a nd th at Ru ssi a s hould n ot m aintai n a fl e et i n th e Bla ck S e a . th e s e th e e ar 18 an e s e t At clo of y 57 , Sult M djid n h amm e a sh a th e e ar m ra Un e Mo d P , R Ad i l , to the it d a e s h a s for th e r s e a n St t wit uite , pu po of h vi g con s r h e r e a h re e - e e r s h - of- w ar ear t ucted t t d ck ip , to b n H e arr th e nam e of th e Sulta . iv e d in N e w York on th e 6th ar h 18 8 an d on th e 18 th th e of M c , 5 , of sam e mo nth w as fo r m ally re c e iv e d by P resid e nt h an an H e n a e me r a re a i a Buc . fi lly l ft A ic g tly d s p hi 6 b rr e i n arr n s ans . 18 0 point d not c yi g out pl In , o i b l e atrociti e s an d m assa c res occu rred at Le banon

' 2 10 O T T OM A N D YN A S T Y .

te ctive a n A rmen an who r m er a n n a ns er e e ha , i , , f o c t i i dic tio , p c iv d t t h er m a n n in th e arr a e was a n man in s s e He co p io c i g you g di gui . ‘ w ent at once to th e polic e statio n a nd s tat ed the ca s e to the c a p a n in h ar e ha a r e r who mme a e a m an e him t i c g of t t qu t , i di t ly cco p i d th e s T h e a a n wa h e th e a r s e and wa s c on to pot . c pt i tc d p i clo ly vinced th a t th e d et e ctiv e w a s co rrect ; h e app ro a ched th e c arriage a ne and a n his h an on th e en w n w s a a wh o lo , pl ci g d Op i do , id , L dy , i s ur m an n ? n w n th e ns e en es s h e yo co p io K o i g co qu c , quickly d rew off a di a mo nd ring of great valu e and s lipp ed it on one of his fi n r h th e m s s h e s a a a me e s . a c an re g Wit ut o t u vity , id , M d , you m ain h ere a s long a s you lik e ; you a re p erfectly s afe now; and ef h er w h a ow He h eh a e s e era emen a nd in l t it b . t c ll d v l polic s r e h em w a h h a arr a e a nd not a w an one t uct d t to tc t t c i g , to llo y to H n as s or in an wa ann i ts an s . e re r e the p it , y y to oy occup t tu d to “ e s a n a n th e e e i e w h him a nd s a h a I S h s polic t tio , t ki g d t ct v it , id , W t t i ou ha e ne ? am in an er of s n m s n for h a n y v do I d g lo i g y po itio , vi g ” a nnoye d one of th e wive s of th e gran d vizir ! He r companion was h er a h r— not a n ma n h man rs es h e r ere d ug t e you g . Wit y cu o d d him b e h rash e and e him in n ne men n th e ne to t d , k pt co fi t u til xt wh en he wa s re eas ed a . d y, l

XXXI V .

A A A SULT N BDUL ZIZ I .

1 6 1— 6 8 18 7 .

’ h h r 1 6 1 an . as n e t e 8 d Abdul Aziz I ce d d t one in , r h r m h a m gi ded on t e s wo d of O s an with t e u su l po p . In 1862 a comme r cial t reaty w as m ade betw e en

h e e a an r . t U s d , s nit d St te Tu key igned , by E Joy rr s s a a n s e r e ar to Mo i , of Penn ylv ni , Mi i t Pl nipotenti y th e m e r and th e r sh s r Subli Po te , by Tu ki Mini te of For l n f a r e g A f i s .

M r in h a and al h er rans a ns w h the . rr s s re l Mo i , t i t ty , ot t ctio it man vernmen e h e rea a an d n re r n Otto go t , x ibit d g t t ct dig ity , qui i g all with wh om h e came in co nt act to re s p ect th e count ry which h e re resen e He was rmer a n e a es s ena r r m the p t d . fo ly U it d St t to f o s a e n n h A mer an A t t of Illi oi s ; a fine linguis t a d a tho roug ic . great comp liment was p aid him by th e grand vizir A li P ash a

2 1 O OM A N D Y A 4 TT N S T Y.

186 an 1 i s r e a an e d In 7 Sult Az z V ited Eu op , ccomp i

hi s s on and hi s n e s at w h e h e w as by eph w , hic tim s e e n th a h r at h th e a by e ut o Ric mond on Th m e s . 0 h e r a h as e e r a e a s m ar r N ot Sult n v t k n i il j ou ney . S everal ye ars ago I w as a pa s s enger on the b eautiful s t ea mer K orn iloff e n n a s s an l ne e ween n n and ss b lo gi g to Ru i i b t Lo do Od e a . T h e a ta n and f ers we re re en e men and wh en he c p i o fic cultu d g tl , t y ea rne h a w a s a n A mer an reate me w h the re a es l d t t I ic , t d it g t t n ne s s and me n h e r n en e A m n our el w ki d took i to t i co fid c , o g f lo ass en e rs were a f en a h h r s h f a re s ent p g , S id E f di , ig Tu ki o fici l id " in e b e on the s h r s— w h his h arem mam and s e B k Bo p o u it , I uit , going from M alta to Co nst a nti nople ; th ei r p res en c e on bo ard led the s e n mate i n a eas an t a er d nner a e me the co d , pl ft i t lk , to t ll w n n en a re s a e : A r s h as h a with a follo i g i cid t of p viou voy g Tu ki p , s te a s h ad a en as sa e on the K orniloff at ns an n e fo r ui , l o t k p g Co t ti opl a a on h e r a rr a a t m rna th e as ha a e r n r n as M lt ; t i iv l S y , p , ft i qui i g to the e n h he r s a here wen on s h re w h hi s ma e a en l gt of t i t y t , t o it l tt d a n s a e a r sh b a h a s a re s and in r er b e t to t k Tu ki t , ligiou duty , o d to th r h eane r m h e r ns T h e h r e a r re a rr e o oug ly cl d f o t i s i . ou of d p tu iv d " b ut h e as ha and his were a m n s an w as t ar . p 5 p ty i u qu tity It i mpo s s ibl e to wait a n y lo ng er a nd th e Korniloff s te amed out of the h arbo r of Smyrna ju s t a s th e Tu rki s h owner of the h a rem and his s er an s r s h e ra n a wn on th e er w a n h e r h and v t u d f tic lly do pi , vi g t i er h e s and e s a n the a a n in a n l A as for k c i f , g ticul ti g to c pt i . But v i l the obdu ra cy of th e Ru s s i an goverment offi c er wh o would not allow his s teamer to b e hind ered by th e d elay of a s i nless Tu rk wi s hing to joi n his hare m l He was compell ed to wait for th e next st eamer a nd n his w es aw a n him at a a havin rec eived n h n fou d iv iti g M lt , g ot i g but kind and gentlema nly t re atment from the offic ers of th e Ko rni lofi . In 1869 two i mpo rta nt e v e nt s occu rre d ; th e fi rs t w as the op eni ng of the railw ay be twe e n Con stanti T h e e w as th e ih nopl e and Ad ri anopl e . s cond a ra th e a a w h s th e ugu tion of Suez c n l , hic connect h re e s th e M e dite rran e an and th e Re d S e a . T i s duc di s tan c e b e twe e n W e s te rn Eu rope and Indi a from i e a i s th e m s to mil e s . Th s f t one of o t

n e r n ne e r r m h s m r i m es wo d ful e gi ing t iu p of ode n t , and w as compl e te d by th e e ne rgy and pe rs e ve ranc e

of Fe rdinand De Le ss ep s . 0 T T OM A N D Y N A S T Y 2 1 5

I n th e sam e e ar an ss e an y , Sult Abdul Aziz i u d I rad e or mand ate fo rbidding Tu rkis h s ubj e cts from exp at ri ati ng th e m s e lv e s by b e coming citiz e ns of i rm n r n oth e r cou ntri es without h s p e i ssio . Du i g th e

S ULTAN A B DUL A Z I Z

. U e d n n s er . . ad mini stratio of Mi i t S S Cox , nit Stat es inform e d th e Tu rki s h gov e rnme nt th at it would not a ckn owl e dge th at law ; but to thi s d ay 2 16 O T TOM A N . D YN A S T Y the Sublim e Po rt e re fu s e s to re cogni z e th e n atu rali ati n an w h r a r 1 6 z o of y s ubj e ct o l eft Tu ke y ft e 8 9 . In 1 8 70 a g re a t fi re oc c u re d at Pe ra opposit e " C onstanti no l e w h e n h s e s e re e s r p , ou w d t oyed n r h a d p e opl e p e i s e d . in Cons tantinople w as ' 11 18 b th e m n S zé c h e n i _ 74, y Count Ed o d y

i u n ari an n ob l e man u n d er se r g , who cont ol

e v e r si n c e . h s re n s e era s r an e s a e t i ig , v l di tu b c took pl c anu b i an p rov m c e s w hich h ast e ned the th e O ttoman Empi re 18 a n ns rre r e He r 7 5, i u ction b ok out in a in st th e a n w h h n e h e r th e arm s Sult , ic it ,

r mi h r e o s e s of t e Tu ks would qu ll . The

‘ e ne r a ra e an d ar of Mont g o , b v h dy ' Il e d th e Bl a ck Mountai n e e rs— from th e re s ts e r m n ans s m a e fo on th i ou t i , y p thiz d assi s te d th e H e rz e du ri ng thi s ' onte n e r0 alth ou n a s e g , g lly ubj ct to

' for s ev e ra l y e ar s Ca rri e d on a p e riodical

ar i n n e n e h s c e ss , o v y g uc i cid nt , of whic ' a m n n A e a h m e of sp e ci l e tio . d t c nt of ’ n r e r s e n e re a r as s u d d Tu k t d ocky p ,

ani e d b h e r ras an and e re a re y t i b s b d , w c ptu d M onte ne grm s who w e re i n ambu s h ; afte r thi s th e Tu rki s h s oldi e rs wer e comp e ll e d to e xch ang e th e i r u nifo rm s for th e much wo rn g arm e n ts of thei r c apto rs and th en rel eas e d to re tu rn to the i r own

- r r A h e a r a h e th e r s h h e ad qu a t e s . s t y pp o c d Tu ki am e w e re re n h e r rad e s c p th y fi d upo by t i own com , who mi s took th e w eare rs of th e Mo nt e n eg ri n u ni

2 18 0 T T OM A N 1) Y N A S T Y .

' am s h n e e e m e n e n h f ily, wi i g to qu ll the xcit t , w t wit

rn r n th e gove o of S alo i ca to th e mos qu e Y e ni Dj ami . e r re s en e n rease th e m h e e r an d Th i p c i c d tu ult , ow v ,

the con s uls w e re b e at en to d eath by a m ob of fan at . ’ i h e rn r r n c s t e s es e e . , in gov o p c T h e re voluti o n i n H e rze gov m a c ontm u e d for ear a ar a nd m a w e a n a e m r t n ly ye , e n hil tt pted evol

l a e i n B a r a T h e r s e r m n took p c ulg i . Tu ki h gov n e t

a d i n its re ar r s e m e h o s in d tio to gul t oop , ploy d t u

‘ an s sa a e as h - B ozou ks s as r ass a s d of v g B i , uch Ci c i n , a nd Z e ib ek s w h o mm t e th e m s r a an d i n , co it d o t b ut l d e s c rl b ab l e to rtu re s upon th e C hristi a ns e arly in 18 6 th e re r h e r s e h 7 , po t of w ich fill d Ch i t ndom wit ’

rr r S e e r e a rn e . ho o . ( A gyl s E ste Q u stion ) M r ar n h r h n ta ni . t e s ass at C o s B i g , of B iti emb y n o l e v s e Bul ar a rin a m and s a s p , i it d g i du g th t ti e , t te th at th e autho riti e s of T artar- B azardjik h ad o rd e re d ak Ah m e d Agh a of Do sp at to m arch a g ains t B a t . H e rea h a a e the th M a and s u m ched t t pl c on o of y , m one d th e n a a s v h e r arm s i h bit nt to gi e up t i , but

e re s e s o e ari n th e s e en s . th y fu d to do , f g con qu ce Ahmed in re ply s ol e mnly s wo re th a t if th e y w oul d e h r ar ms n ot a h a r h e r h ea s s h giv up t ei , i of t i d ould h e th e a e rs e e n him a e e to be touc d vill g b li vi g , cc d d hi r n an a h - B z k a a e s e qu est . I s t tly the B s i o ou s tt ck d and s a e re h e m i n e e a t l ught d t cold blood , xc pting bou w h o took refuge i n th e c hu rch ; th ey w e re p u r: s e th e r s w h o r th e e s off th e r f u d by Tu k , to e til oo , th re w bu rning pi e ce s of wood and rag s s atu rate d h r e m h r w h man n wit pet ol u into t e c o d of u bei gs , a th e r w a r e all e re s e . s s in id At l t doo fo c d in , w h r ff For killed e xc e pt eig ty gi rls wh o w e re c a ried o . M A N D N A S 2 1 O TTO Y TY. 9

h s e h m e h a and hi s ea e s T os t i xploit A d Ag coll gu , s n B e v and N e l b f e n er e ra e th e ou j E f di , w e d co t d by rnm n h h r e r h e A c gove e t Wit t e o d of t e M djidie. ’ r r Ear n s a n fift - r ar co ding to M . i g ccou t y fou Bulg i an a e s e re rn e an d es r e and h e r vill g w bu d d t oy d , t i m r T h a n m inh abitants me t th e sa e c u e l fate . e tot l u r ma a re w a es m a e at 2 am h e b e s s c d s ti t d A , p p l t “ ’ s h e n an e n e T he r nes publi d in E gl d titl d , Abo igi i r n narra e s th e r of th e a e S tam at os . F ie d , t wo k l t L S anou d i s a re e e e m an nstan n e p G k g ntl of Co ti opl , an n m ate r e n the a h r — w h o r es e ar i ti f i d of ut o , cu d l ge numb ers of child r e n p reviou sly kid napp e d by th e

r as s ans as h - B ozou ks an d h er mara e rs Ci c i , B i , ot ud in 18 76 ; m any of wh om had b e e n s old i n Cons tanti

l h r a m h nO e an d s a n r . n e u b p in A i Mi o A ot e p p l t , p li s h e d a s n an T h e n a n ar l o in E gl d , Kid ppi g of Bulg

ans r n th e s s - r sh W ar m e n n s th e i Du i g Ru o Tu ki , tio numb e r s aved by hi m fr om th e s ad fat e w hich oth e r s e a a e h e r z an d r s wi w it d t e m . Ov oo boy s gi l of f e re n a es w ere re s e s e ve ra r m th e e x di f t g cu d , l f o ’ g ran d vizi r S av fet P as h a s summ e r resid e n c e at C an lid a a a e on the s h r s r m th e ex - ran j , vill g Bo p o u f o g d

’ ‘ r Ed h e m as h a s h s e at O u zou n-T c hars hi vizi P ou , ' ’ Stamboul ; from th e h ou s e of S aid Pas h a s s on n e ar ’ Vl an a am r m h e r ash a s h s e at g , St boul ; f o S if P ou ’ Scutari ; from G eifyk H as san P ash a s h ou s e at e e a a e th e s h r s r m e m a B b k , vill g on Bo p o u ; f o K l ’ ash a s h s e at ar e h r s a e I 18 P ou Scut i ; ig t gi l , g d 7 to , ' r Ki amil as h a s h s at e th e B os-i f om P ou e B bek , on \ h oru s r th e h se Ki azim ex - re e t p ; f om ou of Bey , p f c of Con stantinopl e . O M A N D N A S TTO Y T Y.

I n th e e ar 18 6 a A A Z 12 i n c ons e y 7 , Sult n bdul ,

' u enc e th e ssa s a n of hi s s e s w as q of di ti f ctio ubj ct , ‘ r hi h a n h fo cibly d e po s ed by s p as s . O t e night of t h e oth M a h e was a e s e a r h is 3 of y , t k n by f om

a a e m a - B a tc h e hi s re n e v s p l c of Dol g , with ti u of wi e , and s e e i n th e s - erai or th e ra clud d E ki S , Se glio , t h en c e w as conv e y e d to th e T c hi ragh an p ala ce on t h e B o h orus a n d an e n d w as hi s m s ra p , put to i e ble n 6 e s e e e 1 8 . xi t c on Jun 4 , 7 l w as a and s h a h a h Abdu Aziz t ll , tout wit ug ty m m h n i a nn r . t e e s h s re n w as th e e A ong ve t of ig , f rma a e ar ns s o tion of mount d body gu d , co i tin g of th e s ons of nobl e famili e s in the s ubdu e d p rovince s a n as h s a e s a n d e ar n th e r e mb roi d t ke o t g , w i g ichly e r re s e an d e a s me s h r ed , pictu qu b utiful co tu of t ei r r e sp e ctiv e count i e s . e all hi s re d e c e s s ors h e m a n a e a ar Lik , p i t in d l ge

are m s s n a s s . h , con i ti g of od li que

h t a as n s e a s a n H m T e an e e on s e e . i s ea s are Sul , xc pt p ci l occ io , t lo l s er e i n s e r es s e s s e s ea ed w h a a er s wh h is v d ilv v l clo ly l it p p lip , ic s a m e T h e h e Ch a m erla n rea s the s ea and a s es t p d . c i f b i b k l t t every d ish b efo re it is giv e n to th e Sultan ; thi s is d one i n his p resenc e as a re a n a a ns ois on and i s ea en r m th e s h in wh h p c utio g i t p , it t f o di ic i s s er e t i v d . I n th e res en es of th e as ha s and in th e h m es of th e wea h id c p , o lt y , a ll th e mea s are re ared in th e h en of th e s e am and l p p kitc l lik , th e ne es s ar r n i s a en to th e h arem th e aivaz or c y po tio t k lik by , ar for s e T h e i s arr e on ar e w e n b e ers thi s p u rpo . food c i d l g ood t ra s ere w h hs on h e ir a rr a at th e h a re m r th e y cov d it clot ; t iv l doo , earers a es t r ! es r I— e e awa h s th e s a e b c ll out D ou D tou K p y . T u l v r s are a r s e of h e r res en e a nd h e hems e es wh e th e g i l pp i d t i p c , id t lv il ' ra s a re a e on th e r a e r wh h h e are a en s a rs t y pl c d floo , ft ic t y t k up t i th r a s r h s th h i s n o u mar e s e n fo t e u e e s eh . t s by v t , of ou old It c to y f or th e ma st er or ma le me mb ers of the family to joi n th e w omen a t th e l T h e h s es are e n two a r s— th e e am ta b e . ou divid d i to p t S l ’ lik a nd H are mlik ; th e fo rm e r is occupie d by th e men a s a resid e nc e a nd for s a r s es wh e th e w men h a e th e s a me r h oci l pu po , il o v ig t to ,

a nd h h r m I n h e . a e r no m an e e the mas er us e t e a e . t of lik l tt , , xc pt t ,

XXXV .

A A BD UL A 11 SULT N H MI D .

d am s e n s on Ab ul H id , the co d of Abdul Medjid , w a rn h 2 2 e m r 1 2 i s t e d e e 8 . H s bo on of S pt b , 4 e r e h e w as an n a an d h e w as moth , di d while i f nt , ’ ar for hi s a h e r s s e a h ss and c ed by f t econd wif , c ildle a h we lt y wom a n . 186 h e a c c om an l e d hi s a In 7 p uncle , Sult n Abdul A r e a nd on th e 1st s 18 6 h e ziz , to Eu op , g of Augu t , 7 , h r H m as e n e t e h as a a . c d d t one , Sult n Abdul id I I

(T h e autho r w as an e y e witne s s of th e pomp atte nd m mg thi s c e remoni al ) Ev e nts of gre at impo rtanc e occu rred in the e a rly

ar hi r n T h e re re as e ! p t of s e ig . volt inc d in the an a r a e s an d th e sam ear D ubi n P incip liti , in e y h an h a an e r . e t e Alex d I I notifi d Sult , t t if he could not giv e s ati sfa cto ry gu arante e for th e b e tte r gove rn me nt of hi s Ch ri s ti a n s u bj e cts th e Czar would

r e r inte f e . I n th e following Dec e mb e r a co nfe re nce of the gre at po we rs w as h e ld i n Con sta nti n opl e , and on th e 1st ar h 18 a r w as s e 3 of M c , 7 7 , p otocol ign d by th e m ; but it w as not a cc e pted by the Tu rks and it w as e vide nt th at the matte r mu s t be s e ttled by the

r s wo d . th e 2 d r 18 ss a are d On 3 of Ap il , 77 , Ru i decl

w ar a a ns r e y th e 2 th th e . g i t T u k ; on 7 of June , s ns n arm i n h re e divi io , R u ssi a y , t f e r G en . rn a and s n a t an e a re Ti ov , oo D ub , c ptu d n a r s s th e hi s ar n exp e ditio c o G ou rko m ad e d i g

- h ra . nlik and s Z ag an and K s a E ki B alk , took y h a n an d r h re a re r a , ove t w s a - th e ss i ans c ptu d A d A i , Ru e r ar e h ar m w h h w as aft w d follow d by th e Tu rki s y , ic 2 2 O OM A N z) Y WA T Y 4 TT S .

h a r t e a s . s an as h a a e r a s r re f ll of K O m P , ft t ong si stan c e Was a re on l oth e m e r t , c ptu d the of Dec b a na an d hi s arm ere a en r s rs Plev , with y w t k p i one ; ’ and the re m nan t of Sul eym an Pas h a s army w as r T h di sp e s ed . e Ru ssi ans a dvanc e d to Ad ri anopl e and w f T h took it ithout di ficulty . e Tu rk s th e n ask e d for an a rmi stic e ; but the R u s si an s c m u e d

r m ar f m fr e . e a a e w le s C on th i ch to St St f no , i anti n l st O p e . E ngla nd fe ari ng th at the Ru ss i ans might ojcc u py a s e n h e r e e h n r th e D ar a th t city , t fl t w ich e te ed d nell e s on th e 8 th of J anu ary and anch o re d be fo re Co ns tanti nople On th e g1st of J anu ary an armi stic e w as conclude d h at . e a a s b r t e a a o e d St St f no , u u b of c pit l , f llo on e 1 18 8 th e re a e r n w h Jun 3 , 7 , by t ty of B li , by h the an an r e s S e rv ia ou mani a an d te D ubi p ovinc , , £ ,

e r e re b e e e n e n l a r a b e n g o , w to ind p d t ; Bu g i ruled by a p rin ce und e r the control of th e S

ar f r e ~ A p t o Th es saly w as giv e n to G e c e . w as to h old Bos n a an d H e rz e govin a ; occupi e d th e I s la nd of Cyp ru s , Ru ss i a h

r a a and Batou n . A d h n , I n 18 8 1 th e assass s th e ran d in of Abdul Aziz , r a ash a“ a as a s e r e Vizi Midh t P , Riz P h , Mini t of tic “ M ahmoud D a mat Pas h a ; Sb e it Bey ; I z Bey B e h li v an s a a r res e r re n s b Mu t f o w tl , we pu i hed y a m e r i e i Sultan Abdul H id I I . They w e ex l d w th e B e hll v an s a a hi s m r re r the exc ption of Mu t f , u de ,

w as n e n ea . sse 1 n as a who co d m ed to d th Hu n Av i P h , Mini ste r of W ar ; A hmed Pash a Mini ste r of th e a a d e sh a a wh o w re a s i n th l N vy ; n R it P sh , e l o w e p ot ,

2 6 M A N D N S Y 2 O TTO Y A T .

In 189 2 th e Sult an o rg aniz e d a new ca val ry c om

s e of th e W 1ld e r s and s d e s e rate r s po d , f ociou p Ku d to a hi am e am a which he g ve s own n H idie. He ls o s ummo ne d a numbe r of th ei r c hi e fs to Constanti n o l e n s e h e W i ar ran an d e ra p , i ve t d t m th milit y k d co tion s as a re w ard for ho rribl e atrociti e s committed by th e m i n p ast y e ars ; p rovid e d them with th e b e st of m rn arm s and a rm n n ar e a ode , unifo i cludi g l g bl ck n e a s a rass a e s r n . r wool n c p , h ving b b dg in f o t Du i g r s a s e ra m s i n th e a a e re thei t y of ev l onth c pit l , th y we r h e f re quently s e e n by the autho r in thi s d e s s . T s e Ku rd s co ns titut e at p re s e nt a b riga d e of legaliz e d a nd a e ss r ers re e r m an re s r or l wl obb , f f o y t iction tr and r h s s e a e i r con ol , we e t u nt b ck to th own coun r e are th e sa e e s e ra es wh o a e t y . Th y m d p do h v a r a an d n e as a e a nd l e dy , will co tinu to dev t t pil

r nl T h e r r m n i n ar1a l age A me a . Tu ki s h gov e n e t v i e s all s e ra es i s a t ra a bly den the out g , it n u l th t it T h m f r s s o . e an a a s a re e o hould do Sult lw y f vo d th , h e con side re d th e m a bulwark again s t th e Arm eni an s as e re o in c of v lt .

A rre s s are re en m a e in r e er n s a nd on th e t f qu tly d Tu k y v y u ju tly , li h s t re e or s s n T he w n n en is an s ra s g e p t xt u picio . follo i g i cid t illu t n : A sh rt me e re e r e a num er A rmen ans tio o ti b fo I l ft Tu k y , b of i , n er a rres as s e th e h s e at Y en ikeui where was s a n u d t , p d ou , I t yi g n th e s mmer On n r earne ha h e w ere A r du ri g u . i qui y I l d t t t y menia n s e m e a e men em e in wea h am es cook , qui t iddl g d ploy d lt y f ili , wh o ha d s er e th e n n nner and were s n e h er in a v d oo di , itti g tog t c f ee -s h s s s n he r own ma e rs w h th e nten n re o f op di cu i g t i tt , it i tio of t rn n i n a e h rs he r w r en the f ee u i g coupl of ou to t i o k . Sudd ly co f s h was s rr n e a n m er of r sh e and in s e op u ou d d by u b Tu ki polic , pit h r e s th n ar h r rres e on th e of. ei r a ns e r e we e a t p ot t tio to co t y , t y t d a a he w ere an n ra a a n h e e rnmen pl e th t t y pl ning a co s pi cy g i s t t gov t . h e were m e e w a se era m e s era a r e th e T y co p ll d to lk v l il to P , gu d d by

“ e wh o were han e at the f ere n t V a es on the r e . p olic , c g d di f ill g out

m h rm n ns . l u not earn h a na e a e ese r A e ia . W t fi lly b c of t poo , co ld l 2 2 O TTOM AN D YNA ST Y. 7

“ b ut h e were r a h a ne an d e i e wh h in r s h t y p ob bly c i d x l d , ic Tu ki ar an e m ea ns ha he w e re h ea h a ne e h er a e p l c , , t t t y vily c i d tog t , pl c d on a es se and at n h e r e n th e s r n rren of v l , ig t qui tly d opp d i to t o g cu t r s ea m en e no a es th e Bo s ph o u . D d t ll t l

I n 18 a m as sa re a e i n r s h rme n a 94 c took pl c Tu ki A i , c au s e d by a Ku rdi s h i ai d i n which tw o Ku rd s w e re h e r r s e s ere e e r e n s kill e d . T i co p w conv y d by f i d to Mou sh w h o d e cl are d th at th e Arm e ni an s h a d re v olte d ; thi s s e rv e d as a p r et e xt for an o rd e r from th e an m ass a re th e e e e e ss e n Sult to c d f nc l p ople , upo whom hi s t roop s committ e d th e m o st i n d es c ribabl e h h e a re ar a e r x outrage s wit out t e l st g d to g o s e . T he e nd of thi s s av age butch ery c am e only w h en — th e re w as no m ore m at e ri al for it aft er th e inh abit ants of mo re th an thi rty Arm eni an vill ag e s h ad b e en r I mu rd ere d an d th e i r h ou ses d e st oy e d . n one pl a c e a n m er me n men an d h re h ad e e u b of , wo c ild n coll ct d for s a e an d e r na n e s rr en d e r f ty w e fi lly i duc d to u , only on th e s ol e mn p romis e of p rot e ction from th e r s a e r h a n n e s o m an h e m Ku d , but ft vi g do , y of t , n n s e e ra r e s s w e re s e e an d r e i cludi g v l p i t , iz d bu i d a e s m e ere m a e i n r s h ash i n an d liv ; o w i p l d Tu ki f o , h e rs e re ri e n n h s e s ar n w h h i n ot w d v i to ou , ou d ic amma ma e r a s ere e h en re rn n fl ble t i l w pil d , t fi d , bu i g

‘ h e m a h t s lowly to d e t . re s w m en an d n r s a e r re c eiv Hund d of o you g gi l , ft ing th e mo st ago nizi ng an d fi e n di s h t reatme nt from th e s e r w e r e h m h s e e . e t e e oldi , kill d by t Ev n littl h re n r n m an r e e ot e e e , d e e s e as ar e s c ild w x pt d w u d , t g t h e r a r A a r ar f r h by t b ut l s oldi e s . s e w d o t ese out ra es Z as h a mman e r th e r s and the g , iki P , co d of t oop , r s h h e s ass a e h hi m e re e ra e Ku di c i f oci t d wit , w d co t d by S ultan H amid !

1 6 2 2 M Y N A S Y 8 O TTO AN D T .

th e s th e ss - r s h w a r N ers e s the At clo e of Ru o Tu ki , , A rm a a r ar h i m r th e ss a eni n P t i c , plo ed Ru i n com m n r a in n a d e at St . Ste f no co cluding th e t reaty with r e i s e r a a s e s a h a a m Tu k y , to n t cl u tipul ting t t utono y s hould b e granted to Arm e ni a ; for s h e h as be e n s ubj e ct e d from time i mm e mo ri a l to th e sa m e i n an m a re a m e n a re an ar a j u stic e d lt t t s G ec e d Bulg i . Hi s re qu e st w as willin gly g rant e d by the c om ma e r an d r e a e th e ns th e nd , Tu k y cc pted conditio of Be rli n t re aty to c arry out s uch re form s and imp rov e me s a s rm e a e e and a s ara e its nt A ni n ded , l o gu nt ed r h n a am e th e s a ar p otection , w ile E gl nd bec peci l gu r r m h anto of the p o i s e s of th e Sublim e Po rte . T os e refo r m s h ave nev e r he e n carri e d out ; the p rot e ctio n h as n e e r e e an r an e re v b en giv n , y mo e th w the re fo rm s p romi sed by th e Porte i mm e di at e ly afte r r r the C ime an w a . Early in th e s umm e r of 189 5 an in su rre ction took a e i n a a th e e a s are pl c M cedoni , d t il of which too r ec e nt to re qu i re re p etition h e re ; th e re sult of thi s r r n ho we v e w as favo able to th e i n su rge ts . I n e m e r th e s ame e ar a rm a e n ot Sept b of y , fo id bl occu rre d i n Constantinople in which A rmeni ans an d r e re e T h e rm e n ans fl e d Tu k s w kill d . A i to the r e s for s e r and a e r s e e ra a s r h chu ch cu ity ft v l d y , th oug the e r e th e F re m as sa rs e int v ntion of o ign A b do , th y w e re a llowed to go safe ly to th e ir hom e s . r 18 an m e r a ra e w as ra In Octobe , 9 5, I p i l I d g nted m th e r e a s a a . to A m ni n by Sult n Abdul H id I I , in con r th e an ma e ss a a fo mity with dem d d by Ru i , Engl nd a nd Fran e s n rs a th e r s , , c but tho e who u de t nd Tu ki h ch aracte r know ce rtain ly th at tho se p romis e s of re