# Iac-10-A6.4.1 Medium Earth Orbits: Is There a Need for a Third Protected

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• NTI Day 9 Astronomy Michael Feeback Go To: Teachastronomy
NTI Day 9 Astronomy Michael Feeback Go to: teachastronomy.com textbook (chapter layout) Chapter 3 The Copernican Revolution Orbits Read the article and answer the following questions. Orbits You can use Newton's laws to calculate the speed that an object must reach to go into a circular orbit around a planet. The answer depends only on the mass of the planet and the distance from the planet to the desired orbit. The more massive the planet, the faster the speed. The higher above the surface, the lower the speed. For Earth, at a height just above the atmosphere, the answer is 7.8 kilometers per second, or 17,500 mph, which is why it takes a big rocket to launch a satellite! This speed is the minimum needed to keep an object in space near Earth, and is called the circular velocity. An object with a lower velocity will fall back to the surface under Earth's gravity. The same idea applies to any object in orbit around a larger object. The circular velocity of the Moon around the Earth is 1 kilometer per second. The Earth orbits the Sun at an average circular velocity of 30 kilometers per second (the Earth's orbit is an ellipse, not a circle, but it's close enough to circular that this is a good approximation). At further distances from the Sun, planets have lower orbital velocities. Pluto only has an average circular velocity of about 5 kilometers per second. To launch a satellite, all you have to do is raise it above the Earth's atmosphere with a rocket and then accelerate it until it reaches a speed of 7.8 kilometers per second.
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• Up, Up, and Away by James J
www.astrosociety.org/uitc No. 34 - Spring 1996 © 1996, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 390 Ashton Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94112. Up, Up, and Away by James J. Secosky, Bloomfield Central School and George Musser, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Want to take a tour of space? Then just flip around the channels on cable TV. Weather Channel forecasts, CNN newscasts, ESPN sportscasts: They all depend on satellites in Earth orbit. Or call your friends on Mauritius, Madagascar, or Maui: A satellite will relay your voice. Worried about the ozone hole over Antarctica or mass graves in Bosnia? Orbital outposts are keeping watch. The challenge these days is finding something that doesn't involve satellites in one way or other. And satellites are just one perk of the Space Age. Farther afield, robotic space probes have examined all the planets except Pluto, leading to a revolution in the Earth sciences -- from studies of plate tectonics to models of global warming -- now that scientists can compare our world to its planetary siblings. Over 300 people from 26 countries have gone into space, including the 24 astronauts who went on or near the Moon. Who knows how many will go in the next hundred years? In short, space travel has become a part of our lives. But what goes on behind the scenes? It turns out that satellites and spaceships depend on some of the most basic concepts of physics. So space travel isn't just fun to think about; it is a firm grounding in many of the principles that govern our world and our universe.
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• Multisatellite Determination of the Relativistic Electron Phase Space Density at Geosynchronous Orbit: Methodology and Results During Geomagnetically Quiet Times Y
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 110, A10210, doi:10.1029/2004JA010895, 2005 Multisatellite determination of the relativistic electron phase space density at geosynchronous orbit: Methodology and results during geomagnetically quiet times Y. Chen, R. H. W. Friedel, and G. D. Reeves Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA T. G. Onsager NOAA, Boulder, Colorado, USA M. F. Thomsen Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA Received 10 November 2004; revised 20 May 2005; accepted 8 July 2005; published 20 October 2005. [1] We develop and test a methodology to determine the relativistic electron phase space density distribution in the vicinity of geostationary orbit by making use of the pitch-angle resolved energetic electron data from three Los Alamos National Laboratory geosynchronous Synchronous Orbit Particle Analyzer instruments and magnetic field measurements from two GOES satellites. Owing to the Earth’s dipole tilt and drift shell splitting for different pitch angles, each satellite samples a different range of Roederer L* throughout its orbit. We use existing empirical magnetic field models and the measured pitch-angle resolved electron spectra to determine the phase space density as a function of the three adiabatic invariants at each spacecraft. Comparing all satellite measurements provides a determination of the global phase space density gradient over the range L* 6–7. We investigate the sensitivity of this method to the choice of the magnetic field model and the fidelity of the instrument intercalibration in order to both understand and mitigate possible error sources. Results for magnetically quiet periods show that the radial slopes of the density distribution at low energy are positive, while at high energy the slopes are negative, which confirms the results from some earlier studies of this type.
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• GPS Applications in Space
Space Situational Awareness 2015: GPS Applications in Space James J. Miller, Deputy Director Policy & Strategic Communications Division May 13, 2015 GPS Extends the Reach of NASA Networks to Enable New Space Ops, Science, and Exploration Apps GPS Relative Navigation is used for Rendezvous to ISS GPS PNT Services Enable: • Attitude Determination: Use of GPS enables some missions to meet their attitude determination requirements, such as ISS • Real-time On-Board Navigation: Enables new methods of spaceflight ops such as rendezvous & docking, station- keeping, precision formation flying, and GEO satellite servicing • Earth Sciences: GPS used as a remote sensing tool supports atmospheric and ionospheric sciences, geodesy, and geodynamics -- from monitoring sea levels and ice melt to measuring the gravity field ESA ATV 1st mission JAXA’s HTV 1st mission Commercial Cargo Resupply to ISS in 2008 to ISS in 2009 (Space-X & Cygnus), 2012+ 2 Growing GPS Uses in Space: Space Operations & Science • NASA strategic navigation requirements for science and 20-Year Worldwide Space Mission space ops continue to grow, especially as higher Projections by Orbit Type* precisions are needed for more complex operations in all space domains 1% 5% Low Earth Orbit • Nearly 60%* of projected worldwide space missions 27% Medium Earth Orbit over the next 20 years will operate in LEO 59% GeoSynchronous Orbit – That is, inside the Terrestrial Service Volume (TSV) 8% Highly Elliptical Orbit Cislunar / Interplanetary • An additional 35%* of these space missions that will operate at higher altitudes will remain at or below GEO – That is, inside the GPS/GNSS Space Service Volume (SSV) Highly Elliptical Orbits**: • In summary, approximately 95% of projected Example: NASA MMS 4- worldwide space missions over the next 20 years will satellite constellation.
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• Geosynchronous Orbit Determination Using Space Surveillance Network Observations and Improved Radiative Force Modeling
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• NASA Process for Limiting Orbital Debris
NASA-HANDBOOK NASA HANDBOOK 8719.14 National Aeronautics and Space Administration Approved: 2008-07-30 Washington, DC 20546 Expiration Date: 2013-07-30 HANDBOOK FOR LIMITING ORBITAL DEBRIS Measurement System Identification: Metric APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE – DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED NASA-Handbook 8719.14 This page intentionally left blank. Page 2 of 174 NASA-Handbook 8719.14 DOCUMENT HISTORY LOG Status Document Approval Date Description Revision Baseline 2008-07-30 Initial Release Page 3 of 174 NASA-Handbook 8719.14 This page intentionally left blank. Page 4 of 174 NASA-Handbook 8719.14 This page intentionally left blank. Page 6 of 174 NASA-Handbook 8719.14 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 SCOPE...........................................................................................................................13 1.1 Purpose................................................................................................................................ 13 1.2 Applicability ....................................................................................................................... 13 2 APPLICABLE AND REFERENCE DOCUMENTS................................................14 3 ACRONYMS AND DEFINITIONS ...........................................................................15 3.1 Acronyms............................................................................................................................ 15 3.2 Definitions .........................................................................................................................
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• GEO, MEO, and LEO How Orbital Altitude Impacts Network Performance in Satellite Data Services
GEO, MEO, AND LEO How orbital altitude impacts network performance in satellite data services COMMUNICATION OVER SATELLITE “An entire multi-orbit is now well accepted as a key enabler across the telecommunications industry. Satellite networks can supplement existing infrastructure by providing global reach satellite ecosystem is where terrestrial networks are unavailable or not feasible. opening up above us, But not all satellite networks are created equal. Providers offer different solutions driving new opportunities depending on the orbits available to them, and so understanding how the distance for high-performance from Earth affects performance is crucial for decision making when selecting a satellite service. The following pages give an overview of the three main orbit gigabit connectivity and classes, along with some of the principal trade-offs between them. broadband services.” Stewart Sanders Executive Vice President of Key terms Technology at SES GEO – Geostationary Earth Orbit. NGSO – Non-Geostationary Orbit. NGSO is divided into MEO and LEO. MEO – Medium Earth Orbit. LEO – Low Earth Orbit. HTS – High Throughput Satellites designed for communication. Latency – the delay in data transmission from one communication endpoint to another. Latency-critical applications include video conferencing, mobile data backhaul, and cloud-based business collaboration tools. SD-WAN – Software-Defined Wide Area Networking. Based on policies controlled by the user, SD-WAN optimises network performance by steering application traffic over the most suitable access technology and with the appropriate Quality of Service (QoS). Figure 1: Schematic of orbital altitudes and coverage areas GEOSTATIONARY EARTH ORBIT Altitude 36,000km GEO satellites match the rotation of the Earth as they travel, and so remain above the same point on the ground.
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• Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices (ODMSP) Were Established in 2001 to Address the Increase in Orbital Debris in the Near-Earth Space Environment
U.S. Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, November 2019 Update PREAMBLE The United States Government (USG) Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices (ODMSP) were established in 2001 to address the increase in orbital debris in the near-Earth space environment. The goal of the ODMSP was to limit the generation of new, long-lived debris by the control of debris released during normal operations, minimizing debris generated by accidental explosions, the selection of safe flight profile and operational configuration to minimize accidental collisions, and postmission disposal of space structures. While the original ODMSP adequately protected the space environment at the time, the USG recognizes that it is in the interest of all nations to minimize new debris and mitigate effects of existing debris. This fact, along with increasing numbers of space missions, highlights the need to update the ODMSP and to establish standards that can inform development of international practices. This 2019 update includes improvements to the original objectives as well as clarification and additional standard practices for certain classes of space operations. The improvements consist of a quantitative limit on debris released during normal operations, a probability limit on accidental explosions, probability limits on accidental collisions with large and small debris, and a reliability threshold for successful postmission disposal. The new standard practices established in the update include the preferred disposal options for immediate removal of structures from the near-Earth space environment, a low-risk geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) transfer disposal option, a long-term reentry option, and improved move-away-and-stay-away storage options in medium Earth orbit (MEO) and above GEO.
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• Analysis of Space Elevator Technology
Analysis of Space Elevator Technology SPRING 2014, ASEN 5053 FINAL PROJECT TYSON SPARKS Contents Figures .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1 Tables ............................................................................................................................................................................ 1 Analysis of Space Elevator Technology ........................................................................................................................ 2 Nomenclature ................................................................................................................................................................ 2 I. Introduction and Theory ....................................................................................................................................... 2 A. Modern Elevator Concept ................................................................................................................................. 2 B. Climber Concept ............................................................................................................................................... 3 C. Base Station Concept ........................................................................................................................................ 4 D. Space Elevator Astrodynamics ........................................................................................................................
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• SATELLITES ORBIT ELEMENTS : EPHEMERIS, Keplerian ELEMENTS, STATE VECTORS
www.myreaders.info www.myreaders.info Return to Website SATELLITES ORBIT ELEMENTS : EPHEMERIS, Keplerian ELEMENTS, STATE VECTORS RC Chakraborty (Retd), Former Director, DRDO, Delhi & Visiting Professor, JUET, Guna, www.myreaders.info, [email protected], www.myreaders.info/html/orbital_mechanics.html, Revised Dec. 16, 2015 (This is Sec. 5, pp 164 - 192, of Orbital Mechanics - Model & Simulation Software (OM-MSS), Sec 1 to 10, pp 1 - 402.) OM-MSS Page 164 OM-MSS Section - 5 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43 www.myreaders.info SATELLITES ORBIT ELEMENTS : EPHEMERIS, Keplerian ELEMENTS, STATE VECTORS Satellite Ephemeris is Expressed either by 'Keplerian elements' or by 'State Vectors', that uniquely identify a specific orbit. A satellite is an object that moves around a larger object. Thousands of Satellites launched into orbit around Earth. First, look into the Preliminaries about 'Satellite Orbit', before moving to Satellite Ephemeris data and conversion utilities of the OM-MSS software. (a) Satellite : An artificial object, intentionally placed into orbit. Thousands of Satellites have been launched into orbit around Earth. A few Satellites called Space Probes have been placed into orbit around Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. The Motion of a Satellite is a direct consequence of the Gravity of a body (earth), around which the satellite travels without any propulsion. The Moon is the Earth's only natural Satellite, moves around Earth in the same kind of orbit. (b) Earth Gravity and Satellite Motion : As satellite move around Earth, it is pulled in by the gravitational force (centripetal) of the Earth. Contrary to this pull, the rotating motion of satellite around Earth has an associated force (centrifugal) which pushes it away from the Earth.
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• Gateway Globe Lesson Plan: Understanding Orbits
Gateway Globe Lesson Plan: Understanding Orbits Location of Gateway Globe Gateway to Space Overview of Gateway Globe The Gateway Globe is a 36-inch wide spherical projection system which shows two different movies on it. One movie shows examples of parabolic flight paths of future space planes, and one shows examples of existing satellite orbits around the Earth. This lesson will allow students to learn how to describe the different kinds of satellite orbits. Lesson Background Information This lesson plan/unit could be used independently or to prepare for (or to extend the learning after) a visit to Spaceport America. It can be used by teachers or parents wishing to make the Spaceport visit a richer learning experience (for everyone!). An object that orbits the Earth is essentially falling around the Earth, but because of its horizontal velocity it never hits the ground. To understand this concept, you have to first understand a few of the basic laws of physics. You can do some simple experiments outdoors with your students that will help them grasp these basics. For both experiments, you will need two identical baseballs. Ask two students to throw the baseballs (forward) into the air while your other students watch. Then ask your class what they notice about the path of the balls. (The paths are curved.) This is because the force of the throw is causing the balls to go forward, but the force of gravity is also pulling the balls “down” toward the center of the Earth. This makes the paths curved. The faster they throw the ball, the farther it seems to go.
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• Geosynchronous Satellite GF-4 Observations of Chlorophyll-A Distribution Details in the Bohai Sea, China
sensors Article Geosynchronous Satellite GF-4 Observations of Chlorophyll-a Distribution Details in the Bohai Sea, China Lina Cai 1, Juan Bu 1, Danling Tang 2,*, Minrui Zhou 1, Ru Yao 1 and Shuyi Huang 1 1 Marine Science and Technology College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316004, China; [email protected] (L.C.); [email protected] (J.B.); [email protected] (M.Z.); [email protected] (R.Y.); [email protected] (S.H.) 2 Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory Guangdong Key Laboratory of Ocean Remote Sensing (LORS), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China * Correspondence: [email protected] Received: 5 August 2020; Accepted: 21 September 2020; Published: 24 September 2020 Abstract: We analyzed the distribution of chlorophyll-a (Chla) in the Bohai Sea area based on data from the geosynchronous orbit optical satellite Gaofen-4 (GF-4), which was launched in 2015, carrying a panchromatic multispectral sensor (PMS). This is the ﬁrst time the geosynchronous orbit optical satellite GF-4 remote-sensing data has been used in China to detect the Chla change details in the Bohai Sea. A new GF-4 retrieved model was established based on the relationship between in situ Chla value and the reﬂectance combination of 2 and 4 bands, with the R2 of 0.9685 and the total average relative error of 37.42%. Twenty PMS images obtained from 2017 to 2019 were applied to analyze Chla in Bohai sea. The results show that: (1) the new built Chla inversion model PMS-1 for the GF-4 PMS sensor can extract Chla distribution details in the Bohai Sea well.
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