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Reconciling Quinean and Neo-Aristotelian Metaontology

CEU eTD Collection

In partial In partial R A ECONCILING ECONCILING RISTOTELIAN RISTOTELIAN fulfi lment the of requirements the degree for of Central European University Department of Supervisor: Philip Goff Zsolt KristófZsolt Kapelner Budapest, Hungary Submitted to Q 2015 M By UINEAN AND UINEAN



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CEU eTD Collection transcending Quineanism. neo words, other In it. improving thus can main Quineans the accept say, to is That Quineanism. to alternative genuine a not is Aristotelianism neo that argue I metaontology. Quinean replace to order in approach Aristotelian broadly a J E. Fine, Kit by advocated thought neo of that is proposal such One Quineanism. aimed others while futile, altogetherare investigations ontological to attempted have authors Some criticism. wide to exposed been has metaontology of Quinean the decades recent In tenet of s

neo - Aristotelian . Lowe, Jonathan Schaffer, and many others, who employ employ who others, many and Schaffer, Jonathan Lowe, . - Abstract rsoeins de nt uce i oecmn or overcoming in succeed not does Aristotelianism ism i and incorporate them into their own outlook outlook own their into them incorporate and deflate

- Aristotelianism, a fairly recent school of of school recent fairly a Aristotelianism,

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to to - CEU eTD Collection rsu Clee Ad ial t Lsl ad aá Ka supported meall along. Tamás and László to finally And the College. and Collegium, József Eötvös of Workshop the of members the thank to Zsófia like also Iwould me. challengedalways who GáborMatula, and Mátyási,Róbert Tóth, Olivér teachers, my m to guided grateful who Tőzsér also János and am Forrai, Gábor I Zvolenszky, years. two last the during help his for invaluable Rooney, Thomas to grateful am I insig substantively. work the my helped for that Goff discussions Philip supervisor my to indebted am I

Acknowledgements ii

pelner, and Dóra Takács, who who Takács, Dóra and pelner, , n t m flo students, fellow my to and e,

htful advices and the lively lively the and advices htful CEU eTD Collection References Conclusion Chapter 5 Chapter 4 Chapter 3 Chapter 2 Chapter 1 Introduction 4.3. Essentialist neo 4.2. Ground 4.1. Abroadly Aristotelian framework 3.6. The final of characterization Quineanism 3.5. Translation asa dialectical strategy 3.4. The canonical notation 3.3. The best theory 3.2. Apreliminary characterizationof Quineanism 3.1. The proper sources ofQuineanism 5.3. The problem 5.2. The problem 5.1. The triviality problem 4.4. Summary – – – – –


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CEU eTD Collection concerning the field to which this investigation belongs, i.e. metaontology. Chapter 2 and 3 and 2 Chapter metaontology. i.e. belongs, investigation this which to field the concerning obstacles ontologyand metaontology inthetwenty faces what clearly more it see to us enables also but question, in schools specific the understand ho to as instructive only not is hope, I discussion, This metaphysics. or ontology namely, philosophy, contemporary of undertakings grandest the of one of challenges the and l illusory along divided is believe, I which, scene metaontological current the of understanding deeper the companion indistress. is it , latter’s the solve to able is it If Quinean. neo the Thus Quineanism. within accommodated neo main the all that in illusory is opposition Their Quinean. the neo orderdoesher in have commitments not toadhere basic torevoke tothe metaontological main t alternative viable a provide can they andalternative. is, ontology what of account fallacious a is Quineanism Quin V. W. from originating Quineans to opposition in themselves posit often Schaffer Jonathan and Lowe, J. E. late the Fine, Kit neo called metaontology and metaphysics in emerged school novel a decades few last the During The plan of the present discussion is as follows. In Chapter 1 I define the basic conce basic the define I 1 Chapter In follows. as is discussion present the of plan The to contribute to like would I First, twofold. is my forward putting with aim My neo false; is claim this that argue I following the In - - Aristotelian , nor needs the neo the needs nor doctrines, Aristotelian Aristotelianism , the representatives of the allegedly dominant view of contemporary metaontology contemporary of view dominant allegedly the of representatives the ,

o Quineanism. There is no genuine choice to be made between them; the Quinean Quinean the them; between made be to choice genuine no is There Quineanism. o ns Scn, hog rfetn o ti tpc e a gi isgt no the into insight gain can we topic this on reflecting through Second, ines.

(Tahko 2012a, 1; Novotnýand 1; 2012a,(Tahko

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two main philosophical questions about being or beings that may be e be may that beings beingor about questions philosophical main two

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CEU eTD Collection which was severely toontology. hostile subject” respectable a Ontology made “single that Is” There the What “On essay 1948 Quine’s V. W. was of it century twentieth middle the in metaphysics of revival the of narrative widespread the to According commonlywith is paradigmdominant identified This shaken. beenhasparadigm metaontological dominant hitherto a authority the that is authors, many to according that, for ontology, of methods and nature the in interest theoretical the decades recent In exactly. means this what “metaphysician”etc. wit interchangeably “ontologist”, “ontological”, e.g. terms, related and “ontology” use and literature the in practice common the to defer will I extent great a di complicatethe would apart ontologyemploySettingand metaphysics not it. will made be metaphysicsand ontology truths ultimate are aboutreality. themost concerned withfinding both all, After enterprise. same the and one are they that hold authors many and differentiated in Indeed, categories. genuine most being qua being of study the as Aristotle by defined famously is Metaphysics metaphysics. namely, discipline, naturedisclosing general ofreality throughthemost categories ofbeing. ultimate the reveal to is ontology of task The nature. true their reflect which genuine, most While it is fairly uncontroversial that ontology is the study of being, it is not at all clear all at not is it being, of study the is ontology that uncontroversial fairly is it While I Although This

characterization of ontology is reminiscent of the definition of another philosophical philosophical another of definition the of reminiscent is ontology of characterization –

and for the purposes of a more detailed discussion it should should it discussion detailed more a of purposes the for and that is, in the questions of questions the in is, that

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that it , that is, the study of being in terms of its most general and general most its of terms in being of study the is, that , would be counterproductive in the present case. For this this For case. present the in counterproductive be would today’s literature ontology and metaphysics are often not not often are metaphysics and ontology literature today’s (Putnam 2004, 78 2004, (Putnam metaontology 4

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and the main criticisms it faces. This discussion prepares the ground both ground the prepares discussion This faces. it criticisms main the and – ception, metaphysics is continuous with in its methods and methods its in science with continuous is metaphysics ception,

Vulgar Quineanism andVulgar Quineanism itscritiques - - Aristotelianism and Quineanism proper.Aristotelianism Aristotelians, talk about Quineanism, about talk Aristotelians, dress another important issue. dress important another advocated extensively ne this simplistic version of Quineanism that I call call I that Quineanism of version simplistic this ne


by the majority of metaontologists. But it it But metaontologists. of majority the by

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- I CEU eTD Collection ut esl put easily quite can One task. especiallydemanding an not is it frankly, then, theories, scientific in quantifiers existential spotting is ontology to is there 2 all If matter. trivial a ontology renders Quineanism Tahko 348; 2009, Schaffer 158; 2009, Fine call of remainder 276) 2008b, (Lowe self of pens the from issuing anything than ontology a of more and thing real the of travesty a is ‘ontology’ “Quinean that wrote Lowe J. E. example, For view. this oppose who philosophers find to hard not is it ontology, that therewe arrive Thus at are quarks. follows it quarks, are that things some are there that states sentence this Since identical. not that such all for proposition: following the yields first of terms in claim this Unpacking quarks. three by constituted are protons that (Eklund 2006,320) over” quantifies world the of theory best our what is exist to there take should we “what and metaontology:Quinean slogansof existential by bound variables quantifiers containing the i.e. exists, something that state commitments theory’.” The do to way proper the be to this holds actually anyone whether questionable is it While I following. the be could works Quineanism vulgar how of example An the trivialityproblem rvaiy problem triviality (Tahko1) 2012a, y 1 (see also Roy and Davidson 2012, 269; Manley 2009a, 293) 2009a, Manley 269; 2012, Davidson and Roy also (see ,

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- (Fine 2009,158) re lgc ad idn te xseta qatfes te a suffi a then quantifiers, existential the finding and logic, order

that in their view ontological inquiry is not different in different not is inquiry ontological view their in that - order logic and draw the ontological the draw and logic order e numbers.



- - rva. hr i n ovos nwr o the to answer obvious no is There trivial. usin ta ae ete t neither are that questions conclusion. But it would be outrageous be would it But conclusion.


ciently advanced advanced ciently from such trivial such from (Tahko 2012b, (Tahko cl questions. ical rivial nor nor rivial

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CEU eTD Collection metaphysician is to clarify what scientists have have scientists what clarify to is metaphysician the of task only the that sense of the that in science is to subservient science is Metaphysics and subordination. ontology between relationship the construal Quinean the on that meaning logic Ontology orconcepts. isaboutreality or itself. false are analysis conceptual Jackson Frank by famous made , corresponding pseudo be to them prove or philosophy of conviction that positivist the linguistic analysislanguage of all resolve themajor can problems properly tobedete metaphysical, question meaning proper a have we once it, put Lowe, to according turn linguistic the of protagonists main the of one Dummett, Michael As logical. t at were general, in problems philosophical as problems, 277) 2008b, posit logical of remnant min independent truths. and language discover to intends it which of itself reality about is Ontology nature. a of not is studies it object very the ontology, of topic The false. is however, This, ontology. for investigation of objects main the are items logical and linguistic, say, to is That form. logical their and theories with part, most the for concerned, be to metaphysicianhas the accountQuinean the On ontology.subjectof matterthe misidentifies The last objection I discuss here is the so the is here discuss I objection last The logical old the of residue a commitment ontological of Quine’s in sees Lowe a as logic and theories about be to has ontology that false the identifies Lowe the is objection second The . The leitmotif of these, now obsolete, trends was to posit that metaphysical metaphysical that posit to was trends obsolete, now these, of leitmotif The .

vs ad h crepnig lnusi tr” n philosophy in turn” “linguistic corresponding the and ivism –

he argues. Ontology properly understood is not about words or words about not is understood properly Ontology argues. he ujc mte problem matter subject rmined.” rmined.” - called - rbes Ti v This problems. 10 to say about the world. There is no genuine genuine no is There world. the about say to -

hoy t ad “hr wl b n further, no be will “there hand, at theory (Dumme autonomy probl autonomy (1998) I i te ocr ta Quineanism that concern the is It . he end of the day linguistic and and linguistic day the of end he tt 1991,14) tt

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CEU eTD Collection characterization of metaontology. Quinean I that question a is tenets Aristotelian neo the to opposition in still are views their not or Whether Quineans. as themselves describe proper vulg chapter next the in argue will I as But Quineanism. neo between differencesgenuine are really there philosophical enquiry.” to are they and life, everyday or science within from than rather e philosophy, within from “arise problems Ontological exist. of not does Quineans the and Quine kind fundamental more a by defended often is ontology and science natural between continuity it famous the Furthermore, such, as and the provides science, ontology for that but foundations questions, scientific resolve to able is ontology that not scientiae scientific on commentaries philosophical producing discoveriesare which to addition in ontology for quest This concludes the discussion of vulgar Quineanism and its critiques. We have seen that that seen have We critiques. its and Quineanism vulgar of discussion the concludes This neo the again, Here .

I . It is, as Aristotle rightly remarked, first remarked, rightly Aristotle as is, It . t is not the metaontological theory held by a number of significant authors who who authors significant of number a by held theory metaontological the not is t the true loci the - Aristotelian argues, Quin argues, Aristotelian (F ine 2009,158)

of revealing truths ultimate aboutthe world.

address in Chapter 5. Now I turn to the proper proper the to turn I Now 5. Chapter in address

11 - eanism is mistaken. Ontology is not is Ontology mistaken. is eanism Aristotelianism and what they perceive to be be to perceivethey what and Aristotelianism

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. This means means This . ndeavour. ancilla ancilla - CEU eTD Collection eeec dsusd is i “paig f O of “Speaking in first discussed reference Universals” “On Entities” Mental “On as such issues, ontological specific on works minor some so the the 1940s. tradition. this of figures and sources main the identifying is then, Quineanism, of characterization proper the toward step first Theequally. tradition this influenced works Quine’s of all not Moreover, last the of course the during significantly them from deviated has it but Quine, of works the from originates course of tradition The himself. Quine of views the of instead metaontology in tradition a to refers it use I as “Quineanism” term the that Recall proper ofQuineanism 3.1. Thesources this close I chapteradequa withthe Quineanism. vulgar from differs it how and is Quineanism of proper understanding the what of characterization preliminary a propose I sources these of basis the On metaonto Quinean of account proper a I provide chapter Inthis us. instruct cannot proper, Quineanism of parody a only being which, Quineanism vulgar of account an seen only have we far so But are. exactly items compared abo decision a make hardly can One Quineanism. examine I question The 1 ar precursory few a After

For more on his turn see Murphey Murphey moresee turn his onFor - called Quine called 1

He published his seminal “On What There Is”his seminal “On There What published He

(1947) Chapter 3 - Carnap debate, “On Carnap’s Views on Ontology” Ontology” on Views Carnap’s “On debate, Carnap te account of Quineanism proper. account ofQuineanismte . Later on, however, his views transformed. His insights concerning insights His transformed. views his however, on, Later . here


s hte neo whether is

(2012, 52 (2012, (Quine 1934; 1939) 1934; (Quine –

Quinean metaontology logy. I begin by identifying the sources of Quineanism. of sources the identifying by begin I logy. – 53)

bjects” bjects” 12 - Aristotelianism is genuinely different from from different genuinely is Aristotelianism

, Quine’s attention turned to ontology in in ontology to turned attention Quine’s , (1958) t ht nes n kos ht these what knows one unless that ut

(1948) , and then in in then and ,

as well as his contribution to hiscontribution as as well

more than than more (1951) od n Object and Word

a half a alongside with with alongside (1953)


and and

CEU eTD Collection (2015, 83) (2015, first of case the in apply metaontological these how shows “Meta his in ontology” metaontology Quinean of accounts elaborated most the of one formulated have authors remarked. many as extent large very a to commitment ontological of account Quine’s Worlds of Plurality the On o of method and nature the on views His tenets. Quinean central some to part his on loyalty great show writings later his the and under Quine of dissertation supervision his wrote Lewis thinkers; two the between connection theoretical twentiethmetaontologicalgreat century views havehad whose impact. the of metaphysicians influential most the among unquestionably are They Inwagen. van contem on influence great had who authors main two to discussion my limit I account, into taken be can them of all not Since Quineanism. Relativity” butbearing strik Quantification” and “Existence his example, those only account into take will I reason, this For commitment. ontological of criterion his especially Is”, There What “On in forward put views his to refer mostly Quineans Later metaontology. “Thingsin Theories”and Their Place (1960) 3 2 ph a Inwagen, bo is There Quinean. unmistakably is metaontology Lewisian self as out stand figures several Quine from Apart ha relativistic later These

For more on Quinean see Bergström Bergström see relativism more Quinean onFor For more on the methodological similarities between Lewis and Quine see Nolan Nolan see Quine and Lewis between similarities methodological the on more For

e him led

and Weatherson Weatherson and 3

(2001) works of Quine which remain faithful to these early conceptions. These are, for for are, These conceptions. early these to faithful remain which Quine of works

t a eaiitc iw eutn i “nooia Relativity” “Ontological in resulting view relativistic a to a

lspe o n ls iprac, s lo card a also is importance, less no of ilosopher n elsewhere and (2014, sec. sec. 6.1.) (2014,

ing similarities to “On What Thereing What Is”. to“On similarities


ve not exerted a great influence on the Quinean tradition of tradition Quinean the on influence great a exerted not ve eg: nae 2009) Inwagen (e.g.: .

(1981a) n elsewhere and (2006) (1969b) . 2 13

. porary metaontology: David Lewis and Peter Peter andLewis David metaontology: porary

written in the same year as “Ontological yearas same the in written eg: ei 18; 1990) 1983; Lewis (e.g.: ad hs wr, jus work, whose and , ntology presented, for example, in example, for presented, ntology - ofse rpeettvs of representatives confessed

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between metaphysical empiricism and empiricism metaphysical between X

nooy s el s n neo in as well as ontology exists; (2) abstract entities are are entities abstract (2) exists; - questions may originate from mayfrom originatequestions

ih ee xsec. It existence. mere with - called indispensability indispensability called - why Putnam argument for for argument Putnam - - Aristotelianism is Aristotelianism questions - rsoein can Aristotelian way: (1) If (1) way:

instead - CEU eTD Collection una agmn hs o noe t es sm asmto cnenn the concerning assumption some least at invoke to has argument Quinean say, to is That existence. its to us commit does above sentence the that believe well very might one object, abstract an is averageperson the that believesoneIf person. blood and flesh an abstract and bloodaverage noflesh but object, person. maybe and people of number a is true be to it for needed is that all that clear becomes n does tall” meters 1.65 is person average “the claim the that argues Quinean The person. average the of case the again Consider like? look argument an such would How numbers. are there that state idio an into translated objects clear in not atall need thatthingsorder these toexist dotheseto betrue. for sentences in these translate we once But person. average the and Pegasus to us commit tall” meters 1.65 is person average “the and exist,” as not does such “Pegasus sentences it, of face the On value. face at assertions theories best the take cannot p is Quinean core The Quineanism. of caricature a but example an not is objects” abstract are there therefore 1+1=2, say “scientists argument The suffice. not does numbers”, are “there implies which 13” and 2 between numbers prime are “there todispense withabstractimpossible finally entities; follows(2). and from(3) (1) the theory, the X claim notation canonical the into translated theories best our if that principle the recapitulates principl Quinean that seems It argument? Quinean a really Is this exist. entities abstract therefore (3) theories; scientific best our to indispensable

to exist, i.e. if it proved to be impossible to dispense with it while ontologically clarifying ontologically while it with dispense to impossible be to proved it if i.e. exist, to This argument is sound onl sound is argument This ofabstract account showing best an isneededthatour argument then, In tojustify(2), order u scientists Simply saying that (2) isjustified. how lookat closer a take Let us,however, ot commit us to the existence of an average person because once it is clarified it it clarified is it once because person average an of existence the to us commit ot w ogt o od ht t ely os ad 2 ol rprs ht t ely is really it that reports only (2) and does, really it that hold to ought we n y if one assumes that the average person, if it exists, has to be a a be to has exists, it if person, average the that assumes one if y ta mks xseta cmimns ot la ral does really clear most commitments existential makes that m 40

es can justify all the premises: (1) simply simply (1) premises: the all justify can es

to the canonical notation it becomes it notation canonical the to recisely that we we that recisely nature

of the the of tter tter the the CEU eTD Collection always paid attention to nature. Consider one of the most famous debates among Quineans, Quineans, among debates famous most the of one Consider nature. to attention paid always have They nature. about talking been have should they while existence with concerned been thus overcomingan Quineanism within inherenttension itself. nature and structure to consid attention due paying by into Quineanism transcends then, Aristotelianism, also nature taking without existence for is account it shows, to reasoning impossible of line previous the as while nature, concerning matters ignoring is, there what with existence, with only concerned being as themselves characterize Quineans requirement. this of short fall they but shows, argument foregoing the as nature, for account for as theQuinean, as for well if anyoneinterested in indispe is then, nature, for Accounting ghosts. or chairs opposed as are, numbers what to as ideas some have not does she if numbers to commitment a found she if know cannot Confes knows one unless exists something argument about all at anything think not does who someone But beings. mental example, for are, numbers that hold who those than conclusions different with up come may entities abstract nature by are numbers that believe who Those o the to according exist that entities various the among the concerning byentities claimed toexist best theoryontologically clarified istheav the of any whether tell to possible be not would it assumptions such Without person. average This idea might sound compelling, but unfortunately it is not true that Quineans have on have Quineans that true not is it unfortunately but compelling, sound might idea This neo The point. this at raised be might problem A know cannot one that reason simple the for nature in interested be to has Quinean The assumptions make to has one numbers, are there whether out find to wants one if Similarly siones


looking for her drachma in order to know if she found it, the metaphysician metaphysician the it, found she if know to order in drachma her for looking nature

of numbers, otherwise one cannot decide whether there are numbers numbers are there whether decide cannot one otherwise numbers, of what

the nature of numbers canno numbers of nature the ti. s h rvril oa i S. Augustine’s St. in woman proverbial the As is. it 41

- - questions. Aristotelian can argue Quineans argue can Aristotelian ntologically clarified best theory. theory. best clarified ntologically

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a material being and what the relationship of parthood is. He is. parthood of relationship the what and being material a mental or platonic entities platonic or mental terested in what there is there what in terested 42

does not argue that meanings as such do not do such as meanings that argue not does

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descr means (Lowe 2009a, 205) ibe

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CEU eTD Collection the case, are Tahko’s views concerning the relationship between science and metaphysics metaphysics and science between relationship the concerning views Tahko’s are case, the actual;explores therealm metaphysics ofpossibilities. only are essences which determines that science is it but have, not may or may things actual which esse the neo of of terms version in relation complementary this of conceives Lowe, of follower input.” empirical without complete be not “would world the of knowledge our as insofar metaphysics complements Science reality. of understanding metaphysical prior knowledge without unattainable is knowledge scientific versa: but science, scientif not metaphysical, is premise This if that same namely the occupy sort same premise, the of objects extra material an employ to needs one this make To identical. space same the occupy always objects material two these that observed have we because it know We it? know we well a is This identical. are Star Morning forare scientific without priormetaphysical discoveries impossible knowledge. concepts, and data scientific of need in philosophy Tahko neo the if but forceful, irreconcilable with Quineanism. is objection the whether not is again, Assuming that science is the best theory according to Quineanism, which is not necessarily not is which Quineanism, to according theory best the is science that Assuming has science that acknowledges Tahko Lowe of example an Consider One of the most elaborate answers to the autonomy problem has been provided by Tuomas Tuomas by provided been has problem autonomy the to answers elaborate most the of (2013) . It is not subordinate to science, but rather has priority over it. Instead of standing standing of Instead it. over priority has rather but science, to subordinate not is It . (see also Lowe(see also2007;Bird 2008) H age, olwn Aitte ta otlg o mtpyis is metaphysics or ontology that Aristotle, following argues, He . - Aristotelianism. He believes that metaphysics identifies candidate essences essences candidate identifies metaphysics that believes He Aristotelianism. - time region. But this al observation this But region. time

(2008a) it is science that needs ontology’s help to be complete, complete, be to help ontology’s needs that science is it - : We know it for a fact that the Ev the that fact a for it know We : ic. It is, then, not metaphysics that needs the help of of help the needs that metaphysics not then, is, It ic. known example of empirical discovery. But how do do how But discovery. empirical of example known a genuine and autonomous role to play in the the in play to role autonomous and genuine a .


- time region, then they are identical. identical. are they then region, time 64) 2013, (Tahko one does not imply that they are are they that imply not does one - rsoein ouin is solution Aristotelian ening Star and the the and Star ening

Tahko, being a a being Tahko,

ntialist first CEU eTD Collection we already possess. If these phenomena belong to the realm of natural scien natural of realm the to belong phenomena these If possess. already we attaining in but question in phenomena the of knowledge of kind question, any invoke may one latter the of knowledge ontological the to answer the i.e. is, it what knows one unless question, scientific the to answers the i.e. holds, something if know cannot one that means merely It afterwards. only questions scientific investigating start can and first, metaphysics mutually one feedhelpinggetting into anotherthus tothe true closer usin natureofreality. relationship” “bootstrapping a in knowledge, posteriori a and priori a the and Star puts Tahko as stand, knowledge scientific Eveningthe and ontological The Star. Morning the of identity the about knowledge our of case the in as premises th with attained we which however, knowledge, ontological of kind A knowledge. ontological facts discoveredmeans. by scientific the what know not do we Surely strange. quite are examples these But is it thing of kind what know are they what know we unless elements transuranic the find cannot we ontology: of priority epistemic the about investigations ones. precede scientific neo the on while itself, theory best the to posterior necessarily is investigation this that seems it then theory, best the of investigation the is ontology and necessarilyanti e help of scientific knowledge, which, in turn, presumably relies on further ontological ontological further on relies presumably turn, in which, knowledge, scientific of help e The epistemic pr epistemic The is elements transuranic of essence the of knowledge our that true is it Nonetheless, talks Lowe, as well as Tahko, exactly? means priority or precedence this does what But Higgs boson Higgs - Quinean? On the face of it, it seems that they are. Iftheyscien that seemsare. it faceit, On theof Quinean?

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; we cannot set out to find the Higgs boson unless we we unless boson Higgs the find to out set cannot we ; 49 . That is, ontological knowledge comes first. first. comes knowledge ontological is, That .

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elies on mysterious ways of accessing ultimate truths about reality. about truths ultimate accessing of ways mysterious on elies vestigation is not a sign of the blind of science, but rather but science, of worship blind the of sign a not is vestigation . Others, such as Tahko, however, believe that other that believe however, Tahko, as such Others, . –

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- Aristotelianism. There is the pure logico pure the is There Aristotelianism. - philosophical knowledge on the basis of which philosophical which of basis the on knowledge philosophical and linguistic philosophy, nor takes it to be a matter of pure pure of matter a be to it takes nor philosophy, linguistic and - - Aristotelianism sometimes approximate, but never quite never but approximate, sometimes Aristotelianism Aristotelian solutions to the to solutions Aristotelian 51 of metaphysics does not constitute a genuine a constitute not does metaphysics of ioohcl nweg wih hwvr is however, which, knowledge hilosophical

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cannot reach out out reach cannot - nig debate ending s - CEU eTD Collection Daly, aboutIn“Scepticism Grounding.” 2012. Chris. Correia,Fabrice,Introduction.”Benjamin“Grounding: Schnieder. and 2012. AnOpinionated ——— ——— ——— Correia,Fabrice. 2000.“P Clark,Liggins. and Michael David on Grounding.” J., Work “Recent 2012. Buchanan, Emerson. 1964. LogicBorg,LePore. Language.”Ernest Emma,and and 2002.“Symbolic NaturalIn Bird, “Lowe Alexander. ona 2008. Posteriori Essentialism.” Berto,Francesco, Plebani. and 2015. Matteo Bergström,Lars. 2006.“Quine’s Relativism.” Benacerraf, Numbers NotBe.” Paul.Could 1974.“What Bach,Logic,InKent. Form.” 2002.“Language, and X.Madarász,IstvánAndréka,Hajnal, Judit Né Andréka,Hajnal, Ju CorreiaBenjamin Schnieder, and 1 In Phenomenological Research (3): 295 812 Mississippi. Blackwell. toPhilosophicalCompanion Logic Guide 47 edited byDale 51 Jacquette, Road from Special toGeneral Relativity Relativity.” Schnieder, 81 Understanding the Structureof Reality András Prékopa and Emil Molnár,155 András and Prékopa Emil Space – . 2012.“On of theNecessityEssence.” Reduction to . 2007.“(Finean)EssenceModality.” (Priorean) and . 2005. Metaphysical Grounding: UnderstandingMetaphysical the Structure Grounding: 73. – 23. - . London:. Bloomsberry Academic. Time. Samples from the Literautre.” the InTime. Samples from

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