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20.1 Electric and Static

Electric charge is responsible for clothes that stick together when they are removed from a dryer. 20.1 Electric Charge and Electric Charge

What produces a net electric charge?

An excess or shortage of produces a net electric charge. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Charge Electric charge is a property that causes subatomic particles such as and electrons to attract or repel each other. • Protons have a positive charge. • Electrons have a negative charge. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Charge In an , a cloud of negatively charged electrons surrounds the positively charged nucleus. The atom is neutral because it has equal numbers of positive and negative charges. • If an atom gains electrons, it becomes a negatively charged . • If an atom loses electrons, it becomes a positively charged ion. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Charge A neutral atom has equal numbers of protons and electrons.

Proton

Neutron 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Charge The SI unit of electric charge is the (C). • It takes about 6.24 × 1018 electrons to produce a single coulomb. • A bolt is about 10 to 20 of charge, and a camera flash is about 0.025 coulombs. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric

What determines whether an electric is attractive or repulsive?

Like charges repel, and opposite charges attract. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Forces The force of attraction or repulsion between electrically charged objects is electric force. • The electric force between two objects is directly proportional to the net charge on each object. • The electric force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Forces Doubling the net charge on one object doubles the electric force. Doubling the distance between the objects decreases the electric force to one fourth the original force. Inside an atom, electric forces are much stronger than gravitational forces. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Forces A. Opposite charges attract each other. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Forces A. Opposite charges attract each other. B. Doubling one charge doubles the force on both charges. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Forces A. Opposite charges attract each other. B. Doubling one charge doubles the force on both charges. C. Like charges repel. Doubling the distance makes the force one fourth as great. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Fields

What determines the strength of an electric ?

The strength of an depends on the amount of charge that produces the field and on the distance from the charge. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Fields The effect an electric charge has on other charges in the space around it is the charge’s electric field. • An electric field exerts forces on any charged object placed in the field. • The force depends on the net charge on the object and on the strength and direction of the field at the object’s position. • The direction of each shows the direction of the force on a positive charge. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Electric Fields A. The electric field around a positive charge points outward. B. The electric field around a negative charge points inward. Field of a positive charge Field of a negative charge 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Electricity and Charging

What are three ways in which charge is transferred?

Charge can be transferred by , by contact, and by induction. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Electricity and Charging Static electricity is the study of the behavior of electric charges. According to the law of conservation of charge, the total charge in an isolated system is constant. When there is a charge transfer, the total charge is the same before and after the transfer occurs. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Electricity and Charging Charging by Friction Rubbing a balloon on your hair causes charging by friction. • Electrons move from your hair to the balloon because in rubber have a greater attraction for electrons than atoms in hair. • The balloon picks up a net negative charge. • Your hair loses electrons and becomes positively charged. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Electricity and Charging Charging by Contact A Van de Graaff builds a charge on a sphere. Touching the sphere transfers charge by contact. The sphere is still charged, but its net charge is reduced. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Electricity and Charging A. The balloon attracts the hair because opposite charges attract. B. The hairs repel each other because like charges repel. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Electricity and Charging Charging by Induction Walking on a carpet builds a negative charge on your body. The negative charge in your hand repels electrons in a metal doorknob. The doorknob is still neutral, but charge has moved within it. This is induction, a transfer of charge without contact between materials. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Electricity and Charging Negative charges in the hand induce charges to move within the metal doorknob. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Discharge

How does a static discharge occur?

Static discharge occurs when a pathway through which charges can move forms suddenly. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Discharge Why do you get a shock from a doorknob? The spark you feel is a static discharge. Air becomes charged when the gap between your finger and the doorknob is small. This air provides a path for electrons to flow. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity Static Discharge Lightning is a more dramatic discharge. • Charge can build up in a storm cloud from friction between moving air masses. • Negative charge in the lower part of the cloud induces a positive charge in the ground below the cloud. • As the charge in the cloud increases, the force of attraction between charges in the cloud and charges in the ground increases. • Eventually the air becomes charged, forming a pathway for electrons to travel from the cloud to the ground. 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

Assessment Questions

1. Which of the following would double the electric force between two charged objects? a. doubling the mass of the objects b. doubling the net charge of both objects c. doubling the net charge of one of the objects d. cutting the distance between the objects in half

20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

Assessment Questions

1. Which of the following would double the electric force between two charged objects? a. doubling the mass of the objects b. doubling the net charge of both objects c. doubling the net charge of one of the objects d. cutting the distance between the objects in half

ANS: C 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

Assessment Questions

2. The attractive or repulsive effect an electric charge has on other charges in the space around it is the charge’s a. electric force. b. electric field. c. static electricity. d. static discharge.

20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

Assessment Questions

2. The attractive or repulsive effect an electric charge has on other charges in the space around it is the charge’s a. electric force. b. electric field. c. static electricity. d. static discharge.

ANS: B 20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

Assessment Questions

3. An object becomes charged by induction when there is a a. transfer of electrons, as the object rubs against another object. b. transfer of charge, as it contacts another charged object. c. transfer of charge by motion of electrons within the object. d. a sudden movement of electric charge from another object.

20.1 Electric Charge and Static Electricity

Assessment Questions

3. An object becomes charged by induction when there is a a. transfer of electrons, as the object rubs against another object. b. transfer of charge, as it contacts another charged object. c. transfer of charge by motion of electrons within the object. d. a sudden movement of electric charge from another object.

ANS: C