The Natural

A Guide to Raw and the Natural Way

Colonel Angels in association with Copyright © 2011 This guide and all information contained herein is protected by international copyright law. Readers may share this guide in its electronic format and it may be printed for personal use only. It may not be reproduced in any form for commercial purposes without the express written consent of the author. Enquiries to be made to: Email: [email protected] Web:

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Important Disclaimer: Since we are unable to personally oversee or monitor the care and diet of your dog, we assume no responsibility or liability for the use of the information contained in this guide which is provided for general information purposes. Any information provided is not veterinary advice and should not be substituted for a consultation with a holistic veterinary professional. If you have any concerns about your dog’s health, please contact your holistic or other qualified professional immediately.

If you find errors of fact or interpretation contained within these pages please contact us at [email protected]

Written by Michelle Jones Cover Design by Heidi Brandt Internal Illustrations by Jacquie New Contents 1. The Prey Model Raw Diet for 3 a. The History of Canine Diet 3 b. A Starter Guide 6 i. Guidelines 6 ii. How Much to Feed 9 - Puppies 11 iii. What to Feed 11 - Puppies 14 iv. Sample Menu – Starting Out 17 v. Aim for Variety 19 vi. The “Detox” 24 c. Frequently Asked Questions 25

2. Herbal & Natural Healthcare 33 a. , Ears and Eyes 34 b. Flea, Tick & Worm Control 35 c. Digestive Issues 41 3. Behaviour & Training 44 4. Vaccination Considerations 47 5. Spay/Neuter Considerations 52 6. Dog Heimlich Manoeuvre 53 7. Information Resources 55

2 1. The Prey Model Raw Diet for Dogs First, some history....

Did you know that historically a dog’s diet was always raw? It wasn't until the depression of the late 1920's/early 1930’s that the traditional meat, bones, offal and table scrap diet fed to dogs for centuries was abandoned when people were then forced to eat these foods themselves, and instead began to feed dogs with stock and grain- based feed, to which they added extra protein and in the form of what was basically fertiliser meat meal, blood and bone. This was the beginning of the enormous pet-food industry that we know today as to make a long story short, grain producers, realising the profits to be made from the wastes of their industry, began what has become the insidious (and damaging to pet health) modern industry.

This new food was sold as “scientifically formulated” and “good for your pet”, yet the food was mainly cereal based, cooked at very high temperatures and finished with a cocktail of colorants, preservatives and dubious '' in an attempt to replace the nutrients lost from the high temperatures used in the processing.

3 At this point, the pet food manufacturers re-wrote the scientific classification for dogs and started to change public perception by referring to dogs as omnivores, despite their carnassial teeth and lack of large flat molars for grinding up plant matter. The manufacturers went further; they started sponsoring the lectures in vet school, teaching student vets that dogs were omnivores. They gave lucrative sales margins to vets who carried their food, and so the corruption of our veterinary professionals began....

Being descendents from wolves, feeding a dog a steady diet of anything that is cooked, canned, dried or ground is simply unnatural for that , and over time, doing so puts a strain on that animal's system. Such a chronic strain may often result in any number of the different kinds of health problems from which far too many dogs are suffering today; diseases that are now being referred to as “genetic”.

4 Yet it was convenient, no more pondering of what to feed that day, everyone loved the idea of simply opening a bag or can. The fast-food industry for dogs was born, until nobody could remember what dogs had been fed before... what were they fed on? Nobody cared. Not the pet owners and certainly not the pet food industry.

And so began the diet related health crisis of dogs that then swept our western world, dogs started to develop so many diet related illnesses that the veterinary industry boomed, yet still we carried on feeding the same food that was causing the problems in the first place.

For many people, switching from a diet where they don’t have to think about it at all, to embracing a raw diet that is full of controversy due to the veterinary profession’s resistance to it, can be both alarming and nerve wracking. There are baby steps you can take, you can start to cook your own version of pet food at lower temperatures using quality fresh, whole foods instead of the wastes of other industries, or you can feed BARF (Bones and Raw Food Diet) which includes vegetables and , again a fresh whole food version, yet raw. There are guides available on creating those diets properly, this booklet however, is not about a healthier version of pet food; this booklet is about the optimal species appropriate diet of the carnivore, the diet your dog’s ancestors ate, the diet of the wolf....

the Prey Model Diet....

5 A Starter Guide

People new to raw feeding all have the same questions: “how do I start”, “what exactly do I feed?”, “how much do I feed?” All too often, people are not given the information or confidence they need to begin and this is an unfortunate barrier to getting their dog off kibble, especially if their vet is against raw feeding.

As you will learn, there really are only a few hard and fast rules in canine nutrition. No one has all the answers, not the pet food manufacturers, not the vets and not even the canine nutritionists. Yet what you will also learn, as you see the health of your dog improve and your dog start to glisten with health and vitality is that it doesn’t matter. Just as we ourselves do not scientifically analyse what we eat, nor do we need to do it for our dogs. i) RAW FEEDING GUIDELINES

The key points to remember with a raw diet are:

• Balance over time – one meal could have more bone content, another more meat or organ. The approximate ratio to aim for overall is:

6 80% meat, sinew, ligaments, fat 10% edible bone 5% liver 5% other organ meat

• Meats are high in , bones are high in calcium. When meat is fed with 10% bone you have the exact ratios of calcium to phosphorus required by a dog. Whole prey, fish, eggs and tripe have a balanced ratio.

• Organ meat should not exceed 10% of the diet overall and 5% of that should be liver (beef liver has the highest nutrient levels). Feed liver once a week (or several small servings per week) and try to find an organic, free range source if possible because the liver is responsible for filtering toxins out of the body.

• If feeding or salmon, be certain to freeze the meat for two weeks before feeding to reduce the small risk of parasites.

7 • NEVER feed cooked bones of any type as when bones are cooked they become harder and are dangerous for the dog as they can splinter and pierce the stomach or intestines. Raw bones are soft enough to bend and digest easily. Dogs are carnivores as per their scientific category (their DNA is 99% wolf) so dogs are designed to digest raw meat and bones - they have a stomach PH level of 1 or 2 which is highly acidic – perfect for digesting raw bones. It is therefore important to remember the difference between raw and cooked bones. For optimal safety, meal times should always be supervised.

• Feel free to feed ‘weird and icky things’ such as chicken feet, beef trachea, tails, lung, kidney, testicles and pizzles (penis). Beef trachea, trim, chicken and turkey feet are loaded in natural chondroitin and glucosamine which help to build healthy joints.

• Avoid the weight bearing leg and knuckle bones of large such as beef – also the vertebrae as these are too dense and dangerous to teeth. Remember! ALL bones must be fed raw – cooked bones are dangerous as they are too hard and could splinter and pierce the stomach or intestines as well as damage teeth.

• If possible, try to find grass fed animals that are not given hormones or medications if possible. Younger animals in general will have accumulated fewer toxins to pass on to your dog. You can be creative, approach organic and free range farmers and ask to buy their off-cuts.

• Carbohydrates, in particular grains, are not a natural part of the dog’s diet and we do not recommend they form any part of the diet. Dogs do not have the ability to digest grains properly, so

8 instead, an extra strain is put on the liver as it has to produce more bile to break down the insoluble fibre.

Russell Swift, D.V.M. feels that grains suppress the immune system. Grains are mucous forming and provide an ideal environment for parasites to thrive in. Grains also contribute to the formation of dental plaque and tartar on the teeth, as well as bad breath and flatulence. Dr. Swift details how and dogs have no dietary requirements for carbohydrates nor are they equipped with the teeth to process them.


Most dogs eat around two to three percent of their ideal adult weight per day.

So for example:

2% of adult weight: 3% of adult weight:

30kg dog: 30,000g x 0.02 = 600g of food 30,000g x 0.03 = 900g of food

20kg dog: 20,000g x 0.02 = 400g of food 20,000g x 0.03 = 600g of food

10kg dog: 10,000g x 0.02 = 200g of food 10,000g x 0.03 = 300g of food

9 Initially, when switching your dog to raw, we recommend starting with 2% of body weight and splitting the daily amount as follows:

• over 6 months old – split into 2 meals per day

• for 4-6 months old - split into 3 meals per day

• for under 4 months - split into 4 meals or more per day

Once your dog has been on a raw diet for two or 3 weeks and the stool is fine, dogs over 1 year old should be switched gradually to one feeding per day as it is better for their digestion when on a raw diet. If your dog regularly does not eat all of his meal in one go, then you know you are feeding too much and should adjust accordingly.

Once established on raw, then you can increase the amount of food to 2.5% or 3% of adult body weight depending on your dog. If your dog is very active, you may need to feed a little more than 3%, or if your dog is more of a couch-potato, you may need to feed a little less than 2% - every dog is different. The best way to tell if you are feeding the right amount is to run your hands over your dog’s ribs. If you can feel the ribs, yet not see them, your dog is at a good weight.

10 Puppies

Puppies should receive about 2-3% of their ideal/expected ADULT weight split into 3 or more meals per day depending on age. When puppies are four to six months old, they require a great deal of food and a little extra edible bone as they are building their adult teeth. Do not let puppies get too thin at this important age as their energy demands are tremendous when cutting new teeth. iii) WHAT TO FEED

One common concern with raw feeding is that it is not ‘complete and balanced’. This is untrue for two reasons. Firstly, no one truly knows what complete and balanced is for a dog, so it is difficult to make this claim. Secondly, balance can occur over time just as we do with our own meals; every meal does not need to be completely balanced as long as the nutritional needs of the dog are met over the long term. You don’t calculate the exact percentages of protein and carbohydrates, or the exact amount of vitamins and in each of your own meals, and you don’t have to do it with your dog’s meals. If you feed a variety of meats and organ meats, then it will balance out over time.

Starting Out – Gently...

It is a commonly believed myth that dogs switching to a raw diet will experience diarrhoea in the first few days or weeks. This is a myth and is solely caused by an over-zealous approach to the switch to raw food which can cause diarrhoea and/or constipation.

Some robust dogs (such as former street dogs) can usually handle just about any raw food that is given to them, yet other dogs, particularly

11 those that have been on kibble for several years, or who may have an underlying medical condition, need a gentler approach, so it is this gentle approach that we detail here...

1) Choose a meat type to start off with - usually something that is easy to obtain and an acceptable price to you, such as chicken. We usually start off with just one item, and get the dog used to that first.

2) Assuming you will start with a supermarket style prepared chicken (i.e. gutted, and without head, feet etc) then this chicken is around 33% bone in total - with the breast portion being less bone, and the bony parts, such as the wings, being higher bone. So start with a section of the breast, cut a piece according to the size of your dog that includes breast meat and the ribs - remove the skin for now. Feed this portion for a day or so, storing the rest of the bird in the freezer for later use. Then check your dog’s stools - you are looking for stools that are not too loose and not too firm, just like Goldilocks, you are looking for "just right".

12 3) If stools are okay, then you can start to introduce cuts of the whole bird – bearing in mind that the bony parts such as wings and drumsticks are much higher than the 10% bone recommendation, so you will need to add some breast meat to balance the ratios in these early days.

4) If stools are ok with all parts of the chicken, continue to feed for two or three weeks before considering choosing another meat type. Whichever meat type you choose next, follow the same slow, introductory procedure.

5) Some dogs may object to one meat type, yet adore another. If you are having difficulty getting your dog to accept chicken for example, try a different meat source and come back to chicken once fully established on raw.

6) Once your dog is fully established on raw food, then you can start to add in a little organ meat. Liver is an essential part of the diet, so we recommend starting with that. Organ meats, particularly liver, can cause loose stools, especially if too much is fed too soon, so again, depending on how robust your dog is, start with a tiny piece and build up slowly to the full 5% of the diet by checking stools at each increase.

7) Repeat the process for other organ meats. Heart meat can be fed as muscle meat, although not exclusively.

13 Puppies & Bones

Puppies adapt quickly and can be weaned onto raw straight from the dam – from about three weeks of age they start to take an interest in what their mother is eating, by six weeks of age they can eat chicken carcasses, rabbits and fish.

During the brief interval between three and six weeks of age it is advisable to provide minced chicken, ground chicken carcasses or similar (the meat and bone should be minced together). This is akin to the part-digested food regurgitated by wild carnivore mothers. Large litters will need more supplementary feeding than small litters. They should also have access to larger pieces to start to encourage them to rip and tear to build jaw strength. Meat off the bone can be fed, but only for a short time, until they can eat meat and bone together — usually at about six weeks of age.

From six weeks of age, you can start off with meaty chicken ribs and chicken wings as the bones are not too dense so are considered soft for puppies to build up jaw strength plus some muscle meat to make up the ratios. Some raw fish is also a good starting food for puppies as

14 the bones are also nice and easy. To help them get their small teeth into it, just slice into the meat a bit so they can chew into it easier. Chicken skin in particular should be sliced as they find that hard to chew through as it’s stretchy!

Chicken wings should have the wing tip cut off at the third joint, as if the puppy is tempted to swallow it whole, the double joint of the wing is a major choking hazard.

Between four and six months of age puppies cut their permanent teeth and grow rapidly. At this time they need a plentiful supply of meaty carcasses or raw meaty bones of suitable size.

Orphaned Puppies

Use Goats milk, as fresh from the goat and unprocessed as possible. It can be fed 1:1 i.e. 50% whole raw goats milk/ 50% pure water (such as spring, filtered, or pre-boiled water) or whole raw goats milk can be fed without diluting it - it really does depend on the health of the puppies. Some will find undiluted goats milk too rich and give them diarrhoea, others are fine with it. We recommend to start with diluted, check the stools and over time work up to whole milk. Whichever you

15 choose, diluted or whole milk, add one egg to 1 litre of milk (or milk dilute) once the pup is happily established on the goat’s milk.

The milk should preferably be raw/unpasteurised and not boiled. Once you’ve made up the litre and beaten egg, then store in the fridge in a glass/china container (not plastic). As you need it, pour out what you need and warm it just a little to replicate mom’s milk temperature. Goats milk is a perfect substitute as it is much closer to bitch's milk than cow’s milk which most puppy milk replacers are made from – we have raised many orphaned litters this way, some from as young as 2 days old.

Raw goat’s milk will also still contain a certain amount of antibodies as they are not just contained in the post-birth colostrums. It is therefore preferable for the milk to be raw, and from a goat that is as naturally reared as possible, i.e. preferably pasture fed/free range – obviously practicality reigns on this, just to say the more natural the milk, the more beneficial to the puppies. At around 3-4 weeks old, you can start to offer some raw meat alongside the milk and egg, usually minced meat, and then build up to full raw food over the coming weeks as detailed in the previous section.


For a 15kg adult dog at 2% - 15,000g x 0.02 = 300g of food per day

Morning Evening Week 1 150g bone-in chicken breast 150g bone-in chicken breast Week 2 150g chicken thigh & breast 150g chicken thigh & breast 150g small chicken quarter with 150g small chicken quarter Week 3-4 beef trim with beef trim Week 5-6 150g chicken wing & beef trim 150g chicken wing & beef trim Increase food to 2.5% - 15,000g x 0.025 = 375g of food per day

225g small chicken quarter with 150g small chicken quarter Week 7-8 pork meat with pork meat Week 9-10 225g pork ribs with beef trim 150g pork ribs & pork meat 275g pork ribs with beef trim Week 11-12 100g chicken wing and tiny piece beef liver 310g pork ribs with beef trim Alternate 50g small chicken Week 13-14 and 15g beef liver breast with ribs or whole egg 300g pork ribs with beef trim Alternate 50g small chicken Week 15-16 and 25g kidney breast with ribs or whole egg 350g chicken quarter, 25g beef Training treats (e.g. slow Week 17-18 heart or beef liver baked organ or meat slices) 300g chicken quarter, 50g heart, Training treats (e.g. slow Week 19-20 25g kidney or beef liver baked organ or meat slices) Weeks 21+ A good variety of different meats keeping to 80/10/5/5 ratios.

17 Important Notes: - main meal can be either am or pm – this example is in the morning, slowly decreasing the evening meal size to meet one meal per day.

- only change the menu each week if stools are ok, if not, keep to the same weeks menu until they are ok, before proceeding.

- when introducing any new meat or organ meat, test with thumbnail pieces first, and check stools before slowly building up to full quota.

- once established on raw try to feed larger pieces whenever possible (at least once per week) for the teeth cleaning benefits -

- when introducing egg, test with a small amount of beaten egg first, and check stools before increasing to a whole egg. Eggs can be served whole as an interesting meal. Sometimes you have to make a tiny hole in the shell so they can smell the egg inside and figure it out.

Remember, you’re aiming for: 80% meat, sinew, ligaments, fat, can also include heart meat 10% edible bone 5% liver 5% other organ meat So for 375g of food a day this equals: 300g meat, sinew, ligaments, fat, heart as a muscle meat 37. edible bone 18.75g liver 18.75g other organ meat These measurements don’t have to be exact, just to bear in mind.


• Raw bones are living tissue composed of living cells and just like any other part of the body, they are a complex source of biologically balanced minerals, especially calcium, yet also copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, , and manganese. It is highly probable that bones in a dog’s diet play a similar role to fibre, that is, a role of bulking out the food, thereby removing toxins and promoting general bowel health. The easiest way to provide balanced calcium is by feeding raw meaty bones that have around 10% edible bone in them – such as whole chickens, halves or quarters, with perhaps some extra meat added in to allow for the bird having being processed (i.e. the innards missing) – a whole processed chicken is considered to be 33% bone, with some parts higher in bone content such as the wings (46%) whereas the bone- in breast portion is lower, perhaps 20%.

• Raw, meaty bone choices - all poultry, pork, lamb/mutton, cow, deer, fish etc. Whilst the flesh of any animal is fine, bone type should be restricted to the type of animal a dog pack could realistically hunt in the wild – a cow would be unlikely and the

19 bones are said to be too dense for a dogs teeth (especially small dogs) so could cause teeth chipping or breakage. Common cuts can include chicken backs, wings and necks (or even whole carcasses), lamb necks, pork necks, turkey necks, pork hocks, pork ribs, ox tails, turkey tails, even lamb, pork or poultry heads for the adventurous; any meaty bone that can be completely consumed by your dog in fact. If you are feeding meaty parts then you can feed them alone, if your choices are bonier (such as chicken backs, pork necks, wings or ribs), then you will need to add meat or heart to correct the ratios. Basically, you are trying to replicate whole prey, so look at what you’re about to feed and visualise the actual bone content – if a third or even half of it would be bone, then you know you need to add more meat. Remember you are aiming for 10% bone, although for robust dogs there is some tolerance for slightly higher bone content.

• Whole prey, as the name suggests, is the whole ungutted animal or bird. Depending on the size of the dog, this could be anything from small birds to a rabbit or hare. Some people feed larger prey and then remove what isn’t eaten and store for the following days until the whole prey is eaten.

• Raw muscle meat from a variety of sources should be fed daily. You can feed heart as a muscle meat yet not exclusively. Cheap sources are waste trim from the butcher – this is often fatty, yet also has some lean, sinewy content. Muscle meat is a great source of protein, and protein contains essential amino acids, the building blocks of your dog. Muscle meat also contains a lot of phosphorus and is low in calcium. When fed with 10% bone you have the exact ratios of calcium to phosphorus required by a dog.

20 Free range grass-fed meat is also rich in omega 3 and beta- carotene – intensively farmed grain-fed meat has very little, if any.

• Raw Fat is an excellent natural source of energy for a dog, however too much fat too soon can cause loose stools so you need to build up fat content nice and slowly – this includes chicken skin which is considered a fat, so for sensitive dogs should be removed in the early stages of rawfeeding.

• Raw fish (preferably whole, small, oily fish) can be fed for one or two meals per week. You may also opt to feed fish body oil such as Salmon oil. This supplementation is recommended if the meat you feed is not grass-fed because grain-fed animals lack Omega-3 fatty acids which protect the dog’s joints and immune system. It is preferable to feed smaller whole fish, than portions of a larger fish since the mercury and toxin levels in fish are a concern.

• Raw offal (organ meat such as liver, heart, kidneys, brains, lung, pancreas, spleen) from a variety of meat sources should be fed for one or two meals per week or 10% of the diet. Some dogs do not like the texture of organ meats and need to have it lightly seared to change the texture. Other dogs don’t tolerate offal in larger quantities well, so it may be best to divide it up and feed a little each day to avoid loose stools. Liver is particularly important and should form 5% of the overall diet as it is the main source of

21 water-insoluble vitamins in organs that a dog needs. Organs in general provide an enzyme-rich mixture of protein, B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and D, E, some vitamin C, and essential fatty acids EPA, DHA, and AA, along with minerals such as manganese, selenium, zinc, and copper. Like muscle meat, organs contain a lot of phosphorus (and potassium) and are low in calcium.

Essential organ meats in particular:

- Liver has a vast range of important nutrition – it has the most concentrated source of as well as vitamins D, E, and K in substantial quantities. Liver is an excellent source of the minerals zinc, manganese, selenium and iron. It also contains all the B vitamins, particularly B1, B2, B3, B5, B12, , folacin and is a good source of vitamin C. Liver provides a source of good quality protein and the essential fatty acids, both the omega-3 and omega-6 type. It's a fantastic food for your dog!

- Kidneys supply good quality protein, essential fatty acids and many vitamins including all the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Kidneys are a rich source of iron and all the B vitamins. They also have good levels of zinc.

- Heart is an excellent source of protein, B vitamins and iron. It contains some essential fatty acids and a little vitamin A. Heart contains good levels of which is an important food... for the heart! Also, since it is actually a muscle, it can be fed either as part of the muscle meat or organ meat percentages.


• Raw whole eggs with shells (a perfect ratio of phosphorous to calcium) can be fed two or more times per week. You might have heard that raw egg whites contain a protein that binds with biotin and that is true. To avoid deficiencies, feed the entire egg, yolk and everything. The yolks are where most of the nutrition is found anyway. Egg yolks are an excellent source of magnesium, calcium, iron, folate, vitamins A, E and B6 and free-range eggs have lots of beta-carotene. If you buy your eggs commercially, they are likely sprayed with wax and other chemicals to improve their appearance. These chemicals are harmful for your dog so if you cannot find fresh farm eggs, feed commercial eggs without the shell and count them as a meat meal.

• Raw green tripe has long been quoted as being "the finest of natural foods". It should be unprocessed, unbleached – basically straight out the animal and is a great food as it is the edible lining and accompanying content of a cow or other grass eating animals’ first or second division of the stomach. Paunch tripe comes from the large first stomach division and honeycomb tripe comes from the second division. Both wild canids and domestic dogs benefit from eating tripe as it contains a very diverse profile of living nutrients including digestive enzymes, omega- 3 and 6 fatty acids, vitamin B, probiotics, and phytonutrients. Raw tripe is considered as meat yet has a very good calcium/phosphorus ratio - it's not an

23 essential part of the diet; yet is extremely nutritious if you can get it. Tripe should be from grass-fed herbivore animals (not grain fed) to get maximum nutritional benefit. vi) THE “DETOX”

You may have heard of dogs “detoxing” when they first start a raw diet. This all depends on the current health levels of the dog, particularly how many toxins it has been exposed to, and this in particular includes the number of vaccines, heartworm medications, flea preventatives etc they have been given which all have chemicals in them that are difficult for the dog to expel from the body.

With the increased health that raw provides, occasionally this build up of toxins will start to be excreted, usually through the body’s largest organ; the skin. Typically, this will present itself as unexplained itchy skin, itchy ears with or without discharge and runny eyes. These are all signs that the body is cleaning itself naturally and no oral steroid or injections, antibiotics or topical treatments are needed, and in fact, if used, will suppress the detoxification process and cause it to internalise into the major organs to cause organ disease later in life. Please see the herbal health section for more information.

24 Frequently Asked Questions

Q – My vet says feeding bones will kill my dog

A – This is a common among Vets, as many have had to remove a cooked bone from a dog’s stomach and they automatically seem to believe all bones are bad. Vets get approximately 4 hours of nutritional training during 5+ years of vet school and those lectures are sponsored by pet food manufacturers. As a result, most Vets are ignorant about raw feeding, so it helps to say you feed a homemade diet if they ask. Vets will blame everything on raw if the dog is fed raw and then they don't look for what's really wrong with your dog.

Q – My puppy keeps trying to swallow his food whole!

A - Some dogs who have never come across raw food before can get a little confused or over-excited and some may even try to swallow the food whole. Ideally, particularly in the beginning, feed large enough pieces that can’t be swallowed whole, or alternatively hand feed by holding onto one end of the portion until the dog gets used to chewing it properly. This is something particularly important with puppies in the beginning. With dogs that might be possessive about their food, hand feeding is a great way to reassure them.

Q - Why do you say no vegetables or dairy?

A - The prey-model diet ensures that the dog acquires the optimal balance of bone, organ and meat. In fact, latest studies on wolves and wild dogs determined that contrary to previous belief, wolves shake out the contents of the stomach before eating the highly prized stomach (tripe) rather than eating the contents as well. No vegetables

25 or dairy are therefore needed as the prey model diet approximately mimics the kind of carcass your carnivore would be consuming in the wild if it were hunting for its own food, such as rabbits or birds etc.

Q – My dog keeps his food

A - Usually (if there is no underlying medical condition) vomiting indicates that the stomach is rejecting the food because it can't handle it. Usually, this is when there are any of these factors:

1) too much food – feed smaller amounts over more meals

2) too much fat – reduce fat and skin content

3) too much bone - reduce bone content

4) pieces swallowed are too large – this is the most common cause because the dog gets over-excited at his new food. As above, hand feed large pieces instead so that they gnaw on it whilst you hold the other end until they relax that this is their new food now.

Also, with dogs that have been fed kibble for many years, their stomach acid is often a little bit weaker, thought to be because carbohydrates don't need as much acidity to be digested. Try feeding smaller amounts, more often, while they adjust.

Q - My dog got a mix of diarrhoea and constipation from raw - why ?

A - A dog that gets both diarrhoea and constipation is most likely from too much fat and too much bone - common source would be a pig’s foot that is both very bony and very fatty. Some dogs can tolerate this for occasional meals, yet new to raw dogs and/or dogs with sensitive constitutions can’t, so always feed according to the health of your dog.

26 When monitoring your dog’s stool, bear the following in mind:

• Too much bone = constipation (some dogs can only have 10% bone or less, some as much as 25% - each dog is different) • Too little bone = loose stools • Too much organ = loose stools (introduce organ slowly) • Too much fat/skin too soon = loose stools (build up fat and skin content nice and slowly)

The approximate ratios to build up to are 80% muscle meat, fat, sinew / 10% edible bone / 5% liver / 5% other organ). So monitor your dog’s stools until you get the ratios just right for your dog.

Q – Are the E-numbers listed on supermarket processed chicken safe ?

A - Some meat, often chicken portions (legs, quarters, breasts) can be “enhanced”, which basically means tumbled in phosphates so that it absorbs more water and hence greater saleable weight. Some dogs can tolerate these additives fine; some may get upset digestion/itchy skin from it. Try to avoid these meats wherever possible. These additives are usually listed as E numbers so check labels. Avoid labels that contain any E numbers.

Q – My dog just doesn’t like raw! What can I do?

A - It's quite common actually, especially with older dogs who have only ever known kibble their entire lives. Some don’t like the “wet, squidgy” texture of raw after their hard kibbles. Several options are:

1) try a different meat type to start off with.

2) sear it very lightly in the pan, not enough to cook it, just enough to give it that cooked smell and texture, then gradually reduce the amount of searing over the course of several days/weeks.

27 3) feed it very slightly frozen/partially thawed and then gradually decrease the ratio of frozen.

4) grind it for an interim period, and use gravy etc to flavour, so they get used to the texture of raw yet still with tempting gravy.

5) tough love (unpopular with owners, yet unlike a , a dog will not starve itself, it will eat what is given eventually).

The options are endless really. Dogs that refuse raw are usually objecting to the texture and strange smell. Some of the tougher meats like mutton can overcome the texture issue, as does searing in the pan etc. Experimentation is the key, to see what works for your dog.

Q – My vet says my dog will get worms and parasites from feeding raw

A - Yes, there can be parasites in raw meat. Vets use the parasite issue as a scare tactic against rawfeeding, saying “your dog will die from parasites if you feed raw”. They fail to tell you the very low incidence of these parasites in meat reared for human consumption; nor that the most "deadly" of these parasites come from waste such as infected sheep placentas or stillborn calves. So, simply, do not feed these things to your dog and be cautious about where you source your meat. If you are concerned about parasites, simply take stool or blood samples to ease your mind.

Freezing meat can help kill many parasites (such as the parasite present in salmon that can cause a deadly disease in dogs; freezing fresh raw salmon, steelhead, trout, and other salmonids for at least 24 hours before feeding effectively kills the parasite).

Worms thrive more on a laden diet than they do on prey-model raw. If you are worried about worms, do a faecal test and

28 if positive your dog can be wormed holistically. Generally speaking, if your dog has a healthy immune system, it can deal with these parasites before they even get a chance to establish themselves. Parasites hate a very healthy host.

Q – My vet says my dog will get poisoning and other bacteria from feeding raw

A - Dogs are surprisingly well-equipped to deal with bacteria. Their saliva has antibacterial properties; it contains lysozyme, an enzyme that lyses and destroys harmful bacteria. Their short digestive tract is designed to push through food and bacteria quickly without giving bacteria time to colonize. The extremely acidic environment in the gut is also a good bacteria colonization deterrent. Vets often point to the fact that dogs shed salmonella in their faeces (even kibble-fed dogs do this) without showing any ill effects, as proof that the dog is infected with salmonella. In reality, all this proves is that the dog has effectively passed the salmonella through its system with no problems. Yes, the dog can act as a salmonella carrier, yet the solution is simple—do not eat dog faeces and wash your hands after picking up after your dog.

There has been research showing that dogs do not carry Salmonella in their saliva or on their skin, not even after eating 100% Salmonella infected raw food! Yet, when they do eat Salmonella infected food, about one third of them will show a moderate concentration of Salmonella in their faeces – yet no clinical signs of being sick.

As vet Dr Tom Lonsdale writes: “I put forth that it is the kibble, not the raw meat, that causes bacterial problems. Kibble in the intestine not only irritates the lining of the bowels but also provides the perfect warm, wet environment with plenty of undigested sugars and as food for bacteria. This is why thousands of processed food-fed

29 animals suffer from a condition called Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth, or SIBO. Raw meaty bones, however, create a very inhospitable environment for bacteria, as RMBs are easily digestible and have no carbohydrates, starches, or sugars to feed the bacteria.”

Q – Some meat in the fridge wrapped in plastic cling film has become ‘slimy’ and doesn’t smell so good even though it is in date – is it safe?

A - As a general rule, try to avoid storing meat in plastic. If it is bought or thawed in plastic, remove the plastic as soon as you can to allow the meat to breathe. This is in fact also good advice for meat we are going to consume ourselves! Plastic creates unnatural bacteria that a dog’s stomach is not designed to cope with – natural bacteria from old meat stored naturally on an open plate or in a glass covered dish for example are absolutely fine for dogs even if it smells ripe to us!

Q – Doesn’t rawfeeding simply increase demand for factory farming?

A - Not if you are creative and make an effort to find suitable sources of food. Wherever possible try to feed “second grade" meat which is meat that is either not approved for human consumption or undesirable (such as some organ meats etc) yet it is approved for animal consumption and would normally go into pet food anyway. It’s a bit more difficult in some poorer countries where many of the parts that are seen as “not fit for human consumption” in the West, are sold for soups etc, however there is still plenty available if you ask local butchers or wholesalers. Also go direct to farms, especially small scale organic farms who may be more approachable and whose waste meats will be of a higher nutritional value. The easiest approach is probably to explain that you “Make Your Own ”. In the UK, some EU countries & USA, there are specialist companies that buy

30 “second grade” meat and bones and sell it to pet raw feeders, either as it is or turned into ready packaged raw meals.

Q – My vet says my dog will get bloat from raw food, is this true?

A – This is actually totally untrue, and is the exact opposite in fact. Dr Karen Becker DVM says “The majority of kibble (dry food) on the market contains carbohydrates like corn, wheat, rice, soy and oatmeal. These carbs are highly fermentable, and fermentation produces gas. Dogs don’t have a dietary carbohydrate requirement. The more carbs you feed to an animal with no requirement for them, the more gas they will produce.”

Feeding a raw prey model diet, without any carbohydrates, will ensure your dog has less fermentation of food in the stomach, and therefore less risk of gas accumulation and bloat.


Q – What can I use for training treats?

A – Anything meat or fish based such as cubes of meat, organ or even fish such as baby herring or whitebait – for easy handling cut meat into small strips, then place on a wire mesh tray and place in the oven on the lowest temperature setting and leave it to cook/dry out for several hours until dry, then place in a glass jar. They do not need to be refrigerated – you can put them in your walking coat pocket and keep there for weeks. The dogs love them – they’re both crunchy and tasty!

For more frequently asked questions please visit:

31 Raw Feeding Summary

Overall, raw feeding is quite simple. If it still seems complicated, try to visualize a rabbit or bird whole, before it gets cut up and put into containers. Try to feed your dog the rough percentage of bone, meat and organ meat that would occur naturally in this animal. This is what we strive to recreate for our dogs diet.

Remember to feed a variety of meats, not just different parts of a chicken or turkey. Over time try deer, pork, rabbit, goat, duck, turkey, beef, a variety of fish and any other meat that you can get cheaply.

As you have read, there are only a few guidelines to follow. With time, you will become more comfortable with your dog’s new diet and you will start to see the results in the form of better coats, cleaner teeth, fresher breath and fewer health issues. Switch to a raw diet and feel confident that you will be joining thousands of people who have safely and effectively made the leap to raw and have never looked back.

No matter what breed it is... No Matter what their size... We wish you happy raw feeding with your lucky dog!

32 2. Herbal & Natural Healthcare

Most street dogs have had a rough start nutritionally, surviving on garbage and often sleeping around waste materials. For this reason, they usually need to detoxify and the following natural healthcare methods will enable them to do so safely, slowly and naturally without intervention with chemical veterinary medicines and preventatives.

During the detoxification process that will last approximately 6 months, your pet may experience itchy skin, itchy ears with or without discharge and runny eyes. These are all signs that the body is cleaning itself naturally and no oral steroid or injections, antibiotics or topical treatments are needed, and in fact, if used, will suppress the detoxification process and cause it to internalise into the major organs to cause organ disease later in life.

Please therefore do not allow steroids to be administered to your dog – consult a good holistic veterinarian. Please also see:

We have many years experience of using natural and herbal methods in animal healthcare and have learnt that utilising these methods in the short-term, saves a lot of money in the long-term as veterinary bills are dramatically reduced (to almost zero in many instances) in line with the increased health of the dog.

33 Skin, ears and eyes

SKIN - To soothe itchy skin: 1) Bathe in Lavender which will help calm the itching – use something similar to Dr Bronners organic lavender liquid soap range. 2) Make a strong tea with dry lavender flowers. Allow to steep for a couple of hours. Put the tea in a sprayer bottle, and spray a couple of times a day. 3) Spray with Aloe Vera juice with or without some Lavender tea added.

EYES - To bathe/soothe weepy eyes:

Half teaspoon of sea salt dissolved in a cup of Spring Water and then bathe the eyes with a soft fibre free cotton cloth.

EARS - To clean itchy ears:

Olive Oil and Lavender Essential Oil - take about 1/2 cup of olive oil and add about 10 drops of lavender essential oil and wipe the ears with a soft fibre free cotton cloth.

34 Flea, Tick & Worm Control

NOTE: Repeated use of preventatives such as Frontline, Advantix etc actually cause skin problems, cancer, nervous system damage and other diseases as they are neurotoxins (this is how they kill fleas and ticks, they disrupt the nervous system) and an accumulation of these neurotoxins in the body will cause disease later in life. This is why owners are told not to get the product on their hands as people have more legal recourse than animals. For more information please see this report:

A dog fed on a natural, species appropriate raw diet without toxic chemical preventatives is not attractive to fleas or ticks as these parasites prefer unhealthy bodies. A raw fed, healthy body will also not fall ill with tick borne diseases. However, whilst that level of natural health is being achieved: To prevent fleas: 1) Comb regularly with a simple flea comb and kill any fleas in a cup of washing up detergent 2) Bath with a Neem oil shampoo as a preventative – don’t be tempted to use standard “medicated” or “flea pet shampoos” as these have toxic pesticides in them. 3) Use a Neem oil based herbal flea spray – see recipe below 4) Or use a 50/50 mix of apple cider vinegar and water spray which repels (not kills) fleas. 5) For walks in woodland or other areas where high numbers of ticks may be present use a herbal anti-tick/flea spray that

35 contains Rose Geranium Essential Oil or simply put just two drops (no more) of pure Rose Geranium Essential Oil on each dog’s cloth collar every week. Also comb the dog whenever returning from tick prone walks as ticks take a while to “latch on”, so can often be caught whilst crawling on the dog. 6) Citrus repellent – Cut a lemon into quarters and put into a 500ml jar. Cover with boiling water and steep overnight. Put the solution in a spray bottle and spray all over the dog, especially behind the ears, neck, arm pits and base of the tail.

7) For infestations, such as taking in a stray dog, use the suffocation soap-sud bath method – wet the dog thoroughly and then shampoo using a natural liquid dish soap, i.e. one that is advertised as being very gentle, as well as natural. Seventh Generation is a favourite among dog owners, as well as Ecover, Dove, Ivory, or Dial. Add some warm Neem oil too for an added bug repellent effect. Lather well to create a lot of suds, smooth over to create a “sud blanket” effect and then leave on for 15 minutes to suffocate the fleas. Rinse thoroughly and comb out the dead fleas with a flea comb.

36 8) If fleas do become a problem, use Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth (DE) as a flea powder, taking care not to create dust that can be breathed in – takes up to 3 days to kill fleas. 9) Neem oil has been used for hundreds of years in controlling pests such as mosquitos and fleas. It works both as a repellent and an insect growth regulator, thus preventing the larval stage to molt into an adult – so either a teaspoon of neem leaf powder mixed into food per day (1/2 teaspoon for puppies) or a spray made from neem oil are both effective pest controls.


You will need:

- Recycled spray bottle that has a nozzle that can handle oil without getting clogged - 100ml Spring water (Devin, pink label bottle) - 5 teaspoons Vodka (to disperse the oil) - 10-20 ml Neem oil (depending on how strong you want it) - 5 drops Lavender Essential Oil Optional (as not all dogs tolerate Essential Oils well – allow them to sniff it first, to check for a severe dislike to the smell)

- 5 drops Rosemary Essential Oil - 5 drops Rose Geranium Essential Oil (particularly for ticks) Shake vigorously before spraying each time. Please note, this spray is NOT suitable for cats.

Note – Raw fed dogs are at low risk to Tick borne Diseases (TBD) as TBD is a Rickettsial disease, meaning it only affects animals with lower nutrition.


- Boil 500 grams of dried thyme with 1 litre of water and one sliced lemon for several minutes - Run it through a coffee filter - Put in a spray bottle and keep in the fridge.

Note – ensure you have a tick removal tool, for any ticks that do get on your dog. For example: Note, ticks bite in a slight corkscrew, so the twist (anti- clockwise) reduces the risk of leaving mouth parts behind.

Alternative pre-made products on the market are Ark Naturals Flea Flicker! Tick Kicker! and CSJs Billy No Mates


Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a powder comprised of micro-skeletons of deceased diatoms, which are a type of algae (both fresh water and sea water varieties occur). Reported to kill 75% of flies, fleas and ticks that come in contact with it within 72 hrs.


When applied to the animal’s fur, DE scrubs on the hard exoskeletons of fleas. The tiny granules of silicon (like finely ground sand) work in the tiny holes of the flea’s respiratory system and in the joints of the fleas. Every time the flea moves or breathes, the silicon grinds away at the exoskeleton, eventually killing the flea through blocking/maiming

38 the respiratory holes or by water loss, as the exoskeleton helps keep in the flea’s body water. It works the same way when applied to carpets.

HOW TO USE DE: 1) Take care not to breathe in the fine dust – rub gently so that it does not become airborne or wear a mask and put one on your pet. Even though it’s non-toxic, you don’t want to get it in your lungs as it will cause a nasty cough. 2) Sprinkle the DE along your dry pet’s spine. Massage it along the body, working your way carefully to the extremities, avoiding the eyes. Pay attention to warm areas – under ears, neck, arm/leg pits. 3) Spread some diatomaceous earth on the carpets, brush it in and leave for about four days. Then vacuum it up to remove most of the fleas in the carpet. 4) Repeat the application frequently during an infestation. You should notice a decrease in fleas within a couple days.


A dog fed on a natural, species appropriate raw diet is not attractive to intestinal worms as these parasites also prefer unhealthy bodies. Food Grade Diatomaceous earth (DE) is excellent for internal and external

39 parasite control. It is ADAS trialled and approved in the UK for insect control and as a feed additive for farm animals.

De-worming should only ever be done based on the results of a faecal exam. If, for some reason, there is a heavy worm burden, then de- worm just once with a chemical de-wormer and then follow up with Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth daily in food for 30 days. If the worm burden is low, simply feed Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth for 30 days without resorting to a chemical de-wormer.

Quantities per day:

1) Puppies 5kg to 10kg - 2 teaspoons

2) Dogs 10kg to 25kg - 1 to 1.5 tablespoons

3) Dogs 25kg+ - 2 tablespoons

4) Dogs 50kg+ - 3 to 4 tablespoons

Food grade DE eliminates roundworms, whipworms, and hookworms within 7 days of being fed daily.

NOTE: Make sure not to use the kind of DE used in swimming pools which is toxic. Use natural food grade diatomaceous earth; it is available in gardens supply centres, some health food stores, and from natural-pet catalogues such as for Europe or in the USA.

40 Digestive Issues


- Use for irritated , Diarrhoea or Constipation

Slippery Elm Bark Powder aids digestion through a soothing and healing action on irritated mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines, and is especially useful if encountering problems when first switching to a raw diet.

When mixed to a paste with a little tepid water it has a mucous consistency to it which is soothing internally. It also has a great taste so dogs usually love it too! Alternatively, you can dust the meat with it.

You don't need much - one teaspoon up to 3 times a day should be more than enough.

Slippery elm is a highly nutritious wholesome food product. The bark of the Slippery elm contains mucilage which is a soothing nutritional food, similar in texture to oatmeal and rich in nutrients. Slippery elm is very easy to digest and can be tolerated when other foods can’t. It is, therefore, an ideal food during times of digestive discomfort and for those recovering from illness and is considered a “survival food”.


- Use for mild gastroenteritis, food poisoning and stomach upsets.

Activated Charcoal can eliminate fungi, viruses, and bacteria and may also promote recovery from some types of food and other poisonings.

Activated charcoal is simply burnt wood that has had all its oxygen removed leaving it extremely porous. This results in each granule of activated charcoal possessing an extremely large surface area - a single gram of activated carbon has a surface area greater than 500 square meters! It is a non-toxic universal antidote that can be taken internally or applied topically for insect bites and stings. In powdered form, activated charcoal is one of nature’s most efficient adsorbents—a powerful aid in eliminating toxins, gas and many poisons from the stomach and intestines.

It works by adsorption by collecting substances in a condensed form on a surface, and then slides through the stomach and intestines without itself being absorbed. On its way it binds with toxins, wastes, and other substances and then is excreted along with them by the body. It also effectively adsorbs gases, especially in the lower intestine, and thus helps relieve flatulence and gas pains. Not all chemicals are attracted to carbon though, such as and nitrates, so this would need to be borne in mind.

Warning: Do not use charcoal regularly or as a daily supplement, as in addition to adsorption of toxins, activated charcoal also adsorbs food nutrients, vitamins, and minerals.

42 Activated Charcoal — Directions for Use:

It can be obtained in granule or powder form (e.g. Simply mix a dessertspoon of the powder with a little milk or raw egg; most dogs will lap it up willingly.

1) General intestinal distress and gas: Give up to six times daily as needed. Follow each dose with water.

2) Diarrhoea (due to causes other than when first switching to a raw diet): Give upon first noticing the complaint and again with each bowel movement. Follow each dose with water. Note: Stool darkening is normal and may continue for a few days after use.

3) Poisoning: Charcoal is most successful if used within the first hour of swallowing poison. In severe poisoning cases, several doses of charcoal might be required. Ordinarily, activated charcoal should not be used to treat the ingestion of corrosive poisons (lye, acids, fuel oil, alcohols, et cetera). In the event of accidental poisoning, please call your vet before using activated charcoal. They will advise as to the use of charcoal after taking info on the type of poison.

43 3. Behaviour & Training

Natural health is not just about physical health; it is also about mental health. A raw diet goes a very long way to ensuring that your dog’s mind is not ‘fogged’ by artificial additives and carbohydrates in processed foods and also the mental, psychological and physical challenge of tackling large raw meaty bones is invaluable stimulation for the dogs general satisfaction, increased vitality and quality of life. Yet we still need to give our dogs guidance and teach them acceptable behaviour in our human world, and to do that we need to find a common language that both you and your dog can understand.

For years, we have had it drummed into us by celebrity trainers such as Cesar Millan that because dogs are descended from wolves, they behave like wolves and need to be understood as "pack" animals. The received thinking has been that dogs seek to "dominate" and that our task is to assert ourselves as pack leaders – alpha males and females – and not allow dogs to take control. The reality, however, is that this thinking is based on short outdated studies performed in the 1940s on captive wolves which had been forced into manmade unrelated packs, whereas in the wild, wolves exist in family structures, only accepting an “outsider” if they lose a pack member and need a replacement.

Dogs have been selectively bred for centuries and whilst their internal anatomy and physiology remains the same as their wolf ancestors (so much so they are frequently used in wolf studies as a physiological model for wolf body processes), through selective breeding we have changed their external appearance and temperament. When domesticating dogs first began, dogs that were friendly to humans were bred to other sociable dogs. Sociable puppies were retained and used for work and more breeding. During this evolution a process called Neoteny occurred. Neoteny is the retention of juvenile traits and behaviours by the adults of a species. Essentially this means they stop developing earlier than wolf cubs do; they retain more baby-like behaviours and never mature to the status of adult wolf type 44 behaviour. This ‘arrested development’ means that dogs are not ‘tame’ versions of the adult wolf, at best, dogs are more like versions of wolf puppies, which are reliant on adult pack members to feed and protect them. In both dogs and wolves, puppies do not battle adults for rank or resources, nor do adults use violence to keep puppies under submission.

Further, observations of free-roaming dogs throughout the world reveal that dogs are social animals that are primarily scavengers, rather than predators, and live much more solitary lives, as it does not benefit a scavenger to share limited resources with a large group of other animals. These dogs may form loose knit groups, with animals joining and leaving randomly and frequently, a trait not seen in wolf packs. In other words, dogs do not set up wolf-type packs and don't organise themselves in the way wolves do, so they will not strive for household domination. Dogs that are typically labelled ‘dominant’ are usually more anxious than ambitious. They are not looking to control people, only their own lives. Similarly, many dogs that are mistakenly labelled ‘aggressive’ are usually more nervous-fearful than assertive, so to behave like an ‘alpha’ around a nervous, low-ranking dog would destroy him – typically referred to as “learned helplessness” a favourite technique of Cesar Millan that leads to the dog mentally shutting down completely and being totally miserable.

Yet there is Great News for the dog... the latest science shows that dogs learn to "please their owners", which means you can forget about being “alpha” and “dominant”, and simply enjoy being with your dog, because after all, that’s why you got him, wasn’t it?!

As Carolyn Menteith of says “You either go for the old-fashioned approach of jerking on the choke chain and punishing mistakes (an approach that is sadly making a comeback thanks to certain TV dog trainers), or you can cherish the relationship you have with your friend and treat him with the respect and love you would a child. Not really a tough choice? I don’t think so”

45 We therefore recommend training techniques such as Clicker Training and Tellington TTouch that are non-confrontational and are based on the principles of positive reinforcement. This means that we first focus on Positive Reinforcement and then use Reward Removal as a negative consequence to an unwanted behaviour, for example if your dog jumps up at the treat instead of sits, the treat is removed, thus the dog learns that jumping up does not provide a reward, so they try something else (perhaps a sit) that has reaped rewards before. The jumping behaviour will naturally decrease, because it doesn’t get rewarded. The same is actually true of jumping up for attention, if no attention is given in reward for that behaviour, the jumping up will gradually decrease.

Please see for training clips that are all about enjoying being with your dog whilst teaching acceptable behaviours. We hope you have many enjoyable years learning with your adopted dog!

For more information please see the website of the UK's only Tellington Touch expert Sarah Fisher:

And for an International list of qualified TTouch practitioners:

Homeopathy for illness related behaviours:

46 4. Vaccination Considerations

The subject of vaccination is contentious. Vaccinations, whilst in most instances do afford protection against the disease being vaccinated against; they also considerably damage the immune and nervous system. They create far higher risks of cancer and chronic disease over the long term, especially when overused such as the modern veterinary protocol to repeat vaccinate annually or tri-annually.

Immunologists and vaccinologists confirm that immunity antibodies can be acquired from:

1. Previous contact – where you encounter the disease yet your immune system is strong enough not to succumb, yet antibodies are still formed for use if you encounter the same disease again.

2. Infection – if you contract a viral disease, and overcome it, antibodies are again formed for later defences against the same disease.

3. Vaccination – where a modified form of the virus is injected, the immune system detects it, mounts a defence, and creates antibodies in the process.

Factors that affect this process in ALL instances is how strong the immune system is in the first place. Vaccine manufacturer datasheets say only 100% healthy dogs should be vaccinated, and there is a very good reason for this, because if the dog is under par from either poor diet, pregnancy, stress, drugs or currently fighting a disease or recovering from surgery, even spay/neuter surgery – the immune system won’t have the necessary resources with which to create

47 antibodies. This happens a lot with dogs that are taken fresh off the streets and then vaccinated – very few actually seroconvert the vaccine into immunity. However, once antibodies are created (a Titer test 3 weeks after vaccination can confirm this), the antibody memory cells have been scientifically proven to last for 10 years. So, once immune, you can’t become “more immune” and you can’t “boost” immunity.

Why then do manufacturers say boosters are required? Because they only run challenge tests for 1 year, or 3 years for some manufacturers, so this is the only period they are prepared to guarantee the vaccine for. For more information on that see here: and

The biggest problem with vaccinations is the adjuvants and preservatives in the ingredients – such as aluminium, thimerosal (mercury), formaldehyde to name just a few. These are in the vaccine because they are needed to irritate the immune system so that it “goes to find the virus” – as the virus injection bypasses the normal mucous membrane channels that the body is designed to receive disease via and recognise.

So, the immune system has to be irritated by these toxic chemicals so that it knows it is under attack and goes “find the threat” and defend against it. This is great vis-a-vis creating the desired antibodies, yet this irritation comes at a price: auto immune disease and demyelination of the nerve coverings (leading to hypersensitivity).

The toxic adjuvants and preservatives in vaccines are also being linked to other diseases, particularly cancer, although research is still limited.

48 Vaccines are now thought by leading vaccinologists, such as Dr W Jean Dodds and Dr Ron Schultz, to be the No.1 cause of auto-immune diseases, and this is gradually now being proved in scientific studies.

So, these vaccines actually create a self-perpetuating downward spiral because they damage the very immune system they not only purport to help, yet need, to actually defend against disease anyway!

Dogs, as well as humans, fall into 3 groups of sensitivity:

1. Hypersensitive – highly reactive individuals, whether to emotions, atmospheric conditions or environmental toxins. They tend to be nervous individuals and may be restless, easily excited, fearful, and/or obsessive compulsive. They may be sensitive and react to chemical smells, medications and other toxins both applied such as spot-on preventatives and in the household, expressed in allergies. Strong risk of adverse reactions from vaccines.

2. Normosensitive – fairly stable individuals with moderate reactions to food, environment, medicines etc. Lower risk of adverse reactions from vaccines.

3. Hyposensitive – individuals have slow reacting senses and tolerance for a large amount of medicines and toxins. They often lack energy and lack reactive capabilities. Strong risk of damage from vaccines, yet it is very unlikely to be visible.

Out of the three groups, the Hypersensitives are at most risk of a visible adverse reaction to vaccines most commonly in the form of demyelination (erosion) of the nerve coverings which are already in a hypersensitive state, creating even greater hypersensitivity. With the street dogs in Bulgaria, we most commonly see this in puppies that have been taken from their mother or abandoned at a very early age,

49 and then once vaccinated; the hypersensitivity manifests itself strongly as fears and social ineptitude. These types of dogs in particular, should never be repeat vaccinated.

Note: Whilst these 3 groups have differing risk levels of visible adverse reaction to vaccines, ALL will be damaged by the toxic ingredients in vaccines, which are very difficult even for a healthy body to eliminate.

Question: Do I have to vaccinate even once?

Not if you don’t want to. Because as in point 1 above, it is very possible to create antibodies just by coming into contact with the disease provided you have a strong enough immune system. So, focus on creating a very healthy body, concentrating on fresh, natural produce in the diet etc, (avoiding toxins whenever possible in the food and environment especially elective pesticides such as flea/tick spot- ons and chemical de-wormers), avoid/reduce packaged foods, artificial ingredients etc etc, and these are the tools the body needs to not only defend against disease, yet also to create antibodies naturally. Fragments of disease are everywhere in the air, even Rabies because of the Government live rabies bait drops (for more information see, not

50 enough to actually catch the disease, yet enough for the body to create antibodies if you are healthy.

So, concentrate on health, with fresh natural whole foods and limit all toxins as much as you can and Mother Nature and her design of the amazing immune system will take care of everything else without need for vaccination.

Read more: know-about-vaccines or purchase Dr. Don Hamilton's book, Homeopathic Care For Cats and Dogs which has a large section all about vaccinations.

DOG OR WILD ANIMAL BITE – No vaccine is guaranteed 100% effective, so to safeguard yourself and your dog from Rabies, thoroughly wash/soak the bitten area immediately with soap and water. The Rabies virus cannot survive in water and dies very quickly, this is why it makes its victims hydrophobic, to ensure it is kept away from water.

51 5. Spay/Neuter Considerations

Long-Term Health Risks and Benefits Associated with Spay / Neuter in Dogs by Laura J. Sanborn, M.S. - May 14, 2007 dogs.pdf

With the recent publicity regarding the health implications of pre- puberty spay/neuters, we recommend all puppy adopters read this easy-to-understand report on the health impacts of spay / neuter in female and male dogs, respectively. It looks at the findings of increased risk from osteosarcoma, hypothyroidism, and other less frequently occurring diseases associated with early spay/neuter, to help owners decide the best age to sterilise and why.

For the best time to spay females with regard to health, everyone has a different opinion because of the various health implications. In our opinion and experience, if your female can be kept safe during her season, which is easy if you prepare in advance (e.g. buy a chastity belt with absorbent pads etc), and simply keep her on-leash and secure during the critical 3 weeks – then the absolutely optimal time to sterilise is between 3-6 months AFTER the season (during the anestrus stage of the hormonal cycle). This will allow her to have her hormones from her season, to strengthen her bones and truly mature. Then the 3-6 months after allows the hormones to settle down before sterilising. This is the time when you will have a much more stable and healthier dog in the long term than if you spay at any other time in her hormonal cycle – yet of course, it requires a certain level of responsibility to ensure no mating occurs, so if you are in any doubt, then you should do it just prior to her first season, which is usually at age 7-8 months, yet it can be a little earlier (6 months) or later.

52 6. Dog Heimlich Manoeuvre

Dogs and puppies can and do choke on chews, toys, bones and even dry dog food. Making sure you supervise all meal times as well as play with any toys and chews that are small enough to have a choking hazard plus familiarisation with the following techniques will ensure your dogs safety.

Note: Before administering any first aid, make absolutely certain your pet is actually choking. Many people confuse difficulty breathing with choking. If you witness your pet ingesting an item and then immediately begin pawing at the face, the throat, acting frantic, trying to cough and having difficulty breathing, only then should the Heimlich manoeuvre be considered. If your pet is not really choking, the Heimlich can cause serious injury.

After determining that your pet is choking, remove any item that may be constricting the neck. Examine inside the mouth and remove any foreign object you see. Do not blindly place your hand down your pet's throat and pull any object you feel. Dogs have small bones that support the base of their tongues. Owners probing the throat for a foreign object have mistaken these for chicken bones.

Do not attempt to remove an object unless you can see and identify it.

And remember you have about 4 minutes!!

53 TYPE 1:

• Lay the animal on its side.

• Put one hand on its spine and the other hand on its belly.

• With the hand on belly, push inward and upward with quick short motions.

• Look in mouth for object and remove.


• Lift the animal off the ground and hold it vertically (head up and spine against your chest.)

• With arms around belly push inward and upward with quick short motions.

• Check mouth for object and remove.


• Kneel behind the standing animal.

• Place hands under belly just below the rib cage.

• Push inward and upward with quick, short motions.

• Check mouth and remove any object.

54 7. Information Resources: and