Abstract 1

Abstract expressionism was an American post–World War II movement. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve worldwide influence and put City at the center of the western , a role formerly filled by . Although the term "abstract expressionism" was first applied to American art in 1946 by the , it had been first used in in 1919 in the magazine , regarding German Expressionism. In the USA, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by .[1]

The movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as , the and Synthetic . Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic.[2]

Jackson Pollock, No. 5, 1948, oil on fiberboard, 244 x 122 cm. (96 x 48 in.), private collection.


Technically, an important predecessor is , with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic or subconscious creation. 's dripping paint onto a laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson, and . Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist , especially his "white writing" , which, though generally not large in scale, anticipate the "all-over" look of Pollock's drip .

The movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism. Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly VI (1963), , idiosyncratic and, some . was one of the most influential American sculptors of the . Abstract expressionism 2

feel, nihilistic.[2] In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working (mostly) in New York who had quite different styles and even to work that is neither especially abstract nor expressionist. Pollock's energetic "action paintings", with their "busy" feel, are different, both technically and aesthetically, from the violent and grotesque Women series of 's figurative paintings) and the rectangles of color in 's paintings (which are not what would usually be called expressionist and which Rothko denied were abstract). Yet all three artists are classified as An abstract expressionist by (1918-1986): Crags and Crevices, 1961 abstract expressionists.

Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early twentieth century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists works, most of these paintings involved careful planning, especially since their large size demanded it. With artists like , Wassily Kandinsky, Emma Kunz, and later on Rothko, , John McLaughlin, and , clearly implied expression of ideas concerning the spiritual, the unconscious and the mind.[3]

Why this gained mainstream acceptance in the is a matter of debate. American social had been the mainstream in the . It had been influenced not only by the but also by the muralists of Mexico such as David Alfaro Siqueiros and . The political climate after World War II did not long tolerate the social protests of these painters. Abstract expressionism arose during World War II and began to be showcased during the early forties at galleries in New York like The Art of This Century Gallery. The McCarthy era after World War II was a time of artistic in the , but if the subject matter were totally abstract then it would be seen as apolitical, and therefore safe. Or if the art was political, the message was largely for the insiders.[4]

While the movement is closely associated with painting, and painters like Arshile Gorky, , , , Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock and others, collagist and and certain sculptors in particular were also integral to Abstract Expressionism.[5] David Smith, and his wife , , , , Theodore Roszak, Phillip Pavia, , Richard Stankiewicz, , and in particular were some of the sculptors considered as being important members of the movement. In addition, the artists David Hare, John Chamberlain, , , and sculptors , Herbert Ferber, Raoul Hague, , , and even , Seymour Lipton, , and several others [6] were integral parts of the Abstract expressionist movement. Many of the sculptors listed participated in the Ninth Street Show[6] the famous exhibition curated by on East Ninth Street in in 1951. Besides the painters and sculptors of the period the of Abstract expressionism also generated a number of supportive poets, like Frank O'Hara and photographers like and Fred McDarrah, (whose book The Artist's World in Pictures documented the New York School during the 1950s), and filmmakers — notably — as well. Although the abstract expressionist school spread quickly throughout the United States, the major centers of this style were New York City and the Bay area of . Abstract expressionism 3

Art critics of the post–World War II era

Willem De Kooning, Woman V, 1952–1953. De Kooning's series of Woman paintings in the early 1950s caused a stir in the New York City avant-garde circle.

At a certain moment the canvas began to appear to one American painter after another as an arena in which to act. What was to go on the “canvas was not a picture but an event. ” [7] —

In the 1940s there were not only few galleries (The Art of This Century, Gallery, Julien Levi Gallery and a few others) but also few critics who were willing to follow the work of the New York Vanguard. There were also a few artists with a literary background, among them and Barnett Newman who functioned as critics as well. While New York and the world were yet unfamiliar with the New York avant-garde by the late 1940s, most of the artists who have become household names today had their well established patron critics: advocated Jackson Pollock and the color field painters like Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, and Hans Hofmann. Harold Rosenberg seemed to prefer the action painters like Willem de Kooning, and Franz Kline, as well as the seminal paintings of Arshile Gorky. Thomas B. Hess, the managing editor of ARTnews, championed Willem de Kooning. The new critics elevated their proteges by casting other artists as "followers"[8] or ignoring those who did not serve their promotional goal. As an example, in 1958, Mark Tobey "became the first American painter since Whistler (1895) to win top prize at the Biennale. New York's two leading art magazines were not interested. mentioned the historic event only in a news column and ARTnews (Managing editor: Thomas B. Hess) ignored it completely. and Life printed feature articles."[9] Abstract expressionism 4

Barnett Newman, a late member of the Uptown Group, wrote catalogue forewords and reviews, and by the late 1940s became an exhibiting artist at Gallery. His first solo show was in 1948. Soon after his first exhibition, Barnett Newman remarked in one of the Artists' Session at Studio 35: "We are in the process of making the world, to a certain extent, in our own image."[10] Utilizing his writing skills, Newman fought every step of the way to reinforce his newly established image as an artist and to promote his work. An example is his letter on April 9, 1955, "Letter to : — it is true that Rothko talks the fighter. He fights, however, to submit to the philistine world. My struggle against bourgeois society has involved the total rejection of it."[11]

Strangely the person thought to have had most to do with the promotion of this style was a New York Trotskyite Clement Greenberg. As long time art critic for the and , he became an early and literate proponent of abstract expressionism. The well-heeled artist Robert Motherwell joined Barnett Newman, Onement 1, 1948. Greenberg in promoting a style that fit the political climate and the intellectual During the 1940s Barnett Newman rebelliousness of the era. wrote several important articles about the new American painting. Clement Greenberg proclaimed abstract expressionism and Jackson Pollock in particular as the epitome of aesthetic value. It supported Pollock's work on formalistic grounds as simply the best painting of its day and the culmination of an art tradition going back via Cubism and Cézanne to Monet, in which painting became ever 'purer' and more concentrated in what was 'essential' to it, the making of marks on a flat surface.[12] Jackson Pollock's work has always polarised critics. Harold Rosenberg spoke of the transformation of painting into an existential drama in Pollock's work, in which "what was to go on the canvas was not a picture but an event". "The big moment came when it was decided to paint 'just to paint'. The gesture on the canvas was a gesture of liberation from value — political, aesthetic, moral."[13] One of the most vocal critics of abstract expressionism at the time was New York Times art critic John Canaday. Meyer Shapiro, and along with Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg were important art historians of the post-war era who voiced support for abstract expressionism. During the early to mid sixties younger art critics , Rosalind Krauss and added considerable insights into the critical dialectic that continues to grow around abstract expressionism.


World War II and the Post-War period During the period leading up to and during World War II modernist artists, writers, and poets, as well as important collectors and dealers, fled and the onslaught of the Nazis for safe haven in the United States. Many of those who didn't flee perished. Among the artists and collectors who arrived in New York during the war (some with help from ) were , , , Max Ernst, , , Leo Castelli, , André Masson, , André Breton, , , Fernand Léger and . A few artists, notably , and remained in and survived. The post-war period left the capitals of Europe in upheaval with an urgency to economically and physically rebuild and to politically regroup. In Paris, formerly the center of European culture and capital of the art world, the climate for art was a disaster and New York replaced Paris as the new center of the art world. In Europe after the war there was the continuation of Surrealism, Cubism, and the works of Matisse. Also in Europe, Art brut,[14] and or (the European equivalent to Abstract expressionism) took Abstract expressionism 5

hold of the newest generation. , Nicolas de Staël, , Vieira da Silva, , and among others are considered important figures in post-war European painting. In the United States a new generation of American artists began to emerge and to dominate the world stage and they were called Abstract Expressionists.

Gorky, Hofmann and Graham

The 1940s in New York City heralded the triumph of American Abstract expressionism, a modernist movement that combined lessons learned from Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Surrealism, Joan Miró, Cubism, , and early via great teachers in America like Hans Hofmann from Germany and John D. Graham from Russia. Graham's influence on American art during the early 1940s was particularly visible in the work of Arshile Gorky, Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock. Gorky's contributions to American and world art are difficult to overestimate. His work as lyrical abstraction[16] [17] [18] Arshile Gorky, The Liver is the Cock's Comb [19] [20] was a "new language.[16] He "lit the way for two generations of (1944), oil on canvas, 73 1/4 x 98" (186 x 249 [16] cm). Gorky was an Armenian-born American American artists". The painterly spontaneity of mature works like painter who had a seminal influence on Abstract "The Liver is the Cock's Comb". "The Betrothal II", and "One Year the Expressionism. De Kooning said: "I met a lot of Milkweed" immediately prefigured Abstract expressionism, and artists — but then I met Gorky... He had an leaders in the New York School have acknowledged Gorky's extraordinary gift for hitting the nail on the ; remarkable. So I immediately attached myself to considerable influence. American artists also benefited from the [15] him and we became very good friends." presence of Piet Mondrian, Fernand Léger, Max Ernst and the André Breton group, Pierre Matisse's gallery, and Peggy Guggenheim's gallery The Art of This Century, as well as other factors. Hans Hofmann in particular as teacher, mentor and artist was both important and influential to the development and success of Abstract Expressionism in the United States. Among Hofmann's protege's was Clement Greenberg who became an enormously influential voice for American painting and among his students was who introduced her teacher Hans Hofmann to Jackson Pollock her husband. Abstract expressionism 6

Pollock and Abstract influences

During the late 1940s Jackson Pollock's radical approach to painting revolutionized the potential for all that followed him. To some extent, Pollock realized that the journey toward making a was as important as the work of art itself. Like Pablo Picasso's innovative reinventions of painting and sculpture near the turn of the century via Cubism and constructed sculpture, Pollock redefined what it was to produce art. His move away from easel painting and conventionality was a liberating signal to the artists of his era and to all that came after. Artists realized that Jackson Pollock's process—the placing of unstretched raw canvas on the floor where it could be attacked from all four sides using artist materials and industrial materials; linear skeins of paint dripped and thrown; drawing, staining, brushing; imagery and non-imagery—essentially blasted artmaking beyond any prior boundary. Abstract expressionism in general expanded and developed the definitions and Hans Hofmann The Gate, 1959–1960. Hofmann's presence in possibilities that artists had available for the creation of new works of art. New York City and Provincetown as a teacher and as an artist was The other Abstract expressionists followed Pollock's breakthrough with new influential to the development of breakthroughs of their own. In a sense the innovations of Jackson Pollock, American painting in the 1930s and Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, , Hans Hofmann, 1940s. Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, , Richard Pousette-Dart, Robert Motherwell, Peter Voulkos and others opened the floodgates to the diversity and scope of all the art that followed them. The new art movements of the 1960s essentially followed the lead of Abstract Expressionism and in particular the innovations of Pollock, De Kooning, Rothko, Hofmann, Reinhardt and Newman. The radical Anti-Formalist movements of the 1960s and 1970s including , Neo-Dada, and the Feminist movement can be traced to the innovations of Abstract Expressionism. Rereadings into abstract art, done by art historians such as ,[21] [22] and [23] critically shows, however, that pioneer who have produced major innovations in had been ignored by the official accounts of its history, but finally began to achieve long overdue recognition in the wake of the abstract expressionist movement of the 1940s and 1950s.

Action painting

The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms and abstract expressionism interchangeably). A comparison is often drawn between the American action painting and the French tachisme. The term was coined by the American critic Harold Rosenberg in 1952[24] and signaled a major shift in the aesthetic of New York School painters and critics. According to Rosenberg the canvas was "an arena in which to act". While abstract expressionists such as Franz Kline, Painting Number 2, 1954, The Jackson Pollock, Franz Kline and Willem de Kooning had long been outspoken in their view of a painting as an arena within which to come to terms with the act of creation, earlier critics sympathetic to their cause, like Clement Greenberg, focused on their works' "objectness." To Greenberg, it was the physicality of the paintings' clotted and oil-caked surfaces that was the key to understanding them as documents of the artists' existential struggle. Abstract expressionism 7

Rosenberg's critique shifted the emphasis from the object to the struggle itself, with the finished painting being only the physical manifestation, a kind of residue, of the actual work of art, which was in the act or process of the painting's creation. This spontaneous activity was the "action" of the painter, through arm and wrist movement, painterly gestures, brushstrokes, thrown paint, splashed, stained, scumbled and dripped. The painter would sometimes let the paint drip onto the canvas, while rhythmically dancing, or even standing in the canvas, sometimes letting the paint fall according to the subconscious mind, thus letting the unconscious part of the psyche assert and express itself. All this, however, is difficult to explain or interpret because it is a supposed unconscious manifestation of the act of pure creation.[25] Abstract expressionism has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, rather nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working (mostly) in New York who had quite different styles, and even applied to work which is not especially abstract nor expressionist. Pollock's energetic action paintings, with their "busy" feel, are different both technically and aesthetically, to the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning. (As seen below in the gallery) Woman V is one of a series of six paintings made by de Kooning between 1950 and 1953 that depict a three-quarter-length female figure. He began the first of these paintings, Woman I, collection: The Museum of Modern Art, New York City, in June 1950, repeatedly changing and painting out the image until January or February 1952, when the painting was abandoned unfinished. The art historian saw the painting in de Kooning's studio soon afterwards and encouraged the artist to persist. De Kooning's response was to begin three other paintings on the same theme; Woman II, collection: The Museum of Modern Art, New York City, Woman III, Museum of Contemporary Art, Woman IV, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, . During the summer of 1952, spent at East Hampton, de Kooning further explored the theme through drawings and pastels. He may have finished work on Woman I by the end of June, or possibly as late as November 1952, and probably the other three women pictures were concluded at much the same time.[26] The Woman series are decidedly figurative paintings. Another important artist is Franz Kline, as demonstrated by his painting Number 2, 1954 (see above) as with Jackson Pollock and other Abstract Expressionists, was labelled an "action painter because of his seemingly spontaneous and intense style, focusing less, or not at all, on figures or imagery, but on the actual brush strokes and use of canvas. Automatic writing was an important vehicle for action painters Franz Kline in his black and white paintings, Jackson Pollock, Mark Tobey and who used gesture, surface, and line to create calligraphic, linear symbols and skeins that resemble language, and resonate as powerful manifestations from the .[27] Robert Motherwell in his Elegy to the Spanish Republic series also painted powerful black and white paintings using gesture, surface and symbol evoking powerful emotional charges. While other action painters notably Willem de Kooning, Arshile Gorky, , , and (see gallery) used imagery via either abstract or as expressionistic visions of the figure to articulate their highly personal and powerful evocations. James Brooks' paintings were particularly poetic and highly prescient in relationship to Lyrical Abstraction that became prominent in the late 1960s and the 1970s.[28] Abstract expressionism 8

Color field

Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Adolph Gottlieb (see gallery) and the serenely shimmering blocks of color in Mark Rothko's work (which is not what would usually be called expressionist and which Rothko denied was abstract), are classified as abstract expressionists, albeit from what Clement Greenberg termed the Color field direction of abstract expressionism. Both Hans Hofmann (see gallery) and Robert Motherwell (gallery) can be comfortably described as practitioners of action painting and Color field painting. In the 1940s Richard

Pousette-Dart's tightly constructed imagery often depended upon Clyfford Still, 1957-D No. 1. During the 1950s themes of mythology and ; as did the paintings of Adolph Still's paintings were characterized as being Gottlieb, and Jackson Pollock in that decade as well. related to Color Fields

Color Field painting initially referred to a particular type of abstract expressionism, especially the work of Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still, Barnett Newman, Robert Motherwell, Adolph Gottlieb, Ad Reinhardt and several series of paintings by Joan Miró. Art critic Clement Greenberg perceived Color Field painting as related to but different from Action painting. The Color Field painters sought to rid their art of superfluous rhetoric. Artists like Robert Motherwell, Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, Adolph Gottlieb, Hans Hofmann, , , Mark Tobey (see gallery) and especially Barnett Newman whose masterpiece is in the collection of MoMA and Ad Reinhardt used greatly reduced references to nature, and they painted with a highly articulated and psychological use of color. In general these artists eliminated recognizable imagery. In the case of Rothko and Gottlieb sometimes using symbol and sign as replacement of imagery. Certain artists quoted references to past or present art, but in general color field painting presents abstraction as an end in itself. In pursuing this direction of modern art, artists wanted to present each painting as one unified, cohesive, monolithic image.

In distinction to the emotional energy and gestural surface marks of Abstract Expressionists such as Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, the Color Field painters initially appeared to be cool and austere, effacing the individual mark in favor of large, flat areas of color, which these artists considered to be the essential nature of visual abstraction, along with the actual shape of the canvas, which later in the 1960s in particular achieved in unusual ways with combinations of curved and straight edges. However Color Field painting has proven to be both sensual and deeply expressive albeit in a different way from gestural Abstract expressionism. Although Abstract expressionism spread quickly throughout the United States, the major centers of this style were New York City and California, especially in the New York School, and the . Abstract expressionist paintings share certain characteristics, including the use of large canvases, an "all-over" approach, in which the whole canvas is treated with equal importance (as opposed to the center being of more interest than the edges). The canvas as the arena became a credo of Action painting, while the integrity of the picture plane became a credo of the Color field painters. Abstract expressionism 9

In the 1960s after abstract expressionism

In abstract painting during the 1950s and 1960s several new directions like Hard-edge painting exemplified by John McLaughlin expland other forms of , as a reaction against the subjectivism of Abstract expressionism began to appear in artist studios and in radical avant-garde circles. Clement Greenberg became the voice of Post-painterly abstraction; by curating an influential exhibition of new painting that toured important art throughout the United States in 1964. Color field painting, Hard-edge painting and Lyrical Abstraction[29] emerged as radical new directions.

Abstract expressionism and the

Since the mid 1970s it has been argued by revisionist historians that the style attracted the attention, in the early 1950s, of the CIA, who saw it as

Barnett Newman, Who's Afraid of representative of the USA as a haven of free thought and free markets, as well as , Yellow and ?, 1966. a challenge to both the socialist realist styles prevalent in communist nations and Typical of Newman's later work, the dominance of the European art markets.[30] The book by Frances Stonor with the use of pure and vibrant Saunders,[31] The Cultural Cold War—The CIA and the World of Arts and color. Letters,[32] published in the UK as Who Paid the Piper?: CIA and the Cultural Cold War, details how the CIA financed and organized the promotion of American abstract expressionists as part of cultural imperialism via the Congress for Cultural Freedom from 1950–67. Against this revisionist tradition, an essay by , chief art critic of The New York Times, called Revisiting the Revisionists: The Modern, Its Critics and the Cold War, argue that much of this information (as well as the revisionists' interpretation of it) concerning what was on the American art scene during the 1940s and 50s is flatly false, or at best (contrary to the revisionists' avowed historiographic principles) decontextualized . Other books on the subject include Art in the Cold War by Christine Lindey, which also describes the art of the Soviet Union at the same time; and Pollock and After edited by Francis Frascina, which reprinted the Kimmelman article.

Consequences Canadian artist Jean-Paul Riopelle (1923–2002) helped introduce abstract to Paris in the 1950s. Michel Tapié's groundbreaking book, Un Art Autre (1952), was also enormously influential in this regard. Tapié was also a and exhibition organizer who promoted the works of Pollock and Hans Hofmann in Europe. By the 1960s, the movement's initial affect had been assimilated, yet its methods and proponents remained highly influential in art, affecting profoundly the work of many artists who followed. Abstract Expressionism preceded Tachisme, Color Field painting, Lyrical Abstraction, Fluxus, , , , Neo-expressionism, and the other movements of the sixties and seventies and it influenced all those later movements that evolved. Movements which were direct responses to, and rebellions against abstract expressionism began with Hard-edge painting (Frank Stella, Robert and others) and Pop artists, notably , and who achieved prominence in the US, accompanied by Richard Hamilton in Britain. and in the US formed a bridge between abstract expressionism and Pop art. Minimalism was exemplified by artists such as , and Agnes Martin. However, many painters, such as , Jane Frank (a pupil of Hans Hofmann), and Antoni Tàpies continued to work in the abstract expressionist style for many years, extending and expanding its visual and philosophical implications, as many abstract artists continue to do today, in styles described as Lyrical Abstraction, Neo-expressionist and others. Abstract expressionism 10

Major paintings and sculpture

Richard Pousette-Dart, Mark Tobey, Helen Frankenthaler, Mountains Sam Symphony No. 1, The Canticle, and Sea, 1952 Francis, Transcendental, 1941-42 1954. Tobey, Black and like Pollock, Red, was known 1950–1953 for his calligraphic style of allover compositions.

James Brooks, 1957, Isamu Robert Motherwell, Elegy to the Mark di Suvero, Aurora, Gallery Noguchi, Spanish Republic No. 110 1971 1992-1993 Red , red Persian travertine sculpture, 1965-1966, Honolulu Academy of Arts

Hans Burkhardt, Untitled, 1950 Abstract expressionism 11

List of abstract expressionists

Major artists • Significant artists whose mature work defined American Abstract Expressionism:

• Franz Kline • Fuller Potter • Mark Tobey • • Albert Kotin • Richard Pousette-Dart • • Jimmy Ernst • Lee Krasner • Ad Reinhardt • Cy Twombly • Norman Bluhm • Herbert Ferber • Ibram Lassaw • • Louise Bourgeois • • Norman Lewis • George Rickey • • Sam Francis • Richard Lippold • Jean Paul Riopelle • Peter Voulkos • James Brooks • Jane Frank • Seymour Lipton • • Helen Frankenthaler • • Theodore Roszak • Emerson Woelffer • • Michael Goldberg • Conrad Marca-Relli • Mark Rothko • Taro Yamamoto • • Nicholas Marsicano • Anne Ryan • Manouchehr Yektai • • Arshile Gorky • • Adolph Gottlieb • Joan Mitchell • • Robert Motherwell • • John Chamberlain • • Louise Nevelson • Harold Shapinsky • • Philip Guston • Barnett Newman • David Smith • Willem de Kooning • David Hare • Isamu Noguchi • , Sr. • Grace Hartigan • • Hans Hofmann • Stephen Pace • • Mark di Suvero • • Clyfford Still • • Jackson Pollock •

Other artists • Significant artists whose mature work relates to American Abstract Expressionism:

• Robert Rauschenberg • James Bohary • Gino Hollander • • Jasper Johns • • Charles Ragland Bunnell • • Mary Callery • • Aaron Siskind • Edward Clark • • Pierre Soulages • Donald Cole • • Nicolas de Staël • Alfred L. Copley aka (L. Alcopley) • Georges Mathieu • Frank Stella • Jean Dubuffet • • Stuart Sutcliffe • Lynne Drexler • Edward Meneeley • • Ludwig Merwart • Antoni Tàpies [33] • • Jan Müller • Nína Tryggvadóttir • • Don Van Vliet • John D. Graham • Jules Olitski • • Elaine Hamilton • Irene Rice-Pereira • Zao Wou Ki Abstract expressionism 12

References [1] Hess, Barbara; "Abstract Expressionism", 2005 [2] Shapiro, David/Cecile (2000): Abstract Expressionism. The politics of apolitical painting. p. 189-190 In: Frascina, Francis (2000): Pollock and After. The critical debate. 2nd ed. : Routledge [3] Catherine de Zegher and Hendel Teicher (eds.). 3 X Abstraction. NY: The Drawing Center and /New Haven: Press. 2005. [4] Serge Gibalt. How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art, University of Press, 1983.

[5] Marika Herskovic, American Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s An Illustrated Survey, (http:/ / www. worldcatlibraries. org/ /

50253062& tab=holdings) (New York School Press, 2003.) ISBN 0-9677994-1-4 pp12-13

[6] Marika Herskovic, New York School Abstract Expressionists Artists Choice by Artists, (http:/ / www. worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/ 50666793& tab=holdings) (New York School Press, 2000.) ISBN 0-9677994-0-6 p.11-12 [7] Abstract Expressionism, by Barbara Hess, Taschen, 2005, back cover [8] Thomas B. Hess, "Willem de Kooning", George Braziller, Inc. New York, 1959 p.:13

[9] William C. Seitz, Mark Tobey by William C. Seitz, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1962. (http:/ / www. worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/

5750568& referer=brief_results) [10] Barnett Newman Selected Writings and Interviews, (ed.) by John P. O'Neill, pgs.: 240-241, Press, 1990 [11] Barnett Newman Selected Writings Interviews, (ed.) by John P. O'Neill, p.: 201, University of California Press, 1990. [12] Clement Greenberg, "Art and Culture Critical essays", ("The Crisis of the Easel Picture"), Beacon Press, 1961 pp.:154-157 [13] Harold Rosenberg, The Tradition of the New, Chapter 2, "The American Action Painter", pp.:23-39 [14] Jean Dubuffet: L’Art brut préféré aux arts culturels [1949](=engl in: Art brut. Madness and Marginalia, special issue of Art & Text, No. 27, 1987, p. 31-33) [15] Willem de Kooning (1969) by Thomas B. Hess

[16] Dorment, Richard. "Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective at , review" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ culture/ art/ art-reviews/

7190303/ Arshile-Gorky-A-Retrospective-at-Tate-Modern-review. html), , 8 February 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2010.

[17] Art Daily (http:/ / www. artdaily. org/ section/ news/ index. asp?int_sec=11& int_new=36171& int_modo=1) retrieved May 24, 2010

[18] "L.A. Art Collector Caps Two Year Pursuit of Artist with Exhibition of New Work" (http:/ / artdaily. org/ index. asp?int_sec=2& int_new=37112), ArtDaily. Retrieved 26 May 2010. "Lyrical Abstraction ... has been applied at times to the work of Arshile Gorky"

[19] "Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective" (http:/ / www. tate. org. uk/ about/ pressoffice/ pressreleases/ 2010/ 21322. htm), Tate, February 9, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2010.

[20] Van Siclen, Bill. "Art scene by Bill Van Siclen: Part-time faculty with full-time " (http:/ / www. projo. com/ art/ content/

projo_20030710_artwrap10. 5e2b3. html), The Providence Journal, July 10, 2003. Retrieved June 10, 2010. [21] Nochlin, Linda, Ch.1 in: Women Artists at the Millennium (edited by C. Armstrong and C. de Zegher) MIT Press, 2006. [22] Pollock, Griselda, Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive. Routledge, 2007. [23] De Zegher, Catherine, and Teicher, Hendel (eds.), 3 X Abstraction. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2005.

[24] Rosenberg, Harold. "The American Action Painters" (http:/ / www. poetrymagazines. org. uk/ magazine/ record. asp?id=9798). poetrymagazines.org.uk. . Retrieved 20 August 2006. [25] based (very) loosely on a lecture by Fred Orton at the Uni of Leeds and H. Geldzahler, New York Painting and Sculpture: 1940-1970, NY 1969

[26] NGA.gov.au (http:/ / www. nga. gov. au/ International/ Catalogue/ Detail. cfm?IRN=47761& BioArtistIRN=25281& MnuID=2& GalID=1), National Gallery of [27] Collective unconscious [28] The Aldrich Museum of Contemporary Art, Lyrical Abstraction, exhibition: April 5 through June 7, 1970, Statement of the exhibition [29] Aldrich, Larry. Young Lyrical Painters, , v.57, n6, November–December 1969, pp.104-113.

[30] CIA and AbEx (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ news/ world/ modern-art-was-cia-weapon-1578808. html) Retrieved November 7, 2010

[31] Ratical.org (http:/ / www. ratical. org/ ratville/ CAH/ CIAcultCW. html)

[32] Worldcatlibraries.org (http:/ / www. worldcatlibraries. org/ wcpa/ oclc/ 43114251?loc=#tabs) [33] Pattan, S. F. (1998) African American Art, New York: Oxford University Press Abstract expressionism 13

Books • Anfam, David. Abstract Expressionism (New York & London: Thames & Hudson, 1990). ISBN 0-500-20243-5

• Craven, David, Abstract expressionism as cultural critique: dissent during the McCarthy period (http:/ / www.

worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/ 39523558& tab=holdings) (Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.) ISBN 0-521-43415-7

• Marika Herskovic, American Abstract and Figurative Expressionism: Style Is Timely Art Is Timeless (http:/ /

www. worldcat. org/ search?qt=worldcat_org_bks& q=9780967799421& fq=dt:bks) (New York School Press, 2009.) ISBN 978-0-9677994-2-1

• Marika Herskovic, American Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s An Illustrated Survey, (http:/ / www.

worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/ 50253062& tab=holdings) (New York School Press, 2003.) ISBN 0-9677994-1-4

• Marika Herskovic, New York School Abstract Expressionists Artists Choice by Artists, (http:/ / www.

worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/ 50666793& tab=holdings) (New York School Press, 2000.) ISBN 0-9677994-0-6 • Serge Guilbaut. How New York Stole the Idea of Modern Art, Press, 1983.


• Saunders, Frances Stonor, The cultural cold war: the CIA and the world of arts and letters (http:/ / www.

worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/ 43114251& referer=brief_results) (New York: New Press: Distributed by W.W. Norton & Co., 2000) ISBN 1-56584-596-X

• O'Connor, Francis V. Jackson Pollock (http:/ / www. worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/ 165852& referer=brief_results) [exhibition catalogue] (New York, Museum of Modern Art, [1967]) OCLC 165852 • The and Politics of Abstract Expressionism 1940-1960 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, , 2000 ISBN 0-521-65154-9

• Tapié, Michel. Hans Hofmann: peintures 1962 : 23 avril-18 mai 1963. (http:/ / www. worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/

62515192& referer=brief_results) (Paris: Galerie Anderson-Mayer, 1963.) [exhibition catalogue and commentary] OCLC: 62515192

• Tapié, Michel. Pollock (http:/ / www. worldcatlibraries. org/ oclc/ 30601793?tab=details) (Paris, P. Facchetti, 1952) OCLC: 30601793 • Jeffrey Wechsler (2007). Pathways and Parallels: Roads to Abstract Expressionism. New York: Hollis Taggart Galleries. ISBN 0-9759954-9-9. • Anfam, David. Abstract Expressionism—A World Elsewhere. New York: Haunch of Venison, 2008,

Haunchofvenison.com (http:/ / www. haunchofvenison. com/ en/ #page=home. shop. books. abstract_expressionism)

Quotations about abstract expressionism • Abstract Expressionist value expression over perfection, vitality over finish, fluctuation over repose, the unknown over the known, the veiled over the clear, the individual over society and the inner over the outer. • William C. Seitz,American artist and art historian

External links

• Jackson Pollock (http:/ / www. terraingallery. org/ Jackson-Pollock-Ambition-DK. html)

• Louis Schanker (http:/ / www. louisschanker. info)

• Philip Guston (http:/ / www. aestheticrealism. org/ Philip_Guston/ Philip_Guston. html)

• Perle Fine (http:/ / www. perlefine. com)

• Perle Fine Abstract Expressionism-1950s New York action painter' (http:/ / www. . com/ watch?v=yqUORQW8lHQ)- video from youtube.com Abstract expressionism 14

• Albert Kotin (http:/ / www. albertkotin. com)

• Albert Kotin Abstract Expressionism 1950s-New York School 1950s action painting (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=iN_tQlGdLe8)— video from youtube.com

• James Brooks Abstract Expressionist painter 1906-1992 (http:/ / www. jamesbrooks. org/ )

• James Brooks Abstract Expressionsim-New York School 1950s (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=McBpuNIyOWM)-video from youtube.com

• American Abstract Artists (http:/ / www. americanabstractartists. org)

• Beginning of the New York School 1950s-Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=yeUX9ICyLaQ)— video from youtube.com 13:06

• Clyfford Still Museum (http:/ / www. clyffordstillmuseum. org/ )

• Abstract expressionism 1950s-New York School Artists of the 9th St Show Reminisce (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=twshPjpOzzU)—video from youtube.com 13:34

• 9th Street -abstract expressionist artists reminisce (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=9R6cnawfnCI)—video from youtube.com 9:27

• Nicolas Carone-Abstract Expressionism-Artist of the 9th St. Show (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=J-kMxtJ0GfA)—video from youtube.com

• Conrad Marca-Relli Abstract Expressionism 1950s-New York School -painter (http:/ / www. youtube.

com/ watch?v=gGJergg0zvo)— video from youtube.com

Abstract Expressionism 1950s-New York School 1950s (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=FkjUToTZAQM)— video from youtube.com

• Joe Stefanelli Abstract Expressionism 1950s-New York School 1950s (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=m-V3LqRMv1w)— video from youtube.com Article Sources and Contributors 15 Article Sources and Contributors

Abstract expressionism Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=426142392 Contributors: 1717, ALoveSupreme, Abstract8, Academic Challenger, Ae1.wiki, Ahoerstemeier, Aitias, Akradecki, Akriasas, Alex contributing, Aliciapenelope, Allreet, Alp1776, Alpinwolf, Alsandro, Alt212, Anastrophe, Andrew28913, Andreworkney, Andrewsey, Anetode, Arterial, Artifactindex, Artreseachart, Az1568, Baoutrust, Being & becoming, Betterusername, Bookgrrl, Bus stop, Caitosarts, Camembert, Cesca1910, Chuunen Baka, Cindamuse, Citicat, Cmdrjameson, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Corvus cornix, Cowboy456, Cuchullain, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DVD R W, DW, Danny, Danwalk, Darklilac, Darkwind, Darlingtonart, David Gale, David Shankbone, Daydreamer6928, Defence321, Dekisugi, DerHexer, DigitalC, DivGirl78, Dk321, Drszucker, Dryman, Duncanssmith, Durham1984, Egmontaz, Er a wikipiki wiki wum, Eric Winesett, Ethicoaestheticist, Everyking, Farras Octara, FayssalF, Flyty, Fontgirl, Fram, Fratrep, Freshacconci, Funandtrvl, GT5162, Gaius Cornelius, Genex1, Gimmetrow, Goethean, Grantbw, Gregbard, Gökhan, Hephaestos, HisSpaceResearch, Hubertfarnsworth, Hyacinth, Ichthys58, Indopug, J Milburn, JHMM13, JNW, JSpung, James Ervin May, James Woodstuff, Jengod, JeremyA, JoeStrange27, Joel Finsel, John Ellsworth, John of Reading, Jonathan.s.kt, Joseph Solis in Australia, Joyous!, Jpquist, Jusdafax, Justin Foote, Katieh5584, Katvaara, Ken Gallager, Knowledge4all, Knulclunk, Kunstnetje, Kwamikagami, Kwork2, L Kensington, Leafs252, Leafyplant, Leonard G., Lestrade, Leszek Jańczuk, Levi69, Lidya, Lightmouse, Ling.Nut, Lotje, Lounflo, Lusitana, MA3ARG, MNartist, Mafmafmaf, Magister109, Malick78, Man vyi, Mandarax, Mareino, Marika Herskovic, Marlengonzalez, Martarius, MarylandArtLover, Maslauskas, Mattisse, Mayfly may fly, Mcdonal6, Mentifisto, Mettimeline, Mgpie, Mike Lawrence Turner, Minderbinder, Mloew, Modernist, Mr.Clicky, Mrdanielpartridge, Mrshaba, Nabla, Nagy, Natcheznme, Navstar, Nburden, Nektai, Neurolysis, Nimish Gautam, Nlu, Nolomotm, Norcalal, Nuvainmealina, Nyeditor, OldakQuill, OnBeyondZebrax, Onegin1, Onionmon, Orlady, Paloma747, Parent5446, Philip Cross, Photoart77, Pingveno, Pink!Teen, Planetneutral, Precious Roy, R'n'B, R.123, Range kingrj, Rasmus Faber, Raven in Orbit, RedWolf, Redthoreau, Research Method, RexNL, Riana, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, RobertG, Rocator, Rocknrollsnob, Rocksaid82, Rodney Boyd, Ronwebber, RoyBoy, Rumiton, SDC, Salmon1, Saposapo, Saravask, Sardanaphalus, Schwnj, ScottSteiner, Sdlc, Seaphoto, Seidenstud, Setwisohi, Shannonshead, Shimgray, SimonP, Sionus, Sir Richardson, Skizzik, Slawojarek, Sluzzelin, Sparkit, Spinster, Stevage, Stevertigo, Storm Rider, Stwalkerster, Suicidalhamster, Suicidalsos, Swortis, Taxisfolder, Teles, The Phantom Blot, TheKid, Thejewishmuseum, Tide rolls, Tjmayerinsf, Tobias Bergemann, Trusilver, Twotimes, Tyrenius, Usability 3, VMS Mosaic, Val mond, Versus22, Vianello, Viriditas, VisualGent, Waldemar smolarek art, Warofdreams, Wbkelley, Westviler, Wik, WikiArchitect, Wocdocdingo, Woohookitty, Wowmom1980, Xeno, Yasuimichael, Zsinj, 477 anonymous edits Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Image:No. 5, 1948.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:No._5,_1948.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Diannaa, Ethicoaestheticist, Gilliam, J Milburn, Mareino, Mechamind90, Modernist, Reguiieee, Rettetast, Rizalninoynapoleon, The Master of Mayhem, Tree Biting Conspiracy, Tyrenius, 15 anonymous edits Image:SMITH CUBI VI.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SMITH_CUBI_VI.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: Gerardus, Gryffindor, J Milburn, Look2See1, Talmoryair Image:Jane Frank Crags And Crevices.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jane_Frank_Crags_And_Crevices.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Harmvandendorpel, MarylandArtLover, Mechamind90, Modernist, 3 anonymous edits Image:Kooning woman v.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kooning_woman_v.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Mechamind90, Melesse, Modernist, Philosophistry, Sparkit, Stan Shebs, VegitaU, 1 anonymous edits Image:Newman-Onement 1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Newman-Onement_1.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Cactus.man, Mechamind90, Modernist File:Gorky-The-Liver.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gorky-The-Liver.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Mechamind90, Modernist, Tyrenius Image:Hans Hofmann's painting 'The Gate', 1959–60.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hans_Hofmann's_painting_'The_Gate',_1959–60.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Modernist, Wpearl, 1 anonymous edits Image:Kline no2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kline_no2.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Araignee, Ethicoaestheticist, Modernist, Philosophistry, Ray Chason, Sparkit, 3 anonymous edits Image:Still 1957 D1.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Still_1957_D1.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Ethicoaestheticist, Knulclunk, Modernist, Sparkit Image:Newman-Who's Afraid of Red, Yellow and Blue.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Newman-Who's_Afraid_of_Red,_Yellow_and_Blue.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Cactus.man, Lithoderm, Modernist Image:'Symphony No. 1, The Transcendental', oil on canvas painting by Richard Pousette-Dart, 1941-42, Metropolitan Museum of Art.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:'Symphony_No._1,_The_Transcendental',_oil_on_canvas_painting_by_Richard_Pousette-Dart,_1941-42,_Metropolitan_Museum_of_Art.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Melesse, Modernist, PhilKnight, Wmpearl Image:'Canticle', casein on by Mark Tobey, 1954.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:'Canticle',_casein_on_paper_by_Mark_Tobey,_1954.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Franamax, Modernist, Wmpearl, 1 anonymous edits Image:Frankenthaler_Helen_Mountains and Sea_1952.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Frankenthaler_Helen_Mountains_and_Sea_1952.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Modernist, Sparkit, Stan Shebs Image:Oil painting by Sam Francis.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Oil_painting_by_Sam_Francis.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Modernist, Wmpearl Image:'Boon' oil on canvas painting by James Brooks, 1957, Tate Gallery.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:'Boon'_oil_on_canvas_painting_by_James_Brooks,_1957,_Tate_Gallery.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Melesse, Modernist, PhilKnight, Wmpearl Image:'Red Untitled' red Persian travertine sculpture by --Isamu Noguchi--, 1965-1966, --Honolulu Academy of Arts--.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:'Red_Untitled'_red_Persian_travertine_sculpture_by_--Isamu_Noguchi--,_1965-1966,_--Honolulu_Academy_of_Arts--.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Melesse, Modernist, Rjwilmsi, Seresin, Skier Dude, Voyaging, Wmpearl Image:Robert Motherwell's 'Elegy to the Spanish Republic No. 110'.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Robert_Motherwell's_'Elegy_to_the_Spanish_Republic_No._110'.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Modernist, Wpearl, 2 anonymous edits Image:Aurora Mark di Suvero.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aurora_Mark_di_Suvero.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:AndyZ Image:Hans Burkhardt's untitled, 1950.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hans_Burkhardt's_untitled,_1950.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: User:MA3ARG License

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