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Deep Time The 13.7 billion lifetime of the mapped onto a single year. At this scale the takes place on January 1 at midnight, the current time is December 31 at midnight, and each is 434 . The scale was popularized by in his book and on the television , which he hosted. This image is the original work of Eric Fisk. Images are composited from Wikipedia, NASA, and other government sites. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0, Wikipedia Editor's note: The text on this page is from Wikipedia, apart from one or two light edits, taken verbatim because their presentation looks as good as any, and I can't be bothered reinventing the . The main difference is colour coding according to and so on. MAK110824, 110917 The Cosmic Year The Cosmic Calendar is a scale in which the 13.7 billion year lifetime of the universe is mapped onto a single year. This image helps to put cosmology, , and written in context. At this scale the Big Bang took place on January 1 at midnight, and the current time is mapped to December 31 at midnight. At this scale, there are 434 years per second, 1.57 million years per , and 37.7 million years per . The concept was popularized by Carl Sagan in his book The Dragons of Eden and on his television series Cosmos as a way to conceptualize the vast amounts of time in the history of the universe. Cosmic Evolution The following includes Cosmological time and the start of Geological Time ( and ). Evolution of evolution The following continues with Geological Time, which then becomes Time. History begins The remainder of the calender pertains to Historical Time. The current second In contrast with the logarithmic and cosmological , each successive time unit, each day or of the cosmic calendar, is the same length. Nevertheless, anthropocentric bias and the general anthropic perspective is still evident in the way that more and more events are crowded into the last and seconds (ultimately, a logarithmic view of history and is unavoidable). Inevitably, deep time requires several different timescales between cosmological time (here, the first eight or nine ) and archeological and historical time (the last 15 seconds or so of the cosmic calendar). MAK110824 The Cosmic Astrophysicists have deduced the of the Universe (dated from the Big Bang) to be 13.7 ! Imagine that the entire history of the universe is compressed into one year - with the Big Bang corresponding to the first second of the New Year's Day, and the time to the last second of December 31st (midnight). Using this scale of time, each would equal a little over a billion years. Here's a closer look at when important events would occur when we imagine the universe in one year: The Universe in One Year was inspired by the late astronomer, Carl Sagan (1934-1996). Sagan was the first person to explain the history of the universe in one year-as a "Cosmic Calendar"-in his television series, Cosmos. Let us look at the calendar in a bit more detail: Cosmic Calendar (From The Dragons of Eden - Carl Sagan) Pre-December Dates Big Bang January 1 Origin of Galaxy May 1 Origin of the solar systemSeptember 9 Formation of the EarthSeptember 14 Origin of life on ~ September 25 Formation of the oldest rocks known on EarthOctober 2 of oldest ( and blue-green )October 9 Invention of sex (by )~ November 1 Oldest photosynthetic plantsNovember 12 (first cells with nuclei) flourishNovember 15 December Sunday MondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturday 1Significant atmosphere begins to develop on Earth. 2 345Extensive vulcanism and channel formation on Mars. 6 7 8 910111213 14 1516First Worms. 17Precambrian ends. and Period begin. flourish. 18First oceanic . flourish. 19Ordovician Period. First fish, first . 20Silurian Period. First vascular . Plants begin colonization of . 21Devonian Period begins. First . begin colonization of land. 22First . First winged insects. 23Carboniferous Period. First trees. First . 24Permian Period begins. First . 25Paleozoic Era ends. Era Begins. 26Triassic Period. First . 27Jurassic Period. First . 28Cretaceous Period. First . Dinosaurs become extinct. 29Mesozoic Era ends. Era and Period begin. First cetaceans. First . 30First evolution of frontal lobes in the brains of primates. First hominids. Giant mammals flourish. 31End of Period. Quaternary ( and ) Period. First . December 31 Origin of Proconsul and Ramapithecus, probable ancestors of and men ~ 1:30 p.m. First humans~ 10:30 p.m. Widespread use of stone tools11:00 p.m. of fire by Peking man11:46 p.m. Beginning of most recent glacial period11:56 p.m. Seafarers settle Australia11:58 p.m. Extensive in Europe11:59 p.m. Invention of agriculture11:59:20 p.m. ; first cities11:59:35 p.m. First dynasties in Sumer, Ebla and Egypt; development of astronomy11:59:50 p.m. Invention of the alphabet; Akkadian Empire11:59:51 p.m. Hammurabic legal codes in Babylon; Middle Kingdom in Egypt11:59:52 p.m. Bronze metallurgy; Mycenaean culture; Trojan War; Olmec culture; invention of the compass11:59:53 p.m. Iron metallurgy; First Assyrian Empire; Kingdom of Israel; founding of Carthage by Phoenicia11:59:54 p.m. Asokan India; Ch'in Dynasty China; Periclean Athens; birth of Buddha11:59:55 p.m. Euclidean geometry; Archimedean physics; Ptolemaic ; ; birth of Christ11:59:56 p.m. Zero and decimals invented in Indian arithmetic; Rome falls; Birth of Islam and the Islamic Civilization 11:59:57 p.m. Mayan civilization; Sung Dynasty China; ; Mongol invasion; Crusades11:59:58 p.m. in ; voyages of discovery from Europe and from Ming Dynasty China; emergence of the experimental method in science11:59:59 p.m. Widespread development of and ; emergence of global culture; acquisition of the means of self-destruction of the human species; first steps in spacecraft planetary exploration and the search of extraterrestrial intelligenceNow: The first second of New Year's Day Within the scheme of the Cosmic Calendar, an average human life of 70-80 years is equivalent to approximately 0.16 cosmic seconds! Method to visualize the of the universe A graphical view of the Cosmic Calendar, featuring the months of the year, days of December, and the final minute.The Cosmic Calendar is a method to visualize the chronology of the universe, scaling its currently understood age of 13.8 billion years to a single year in order to help intuit it for pedagogical purposes in or popular science. This graphic shows in a spiral a summary of notable events from the Big Bang to the present day. Every billion years (Ga) is represented in 90 degrees of rotation of the spiral.In this visualization, the Big Bang took place at the beginning of January 1 at midnight, and the current maps onto the end of December 31 just before midnight.[1] At this scale, there are 437.5 years per second, 1.575 million years per hour, and 37.8 million years per day. The concept was popularized by Carl Sagan in his 1977 book The Dragons of Eden and on his 1980 television series Cosmos.[2] Sagan goes on to extend the comparison in terms of surface area, explaining that if the Cosmic Calendar is scaled to the size of a football field, then "all of would occupy an area the size of [his] hand".[3] A similar analogy used to visualize the and the on Earth is the Cosmology Date Gya (billion years ago) 1 Jan 13.8 Big Bang, as seen through cosmic background radiation 14 Jan 13.1 Oldest known Gamma Ray Burst 22 Jan 12.85 First galaxies form[4] 16 Mar 11 Milky Way Galaxy formed 12 May 8.8 Milky Way Galaxy disk formed 2 Sep 4.57 Formation of the Solar 6 Sep 4.4 Oldest rocks known on Earth Date in year calculated from formula T(days) = 365 days * 0.100/13.797 ( 1- T_Gya/13.797 ) Evolution of life on Earth Date Gya (billion years ago) Event 14 Sep 4.1 First known remains of biotic life (discovered in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western ).[5][6] 21 Sep 3.8 First Life ()[7][8][9] 30 Sep 3.4 29 Oct 2.4 Oxygenation of atmosphere 9 Nov 2 Complex cells (Eukaryotes) 5 Dec 0.8 First multicellular life[10] 7 Dec 0.67 Simple animals 14 Dec 0.55 (ancestors of insects, arachnids) 17 Dec 0.5 Fish and Proto-amphibians 20 Dec 0.45 Land plants; extinction events 21 Dec 0.4 Insects and 22 Dec 0.36 Amphibians; Late extinction 23 Dec 0.3 Reptiles 24 Dec 0.25 ; 57% of all biological families and 83% of all genera die 25 Dec 0.23 Dinosaurs 26 Dec 0.2 Mammals; Triassic– extinction event 27 Dec 0.15 Birds (avian dinosaurs) 28 Dec 0.13 Flowers 30 Dec, 06:24 0.065 extinction event, non-avian dinosaurs die out[11] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Date / time Mya (million years ago) Event 30 Dec 65 Primates 31 Dec, 06:05 15 Apes 31 Dec, 14:24 12.3 Hominids 31 Dec, 22:24 2.5 Primitive humans and stone tools 31 Dec, 23:44 0.4 Domestication of fire 31 Dec, 23:52 0.2 Anatomically modern humans 31 Dec, 23:55 0.11 Beginning of most recent 31 Dec, 23:58 0.035 Sculpture and painting 31 Dec, 23:59:32 0.012 History begins This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Date / time kya (thousand years ago) Event 31 Dec, 23:59:33 12.0 End of the last 31 Dec, 23:59:41 8.3 Flooding of 31 Dec, 23:59:46 6.0 31 Dec, 23:59:47 5.5 Early ; Proto-writing; Building of Stonehenge Cursus 31 Dec, 23:59:48 5.0 , Early Dynastic period in Sumer, beginning of Indus Valley Civilisation 31 Dec, 23:59:49 4.5 Alphabet, , wheel 31 Dec, 23:59:51 4.0 Code of Hammurabi, Middle Kingdom of Egypt 31 Dec, 23:59:52 3.5 Late Bronze Age to early ; 31 Dec, 23:59:53 3.0 Iron Age; beginning of classical antiquity 31 Dec, 23:59:54 2.5 Buddha, Mahavira, , Confucius, , Qin Dynasty, Classical Greece, Ashokan Empire, Completed, Euclidean geometry, Archimedean Physics, 31 Dec, 23:59:55 2.0 Ptolemaic astronomy, Roman Empire, Christ, invention of numeral 0, 31 Dec, 23:59:56 1.5 Muhammad, , Song Dynasty, rise of Byzantine Empire 31 Dec, 23:59:58 1.0 , , , voyages to the , Renaissance in Europe, Classical music to the time of 31 Dec, 23:59:59 0.5 Modern History; the last 437.5 years . Future of the Earth and the ("Year 2") This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Date / time kyr(Thousand years), (Million years), and Byr (billion years) Event 1 Jan, 00:00:01 0.5 Kyr 1 Jan, 00:00:23 10.0 Kyr Antares explodes into a supernova 1 Jan, 00:00:50 20.0 Kyr Chernobyl becomes safe 1 Jan, 00:00:57 20.0 Kyr The Arecibo message reaches the M13 cluster 1 Jan, 00:01:54 50.0 Kyr Niagara Falls erodes away 1 Jan, 00:03:48 100.0 Kyr Proper motion makes all constellations unrecognizable 1 Jan, 00:11:24 300.0 Kyr WR 104 explodes 1 Jan, 00:19:02 500.0 Kyr Earth likely hit by 1 km asteroid 1 Jan, 00:38:05 1.0 Myr Pyramids of Giza erode away 1 Jan, 04:34:17 7.2 Myr Mount Rushmore erodes away 1 Jan, 16:30 20.00 Myr Eastern splits apart 2 Jan 50.00 Myr closes up due to Europe and Africa colliding 3 Jan 100.00 Myr loses its rings 5 Jan 180.00 Myr Earth's day becomes one hour longer 7 Jan 240.00 Myr Solar System completes one 8 Jan 450.00 Byr Formation of possible new 16 Jan 600.00 Myr Solar eclipses no longer possible 17 Jan 700.00 Myr Atmospheric CO2 levels too low for photosynthesis, all complex life die 8 Feb 1.0 Byr Earth's evaporate away 1 Mar 2.0 Byr All life on Earth dies 18 Mar 3.0 Byr Milky Way-Andromeda collision 9 Apr 4.0 Byr expands into a red giant 16 Apr 4.0 Byr Global surface temperatures reach 1330 deg C, hot enough to melt lead 28 Jul 7.9 Byr Sun destroys the Earth 12 Aug 8.0 Byr Sun becomes a white dwarf 31 Dec 12.0 Byr Solar System ceases to exist Future of the Universe ("Year 3" and beyond) (Fixed) This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Date / time Byr (billion years) and above Event Year 3, 21 Mar 100.0 Byr Galaxies disappear beyond light horizon Year 4, 13 Dec 100 trillion formation ends Year 5, 11 Jul 1 quadrillion Sun cools down to -268 deg C Year 7, 31 Dec 3×1043 Black Hole Era Year 4.54×1098 1.7×1098 Last black holes evaporate Year 10100 Dark Era begins, Heat death of the universe Year 101500 Iron form, assuming protons do not decay Year 101050 Possible Boltzmann brain appears Year 101076 Last black holes evaporate Year 1010120 Final entropy state, (Dark Era begins, Heat death of the universe) Year 10101056 Possible new Big Bang occurs See also Geologic Calendar – history from the Big Bang to the present. Detailed Timeline of Timeline of early modern history Timeline of the evolutionary history of life – Current scientific theory outlining the major events during the development of life Timeline of the far future – Scientific projections regarding the far future Timeline of human evolution – Chronological outline of major events in the development of the human species Timeline of human Timelines of modern history Timeline of natural history – Wikipedia list article Timeline of evolution – Chronological outline of major events in the development of plants Chronology of the universe – History and future of the universe Timeline of the Middle Ages – Timeline Cosmic time – Development of Earth from its formation to the present day References ^ Therese Puyau Blanchard (1995). "The Universe At Your Fingertips Activity: Cosmic Calendar". Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Archived from the original on 2007-12-16. Retrieved 2007-12-15. ^ Cosmos, episode 1 (1980) ^ Episode 1: The Shores of the Cosmic (Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, Carl Sagan) ^ "First Galaxies Born Sooner After Big Bang Than Thought". .com. Retrieved 2015-11-07. ^ Borenstein, Seth (19 October 2015). "Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate ". Excite. Yonkers, NY: Mindspark Interactive Network. Associated Press. Retrieved 2015-10-20. ^ Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnike, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark; et al. (19 October 2015). "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old " (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112 (47): 14518–21. Bibcode:2015PNAS..11214518B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1517557112. ISSN 1091-6490. PMC 4664351. PMID 26483481. Retrieved 2015-10-20. Early edition, published online before print. ^ Yoko Ohtomo; Takeshi Kakegawa; Akizumi Ishida; Toshiro Nagase; Minik T. Rosing (8 December 2013). "Evidence for biogenic graphite in early Archaean Isua metasedimentary rocks". Geoscience. 7: 25–28. Bibcode:2014NatGe...7...25O. doi:10.1038/ngeo2025. ^ Borenstein, Seth (13 November 2013). "Oldest fossil found: Meet your microbial mom". AP News. Retrieved 15 November 2013. ^ Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M. (8 November 2013). "Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia". Astrobiology. 13 (12): 1103–24. Bibcode:2013AsBio..13.1103N. doi:10.1089/ast.2013.1030. PMC 3870916. PMID 24205812. ^ Erwin, Douglas H. (9 November 2015). "Early metazoan life: divergence, environment and ". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 370 (20150036): 20150036. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0036. PMC 4650120. PMID 26554036. ^ "Cosmos: A Odyssey (@35min)". Archived from the original on 2014-03-11. Retrieved 2014-03-11. External links Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: General Astronomy/Short History of the Universe Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: High School More information on the image used for this article. The Cosmic Calendar in a Google Calendar format The Cosmic Calendar relayed in real time. Retrieved from "

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